Special Needs Education Academic Group Of Education Singapore Education Essay

Analyzing how people learn is a really huge facet which has allowed major involvement in the development of acquisition. Some common names on who have done research in these sectors are Jean Piaget and B.F.Skinner and Erik Erikson. Their surveies are focused on the phases of human development, procedure which can impact the development, societal and emotional demands and their cognitive ability which will be implied in my instance survey for my pupil, Susan. Through these theories I would wish to understand Susan ‘s acquisition ability and developmental phases that she is sing. In version to these phases and theories, I will be concluding on how these thoughts can help Susan ‘s advancement. Aboard with this, I will be accommodating different staging and distinction schemes for the pupil ‘s committedness to acquisition.

Student Background

Susan who is presently seven old ages old is analyzing in Bukit Timah Primary. She is in her in-between childhood ( 6 – 10 ) and has multiple disablements. She has been identified as holding low all right motor accomplishments, address hold, Dyspraxia ( Sensory Integration Disorder ) and suspected Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ASD ) . Susan has a really short attending span which has made the parents see on her freedom from Mother Tongue linguistic communication ( Chinese ) . She has a really supportive household who are ever on the move to cater to her demands. Susan is presently acquiring aid from AWWA and an occupational healer.

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Problem # 1: Communication

Sing her address hold, Susan has problem showing her feelings, and reading non – verbal cues which at times leads to troubles in between equals. This disablement of hers has discouraged her oppugning ability when in uncertainty. In group work, Susan is unable to clearly convey her ideas and thoughts efficaciously verbally. This status affects her acquisition significantly.

Problem # 2: Academicians

In footings of her faculty members, Susan is confronting troubles in acquisition. She requires changeless supervising. If non provided counsel, Susan gets distracted and starts to masticate on her paper. Beside this, she has low all right motor -skills which give her trouble in organizing words and letters doing her to compose messily. Along with all this, her incompatibility of authorship has caused her accomplishments in copying letters or words in an unorganised mode. When unfocussed, she starts to scrabble on her paper without understanding the text.

Personal Needs ( Erikson Theory and Kohlberg ‘s Theory of Moral Reasoning )

Susan falls under the phase of Autonomy vs. Shame of Erikson ‘s Eight Life – Span phases ( Eggen, P. , & A ; Kauchak, D, 2010 ) . This is because, at place, the female parent illustrates squeezing action as a manner to demo love. As such, Susan adopts the same method with her equals in the school. She feels that it is non incorrect to expose such an action. However, this has caused her friends to travel off from her as they feel that this is a signifier of physical aggression.

Under the same phase, Susan is besides able to apologise based on her errors. As Susan has been thought from her instructors and parents that when she makes a error and if she feels that it is incorrect, she has to apologise instantly. This is illustrated in the Kohlberg ‘s Theory of Moral Reasoning, falling under Level II Conventional Ethics, of phase 3: Interpersonal Harmony where it shows that the individual makes determination based on society ‘s ethical position taking to a consideration of feelings of others. ( Eggen et al, 2010 ) .

Social and Emotional Needs ( Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs )

Due to her address hold and deficiency in communicating accomplishments, Susan has a really low self-pride ( Self – worth ) in footings of her societal demands. She is unable to near her friends and is normally really diffident. For illustration during her tiffin interruption, Susan avoids buying nutrient from the school canteen or sitting with her friends and normally brings nutrient from place. This discourages any signifier of conversations as she is afraid she will do errors which will promote her to be in shame.

Susan strongly desires credence, attending and worthiness of regard from her friends and instructors. This can be supported by Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs under Deficiency needs for Belonging and relatedness which is falls under demand for self – finding ( Eggen et al. ) .

Self & A ; Motivation to larn ( Extrinsic Motivation )

Susan is in Extrinsic Motivation ( Eggen et al. ) . The ground for this is that Susan works strongly on external factors. Extrinsic motive drives Susan to make things for wagess or force per unit area instead than for the merriment of it. For illustration, when Susan is assigned to make work separately or in group and the instructor references that the first three students to finish his/her work will have a spine, Susan starts to work at a faster velocity to obtain the wages. In consequence, this motive can alter Susan ‘s aspiration to accomplish better than her equals into work.

Cognitive Ability ( Piaget ‘s Theory )

Susan ‘s deficiencies some cognitive ability. This includes Problem-solving accomplishments, Attention and Reading, Linguistic and verbal construct. However, she is able to suit to her memory and ocular comprehension

In footings of memory, Susan is able to memories basic constructs which are explained to her to run into her apprehension. For illustration if you teach Susan a transition in the forenoon and if you ask her about it in the afternoon, she is able to remember about the transition and explicate more about it.

Problem work outing accomplishments involves her inability to work out jobs. For case when she faces a inquiry which she does non cognize how to make, she gets really annoyed and gives up easy.

As mentioned earlier, Susan is unable to concentrate on her work for an extended period of clip since she has a really short attending span, affectional her faculty members well.

As for her lingual and verbal construct, Susan has troubles, reading, understanding text or non- actual text until farther explained. When provided a new transition, Susan needs clip to decrypt the content and at times require the instructor ‘s aid.

Last, Susan is able to treat ocular comprehension. Susan has the capableness of acknowledging. For illustration when she looks into the mirror, she is able to deduce that the contemplation shown is hers.

In relation to all this ability, Susan ‘s phase of development falls under the preoperational ( 2-7 ) phase of Piaget ‘s phases of cognitive development. ( Eggen et al ) . This is so as she is less egoistic in footings of her societal facet which relates to her apologising when in incorrect. She is really strong in concentrating her attending on one thought instead than options. Susan easy believes in narratives due to her involvement in narratives told by her instructor. She merely focuses on simple do ‘s and do n’t imposed by her instructors.

Multiple intelligence theory

Multiple Intelligences is non entirely focused on one type theory. However, each individual can hold all the seven intelligence. For case for Susan, enjoys listening to narratives which accommodate to the Linguistic Intelligence. She besides caters to the Spatial Intelligence as she has the ability of twenty-four hours woolgathering consecutively. In support to the Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence, Susan exhibit marks of traveling, jerking, tapping or fidgeting while seated for a long period of clip. In support to that, Susan has the inclination of seting her custodies all over something that she has seen. Last, for Musical Intelligence, Susan is really sensitive to environment noises and can observe a certain sound from across the room.


Susan ‘s instructor should concentrate on some of this scaffolding accomplishments to assist her in her colloquial and faculty members to heighten her assurance and ego -esteem ( Eggen et al. ) .In order to suit to Susan ‘s academic issue, her instructor can assist her to associate the common state of affairs that she is cognizant of with new informations provided. This could either be verbal or non verbal interaction and mold behaviours. These scaffolds can guarantee enthusiasm in the undertaking given to Susan.

Simplifying the undertaking could farther assist Susan accomplish approachable ends. When given a worksheet to work on, the instructor can give some guidelines, cut down perplexity, clear up the principle, integrate appraisal and supply sentiment for future acquisition.

Aboard with this, the instructor can besides cut down defeat over Susan as this encourages her to show herself better and builds her self -confidence and ego esteem in inquiring inquiries when she is uncertainty. Beside this, Susan should besides be provided with theoretical accounts, cues, prompts, intimations, partial solutions, think -aloud mold and direct direction. Questions can besides be used as portion of scaffolding to decide a job or finish a undertaking. This degree of oppugning can be increased based on the Susan ‘s responses. However, if responds is really general and incorrect, intrusive verbal prompts can be implied in the scaffold.

Her desire for communicating and faculty members could be farther catered by prosecuting Susan in brother system or little group. During this, research work or concrete illustrations can be used to promote her learning ability. This allows her to widen her knowledge degree. With her active function in her societal interaction, Susan can construct constructive apprehension of the construct through capable equals. This factor helps in the assistance of better friendly relationship which caters to her to hold high ego esteem in doing friends.

In add-on to bettering Susan ‘s cognitive abilities, scaffolding direction in the context of schoolroom acquisition and pupil research delivers efficiency and creates impulse

The instructor can utilize Scaffolding to actuate Susan ‘s ability to larn. Another is that it can cut down the scholar defeat. This is highly of import in the instance of Susan, who can go defeated really easy so blackout and state no to lend in farther acquisition during that peculiar scene.


Teachers have to understand that every kid learns otherwise. As for Susan, her instructors can emphasis on multiple options to cultivate the pupil to absorb the information. This can use from Susan ‘s multiple intelligence or look to let her to do sense of the subject. This can be done via musical lessons, play, storytelling or use of concrete thoughts. This can be adopted in little groups or individualized.

Together with this, she can promote flexible grouping as Susan is weak in her faculty members and assist Susan believe at different degree of complexness by planing activities. This allows her to work out the state of affairs if she comes across it once more. Research and treatment can besides used to cultivate apprehension of the cardinal thoughts. This could be farther adopted when teacher gets the whole category to reexamine on the construct. This procedure in return can provide to her societal demands and her assurance in footings of her acquisition.

If there is a instance where Susan starts to fight, the instructor has to happen her strength which she can to undertake in alternatively of concentrating entirely on her countries of trouble. Promote the acquisition of large thoughts and cardinal constructs. Her instructor has to supply a friendly attack to let the pupil addition credence and accomplish his full potency.

Susan and her instructor have to delegate of import ends and happen ways to utilize scaffolding to accomplish those ends. Last, the instructor has to continuously allow Susan cognize that she believes in her and reenforce the smallest success.


In decision, the instructor can accommodate more teaching schemes or theories which will promote her acquisition. Some possible attack will be in footings of her environment. Her instructor can guarantee that Susan sits every bit close to the instructor so that she can assist Susan when she is in demand or confused. There are many attacks which can be used and it all depends on the pupil demands and how the pupil learns. This could be in footings of his involvement and ends.


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