Justification of the Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transformation
Right from the old ages 1998-1999, the Government of Rwanda initiated a planning procedure aimed at transforming the economic system and cut downing poorness which would take the state to be categorised among average income states
After mapping up some basic future chances in the 2020 Vision, the Government put in topographic point a National scheme for Poverty Reduction ( June 2000- June 2002 ) . Its execution will be based on the preparation and amplification of schemes for the indispensable sectors of the economic system.
In order to ease the procedure for assorted sectors, the Ministry for Finance and Economic Planning ( MINECOFIN ) , through its Directorate of Strategic Planning and Poverty Reduction Monitoring, prepared guidelines for the readying of sector schemes and decentralised development programs.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources has merely formulated a National Agricultural Policy ( NAP ) , which gives clear orientations in footings of development in the agricultural sector for old ages to come. These orientations will function as a base for the amplification of a National Strategy for Agriculture, designed to joint the National Agriculture Policy in an operational model and the cardinal function of the agricultural sector for the rapid economic growing projected by the Government of Rwanda.
Through this model, the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources was able, through a participatory and synergistic attack, to gestate a procedure of preparation and operationalisation of the NAP whose first measure was the preparation of the sector scheme consisting of sub-sector schemes, action programs and relevant budgets for the 2005-2007 period. The schemes and action programs were inspired by the National Investment Strategy, particularly in the manner it is streamlined in the Public Investment Programme and within the formats of the Medium Term Expenditure Framework.
The agricultural scheme paperss were prepared and designed in conformance with the methodological analysis recommended by MINECOFIN. These paperss were designed utilizing the wide sector attack, therefore reacting to their political will, contained in the National Poverty Reduction Strategy which confers to the agricultural sector that is the pillar for rural development.
The SPAT amplification exercising is besides based on four basic rules: ( I ) The internalization of the procedure through serious engagement of the staff of MINAGRI and other Ministries on one manus and the mobilization of national advisers on the other. ( two ) Participatory audience at the District and Provincial degree. ( three ) Entire integrating of the work within the decentralization policy. ( four ) coaction with development spouses in the proficient every bit good as support program including the maneuvering degree.
Practically, a three axes methodological analysis was developed: ( I ) participatory workshops at District, Province and National degree ; ( two ) progressive audience of a database ( on current undertakings and new 1s ) utilizing a format undertaking profile that is automatically integrated into the MTEF ; ( three ) structural and thematic analysise.
The national agricultural scheme, in conformance with the guidelines given by MINICOFIN, incorporate different elements, peculiarly the vision for the overall development of the agricultural sector, in coherency with Vision 2020 every bit good as the sector policy, which is clearly presented in the Agricultural Policy Document. This papers will be referred to later for inside informations sing definition for the constructs for the mission, aims, scheme, programmes and budgets
The present papers is explicitly developed under the name “ Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transformation ” in order to reflect the extremist alterations introduced by the new agricultural policy. These include peculiarly the followers:
Traveling off from agricultural substance economic system towards a market economic system ;
Intensification and progressive modernization of the agricultural sector ;
New distribution of functions and duties between all stakeholders in conformance with new policies sing the Government detachment from some sectors and decentralization ;
New methods of work in relation with the Programme attack adopted by MINAGRI in order to gain the SPAT aims.
This papers consists or four parts: the first portion is general and trades with the diagnostic the bomber sector. The 2nd portion develops schemes and precedence programmes. The 3rd portion consists of the action and declarative programs and the 4th portion contains extensions.
II. STRATEGIC AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF THE SPAT
2.1 International and Regional context
The coexistence of new engineerings and different ways of life in the World has, in the last decennaries, produced abundant literature with contentions on theories of economic growing and development. Until today, for some people industrialization is still considered as the engine of development and agribusiness as an basically inactive sector with limited potency
Despite some attempts and frequently mitigated consequences in the macroeconomic field during the recent decennaries, different indexs at microeconomic and societal degree in a figure of developing states have shown that in most of those states where reforms were geared towards the first ocular, the criterion of life of the people seemed to deteriorate alternatively of bettering. The phenomenon of poorness, alternatively of worsening, intensifies and becomes more and more complex.
It appears good established that in many 3rd universe states, agribusiness is worryingly worsening and poorness is escalating in rural countries and it is the farming population who suffer most.
The instance for the African continent is dismaying. More than 200 million people in Africa, approximately 25 % of the population on the continent, are inveterate ill-fed. Resort to nutrient assistance has reduced the part to being more dependent than any other developing part in the universe.
This state of affairs has led concerned spouses to concentrate their development policies on nutrient security, poorness decrease and sustainable usage of natural resources. Hence assorted fora have concentrated their attempt on these jobs, notably: the World Social Summit of 1985 and the World Food Summit ( Rome, Italy in November 1996 ) and the United Nations Conference on Development Financing ( Monterrey, Mexico in March 2002 ) . These meetings confirmed a paradigm alteration and dedicated to the millenary the aim of poorness decrease and committedness to consequences. In most of these developing states, agricultural development seems to be a necessary pre-condition for structural transmutation of the economic system and for industrialization.
African leaders recognise that agribusiness is the base for their economic system. Sustainable agricultural growing is non merely indispensable for cut downing hungriness, poorness and inequality, but it is besides every bit cardinal for economic development.
In order to set to an terminal the diminution in the agricultural sector on the continent, African leaders have committed themselves to set in topographic point through NEPAD ( New Partnership for African Development ) , a Detailed Programme for the Development of African Agriculture ( DPDAA ) , the nonsubjective being to reconstruct overall growing, to advance rural development and to guarantee nutrient security in Africa. The Maputo declaration underscores the necessity to apportion at least 10 % of national budgets to the agricultural sector.
2.2. Political, Economic and Social Context.
Ten old ages after the 1994 race murder, Rwanda has recorded large accomplishments on the political scene including:
Entire Restoration of security on the whole district
Puting in topographic point and normal operation of passage province establishments ;
The reintegration of Rwanda in the Community of states ;
The progressive execution of the decentralization policy ;
Based on the above achievements the state has embarked on a farther political bend: the procedures of consolidating constitutional base of power by following a new fundamental law through a referendum ( May 2003 ) and the election of her leaders through a direct ballot ( July 2003 ) . This has opened skylines for making a increasingly stable environment that creates assurance for Rwandans every bit good as foreign investors.
The Rwandans economic context is characterised by a comparatively high economic beat, a voluntaristic vision for the hereafter and development policies concentrating about poverty decrease, nutrient security, variegation of the economic system and decentralization.
Economic growing rate was 6,6 % of GDP in 2001, 9,4 % in 2002, and 1 % in 2003. Inflation rate and exchange rate fluctuation are comparatively moderate. The public finance state of affairs has increasingly improved, thanks to the attempt applied in the financial policy. Public gross aggregation grew from 11.8 % of GDP in 2001 to 12.3 % in 2002, 13,5 % in 2003 whereas public disbursement is in diminution, falling from 22 % of GDP in 2001 to 20.1 % in 2002 and 20 % in 2003.
The public presentation of the Rwandan economic system depends chiefly on the production of the primary sector, in which agricultural ( peculiarly nutrient harvests ) production is indispensable. For illustration, the low growing registered in 2003 ( 2.4 % vs 9.4 % in 2002 ) was due to the low agricultural production, which fell from 15 % to 1 % . This hapless public presentation, ensuing from hapless rains, adversely affected nutrient harvests. This state of affairs had a negative impact on the national monetary values, and combined with the imported rising prices, led to an carnal rising prices rate of 7.4 % as compared to the projected 3 % . Poor public presentation of the agricultural sector besides aggravated poorness in rural countries, as agribusiness is the most of import beginning of income.
Several factors contribute to the stagnancy observed in this of import economic sector. Besides the structural jobs, one can mention, among others, the climatic conditions and the low degree of investings, caused by the deficient degree of equal mechanisms, scarceness of long-run capital resources in Rwandan commercial Bankss and the sector specific hazards.
2.3. Rwanda Experience in Agricultural planning and Development
24. In the last four decennaries, agribusiness in Rwanda has gone through three distinct and contrasting periods:
a 20 twelvemonth period ( 1960-1980 ) characterised by high growing ;
a period of stagnancy followed by a serious repression ( 1980-1994 ) ;
a period of Reconstruction and economic recovery ( after 1994 ) .
25.These periods were characterised by three different attacks in the preparation of agricultural policies:
five or ten twelvemonth programs – 1950 and 1990 with a period of non activity from 1960-1967 ;
be aftering based on the acceptance an economic policy and fiscal model and an amplification of Public Investment Programmes ( 1991-2002 ) ;
the new signifier of be aftering based on a long-run vision, a national scheme for poorness decrease and sector schemes.
2.4. Decentralization and Community Development Plans
26. The agricultural scheme will pull lessons from the experience of development undertakings in Rwanda, which exhibit a immense figure of lacks, that merit rectification:
undertakings were frequently conceived by foreign experts in coaction with the cardinal disposal, but without any engagement of donees in the pick or decision-making. The consequence is that people find it difficult to take over any operations in the model of classical undertakings and sometimes these operations come to a arrest one time donor support is over
Exclusive resort to foreign resources, without sufficient engagement of grassroots communities has frequently resulted in high undertaking costs in relation to the benefits
Poor consideration ( or none at all ) of the societal equilibrium and equality in authoritative intercessions has frequently accentuated socio-economic disparities ;
27.The rural development jobs are handled in a sectarians mode, without dissociations, and without taking into history the intertwining nature of some sub-systems and their integrating into the overall system
2.5. The topographic point of SPAT in the national planning system.
28. The Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transformation consequences from an synergistic and participatory planning procedure that combines a bottom-up attack with the macro-economic top-down planning attack.
Figure I: SPAT place in the national planning procedure
For national degree and institutional support
and Sub- programmes
Community Development Plan
District Agricultural Development study
Provincial agricultural development study
Agricultural Work Plan
Strategic Plan for Agricultural Transsformation ( SPAT )
Poverty Reduction Strategy ( PRS )
Rwanda Vision 2020
National Investment Strategy ( NIS )
National Agricultural Policy
three. SUB-SECTOR Analysis
3.1. Natural resources direction and H2O and dirt preservation
3.1.1. Situation of the bomber sector of natural resources direction
29. The rwandese agricultural landscape faces a thorny job of handiness of cultivable land and the little size of the state ( 26.336 km2 ) does non offer any alternate to increase cultivable land. The surface of cultivable land is estimated at 1.4 million hectares ( 52 % of the entire surface of the state ) .
30. In add-on to the little size of the agricultural farms, harvests are grown on steep inclines up to 80 % . The most fringy zones ( steep inclines and hapless birthrate are occupied by less demanding harvests by and large cassava.
31. It is by and large agreed that inclines of more than 5 % need eroding control steps. However, most of the cultivated land has steeper inclines and is non protected, harmonizing to the recommended control steps.
32. It is estimated that merely 23.4 of land in the cultivated are is more or less free from hazard of eroding, 37,5 % requires readying before cultivations while 39.1 % % of the land has high hazard of eroding.
33. It has been established that Rwanda is losing 1.4 Million dozenss of dirt per twelvemonth. This corresponds with a diminution in the state ‘s capacity to feed 40.000 people per twelvemonth. The one-year loss is estimated to be for organic affair ( 945.200 dozenss ) , N ( 41.210 dozenss ) P ( 280 dozenss ) and K ( 3055 dozenss ) . In some countries it can travel up to 557 tons/hectare. These losingss affected all harvests. The Nyabarongo river carries 51 Kg/second of dirt at Nyabarongo-Kigali ; 44 Kg/second at Nyabarongo-Kanzenze, and 26 Kg/second at Akagera-Rusumo.
34. The clime is aggressive and freakish. On one manus it is characterised by strong precipitation in the cragged countries ensuing into heavy eroding and dirt debasement. On the other manus, low altitude countries such as Imbo, Bugesera, Mayaga, Mutara experience fickle and low rainfalls.
35. Out of 165.000 hectares of fens, 93.754 hectares have been cultivated ( 57 % of the entire surface country ) . Merely 5000 hectares are developed and can be cultivated throughout the twelvemonth. Other hectares are randomly cultivated without any proficient survey by provincials grouped in organisations or by concerted groups supported by local or foreign non-governmental administrations. Such developments risk doing ecological disequilibria in the delicate ecosystems.
36. Other general jobs in footings of dirt and H2O and direction in Rwanda are the undermentioned:
Poor usage of farmyard manure even though more than 50 % more or less raise cowss, the mean figure of cowss is little and cattle breeders practising nothing graze are rare.
Agroforestry is non good developed- which explains deficiency of firewood and this consequences in people utilizing farm residues for place usage ;
Financing, coordination and supervising rating of the agricultural sector
37. The success of the agricultural sector development schemes depends on the capacity of the Government to mobilise the necessary financess to finance investings in this sector. These financess are from the State ‘s budget, investors, or givers. For the latter, their financess can be either contributions, or loans. The funding propositions of these schemes have to take into history the different macroeconomic restraints, which are related to the addition of disbursals and of the currency in usage. Besides, in conformity with the different economic theories, the optimum degree of disbursals depends on the relation between the growing, the involvements rates and the output related to these disbursals. Within the range of macroeconomic policy, the addition of disbursals that are related to the new investings does non hold to be inflationary. If funding financess come from credits ( bank system or givers ) , one has to do certain that the engaged outgos lead to a net rate of output that exceeds the involvement rates, that is, resources costs. This facet is of great importance because since the liberalization of monetary values that was introduced in 1998, the Rwandan currency authorization is peculiarly preoccupied by the rates degrees. This preoccupation is based on the purchase consequence hypothesis under which a high rate degree discourages loans demand.
four. STRATEGIC PLAN FOR AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION ( SPAT )
38. The chief challenges of the agricultural sector are the undermentioned: ( I ) transmutation of subsistence agribusiness into commercial agribusiness with all its engagements in footings of institutional, societal alterations of behavior and distribution of functions and duties between different stakeholders ; ( two ) to guarantee nutrient and nutrient security in the state ; ( three ) betterment of the husbandmans ‘ income and monetization of agricultural economic system ; ( four ) creative activity of excess agricultural occupations enabling to notably cut down the agricultural population ; ( V ) to lend to the betterment of the commercial balance, the domestic merchandise and nest eggs ; ( six ) to change by reversal the dirts ‘ debasement procedure and to pull off the belongings dirt in a sustainable mode.
4.2. Mission of the Strategic Plan
39. The mission of the PASTA is derived from the vision 2020 and the aims it assigns to the rural sector in the battle against poorness and betterment of life conditions for hapless rural populations every bit good as their integrating in an economic environment, which can convey so prosperity and confidences of good life for future coevalss. The mission of the PASTA is A«to guarantee to husbandmans ‘ populations a comfortable life and improved life conditions in modernized and organized agricultureA» .
4.3. Aims of the SPAT
40. The Strategic Plan fits in the guiding in the impulsive line of the Strategic Framework for Poverty Reduction. The overall aim of the agricultural sector corresponds with the one of the National Agricultural Policy ( NAP ) , more specifically the overall aim of the SPAT is to lend in a sustainable mode to poverty decrease and to back up Rwanda ‘s economic growing through increasing productivenesss of production factors, maximum valorisation of productions, variegation of income chances, saving and care of natural and environmental resources. Growth beginnings of the agricultural sector will be of two types: those which are linked to a potency of export in the Fieldss and the which are linked to the development of the internal market, chiefly the cereal Fieldss ( rice, corn ) , milk, meat and vegetable harvests.
V. PRIORITY PROGRAMMES AND EXPECTED OUTPUTS
41.The SPAT comprises of 4 chief plans with 17 of routines. Whose expected consequences appear in the quantified aims of the Plan of Action ( Appendix I ) , every bit good as in the affiliated extension ( Appedix IX ) .
42.The structuring of these plans responds to the type “ plan attack ” where all the activities of the bomber plans should follow services of common aims with resources and complementary agencies.
43.This grouping does non follow an ideal construction and convergences between these plans are inevitable. However the later are considered to be liaison elements to guarantee complementation alternatively of duplicate beginnings or struggles.
Interrelations between the 4 programmes of the SPAT.
Promotion of trade good ironss and
devevelopment of agribusness
Support to the
sustainable production systems.
5.1. Intensification and development of sustainable production systems
44. This plan comprises five bomber plans: preservation of H2O and dirts and sustainable direction of natural resources
Integration of agribusiness and animate being farming and direction of dirt birthrate.
Use of fen and irrigation development.
Supply of agribusiness inputs.
Food security and hazard direction and marshlands exposure in the model of quantitative aims, which are presented in the action, program in the extension.
5.1.1. Sustainable direction of natural resources and preservation of H2O and of dirts.
45. The diagnosing of the sector has shown different degree or debasement of procedure on land and its harmful impact that it can convey to the present and future coevals. Based on the rule that the protection of the land heritage is the duty of those utilizing it, the communities
5.1.2. Supply and use of agricultural inputs.
46. Given that the measure of fertilisers used is really small ( 4Kg per hour angle per twelvemonth ) due to jobs of distribution, it is necessary to set in topographic point appropriate mechanisms to back up the private sector to raise by 25 % each twelvemonth the measures of fertilisers imported so as to convey it to 8000 tones per annum and to at least 15000 to 20000 tones by the twelvemonth 2008.
47.Alongside the addition in providing fertilisers, research in participative popularization should be undertaken in a manner to guarantee the distribution of intensive methods associated with the usage of organic manure, mineral fertilisers and dirt betterment chemicals ( e.g. lime application ) .
48.In the same manner, depending on available resources, the authorities will back up the follow up and rushing up, importing of improved strains every bit good as bettering unreal insemination methods and cross genteelness ;
49.The generation of seeds and of workss will every bit be supported through support given to professional organisations to develop private works baby’s rooms.
50.The agricultural mechanization constituent will be developed in order to increase the productiveness of production factors, peculiarly that of labor. This development is a must in the sense that it has to run into both the progressive agricultural labor force, on one manus, and the addition of nutrient demand on the other manus
5.1.3. Food security, direction of hazards and of exposure.
51. The state ha an agricultural potency, adequate to guarantee sufficient nutrient handiness in measure and quality, for the present and future population. The scheme to guarantee nutrient security is based on:
Puting in topographic points productiveness betterment plans for the traditional nutrients harvests and intensification of production for strategic merchandises such as rice, maize, Irish murphies, milk and meat.
Targeting of zones and vulnerable groups taking into history the disparities bing in the societal groups and in parts and eventual dazes, which affect them.
52. The aims in this country as determined from the aims of vision 2020 summarized in the tabular array below ;
Table 4. Nutritional aims set up in vision 2020
nonsubjective 2010 ( % )
( % )
Energy in kcal/person/day
Lipids/person/ twenty-four hours
5.2. Promotion of trade good ironss gardening and development of agriculture
5.2.1 Promotion and development of trade good ironss and gardening
53. The standard of taking the trade good concatenation takes into history the importance of possible production and intensification, coevals of grosss in the national every bit good as regional and international market possibilities of transmutation preservation, and storage
Specific actions for the trade good concatenation Rice
54. ( two ) strength en research on assortments particularly extremely productive assortments, with short rhythms, to bring forth 2 crops yearly
Strengthen the capacity of manufacturers associations in order to get cognition of inputs supply ironss. These purpose at riddance of
ice imports and coverage of national demands every bit good as the realisation exportable excess.
Specific actions for the corn
55. These purpose at increasing the output and production of corn with a position of increasing demand, following alterations in wonts of eating wonts. It is planned to duplicate production and to achieve 160.000 in the twelvemonth 2010.
56. It is in this model that the undermentioned actions will be undertaken.
Reinforce research in assortments in position of bettering the scope of help able assortments ;
Support the private enterprises for taking in charge of the trade good concatenation ( organisation of green goodss, supply of inputs )
Put option in topographic point steps to advance maize turning by rotary motion with Irish murphies in Ruhengeri and Gisenyi zones to avoid jobs of monoculture of the Irish murphies
Specific actions for the trade good concatenation wheat
57. These are included because of lending to decrease of importings so as to achieve production of around 39000 dozenss in the twelvemonth 2010. It is in this frame that the undermentioned actions have been developed.
Supply support set up flour Millss in Gikongoro and Byumba and launch production in these parts
Reinforce the research plan on wheat suited for staff of life devising.
Offer installations to the private sector in position of guaranting pattern ship with manufacturer organisations for availing inputs and supervising of production.
Support the preparation of local bakers in position of advancing ingestion of staff of life and other merchandises from wheat flour. Promote nutrient engineering plans aimed at giving upper limit
Specific actions for oil harvests
58. These are produced to lend in decrease of chronic shortage in lipoids. The intercessions will be concentrated on soya beans with variegation by the publicity of helianthus and Indian potatos.
Increase the production capacity of good quality seeds and of vaccination for soya beans ( Rhizobium )
Develop plans of development research on the mineral fertilisation in order to increase the production potency even in parts holding acidic dirts ;
Support the development of transmutation units of soya beans into flour and other derived merchandises ( milk and Tofu )
Make the ingestion of merchandises based on soya beans popular