Solving Power Source Problems At Rural Areas Engineering Essay

The undertaking nowadays is on for alternate manner for clean energy storage beginnings for electrical and electronic devices and to work out power beginning job at rural country, which develop as a little graduated table power works. The proposed system based on chief tight air energy storage ( CAES ) construct but it is little graduated table system. The chief construct which usage by storage energy, during off peak period in the signifier of tight air and use demand during the peak period to bring forth power with a generator/gas turbine system. Focus of the undertaking to plan system to work out job which compatible with little graduated table system to accomplish the mark end product electromotive force to utilize for electrical contraptions. The system consists of 4 chief constituents: – air compressed and force per unit area vas micro turbine, DC generator and DC/AC convertor circuit. Converter DC/AC must be capable with little graduated table ( CAES ) .The categorization of little graduated table CAES execution is made on the BASIC of available energy, power end product and efficiency. The public presentation is found comparatively low, but the sum of energy is already lucifers in theory, the instance needs to be used as electronic devices and light reading.

Chapter 1


Undertaking Background

The demand to look at alternate energy beginning is going critical as the universe ‘s energy demands rises.A Compressed air energy storage ( CAES ) utilizing compressed air as is type of energy storage deserving researching. CAES is non an unproved engineering Compressed Air Energy Storage beginning that produces no pollution requires minimum care and energy from compress air into the cavern.

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The advancement study focuses base on hardware development attack that studied and analyzed on the convertor and Air Compressor which is one of the chief parts of the system. The analysis was concentrating on the end product electromotive force from the system can be used to use at electrical contraptions. But the end product electromotive force produced base on the variable end product air force per unit area. The consequence of the end product electromotive force produced was record and analyzed. In the testing and analyzed phase, different burden will be apply to the converter/inverter to look into the end product electromotive force altering and what sort of burden can be run on. Beside, this proving besides to prove how many burden can be apply at the same clip. So, the characteristic and public presentation of the overall little CAES system were being happening.

Problem Statement

Most electricity is generated by utilizing coal which we know the chief drawback of these beginnings is pollution. Burning any fossil fuel produces C dioxide, which contributes to the “ nursery consequence ” , warming the Earth. Sing the issue of planetary heating and other similar issues that are confronting our universe today, it is non surprising that so many people are turning to new power energy for their demands. This undertaking is to develop little graduated table ( CAES ) as analyser equipment. This system are use as one of alternate energy to replace the use as fossil fuel. Since monetary value of fossil fuels is keep on increasing in universe stock market, it ‘s really of import to happen new solution which can cut down a nursery consequence which leads to planetary heating. Fossil fuels ever produce harmful gasses that pollute the environment.

On the old undertaking small-CAES this system bring forth a little electromotive force end product with non compatible with inverter system. Since the old inverter can non run because the compressor can present a electromotive force end product around 5V-6V. The inverter system will run if the electromotive force input in 12volt and end product 240volt. So that, a new development of convertor have been design in order to work out the job that fit the system which compatible with small-CAES demand usage as a solution for analysis the system and besides can be use for any sort of electrical contraptions.

Aim of the undertaking

There are several aims that must be achieved in order to do this undertaking successful. The aims are to:

To analysis the categorization of little graduated table Compressed Air Energy Storage ( CAES ) is made of the footing of available energy, power end product and efficiency.

To analysis the air compressor feature of the little graduated tables CAES for power coevals.

Design convertor system which compatible with little graduated table CAES.

A useable system which can be used at electronic & A ; electric device.

Project range

The range of work in this undertaking is stated as given:

Undertakings focus on the system to make an efficient and maximise the energy ingestion of public presentation of the mini graduated table CAES and combination of the converter/inverter. The combination from this portion is required to finish the system order to making analysis and survey to feasibility the Small-CAES can be used at portable electronic and electrical devices.

Chapter 2



In this chapter, all information gathered from research that had been made will be included to assist to understand all the theories, method, equipment and devices used and how they work in order to do this undertaking working and to accomplish the consequences as expected harmonizing to the aims. For this undertaking, this chapter will be explicating about mini CAES coevals, energy storage utilizing air compressor, CAES system, the development big graduated table CAES system and convertor usage to change over the end product electromotive force.

Overview of the Energy Storage

Energy storage becomes the dominant factor in economic development with the debut of electricity and fuel country of refined chemicals, such as gasoline, kerosine and natural gas in the late 1800’s.A Unlike other energy nest eggs that are normally used antecedently used, such as wood or coal, electricity should be used as produced. Electricity is transmitted in a closed circuit, and for basically practical intents can non be stored as electrical energy. [ 1 ]

Energy storage is some of the energy storage can be withdrawn at a ulterior clip to execute some operations on. All signifier of energy both chemical energy all signifiers of energy storage of chemical energy, possible energy or gravitative energy:

A air current up clock shops possible energy ( in this instance mechanical in the spring tenseness )

Chemical energy storage: Batteries

Gravitational possible energy: hydroelectric dike shops power in reservoir

Therefore energy storage has of import function in the attempt to provide the hereafter of sustainable energy with criterion of proficient services and merchandises that we are familiar. [ 2 ]

Overview of Compressed Air Energy Storage.

Compressed Air Energy Storage ( CAES ) is a manner to the technique of hive awaying energy as possible energy as possible energy compresses the gas ( air ) to generated at one clip to utilize at another clip. Compressed Air Energy Storage ( CAES ) is a low-priced engineering for hive awaying big sum of electrical energy in the signifier of high force per unit area air.A This is one of several energy storage engineering for long-run ( 10s of hours ) , public-service corporation graduated table ( 100 to 1000 from MW ) applications. [ 3 ] Since its, debut as public-service corporation graduated table electricity storage engineerings in 1970s, lower energy monetary values and the deduction of inexpensive natural gas top outing power workss slackened demand for energy economy, and the CAES was off the land. Over the following decennary, merely two workss built, one in the United States, and one in Germany.A And although this installations provided an effectual energy storage capacities.

Normally refer to being pumped into big storage armored combat vehicle or natural ungrounded formations. To acquire the power for supply to Air Compressor can be used in different ways by utilizing the electrical transmittal grid system can utilize wind turbine or gas turbine. When energy is available, it is used to run air compressor which pump into the storage cavern. When electricity is needed, it is expanded through conventional gas turbine expanders. Note that some extra energy ( normally natural gas ) used during the development procedure to guarantee that the maximal power available from the tight air. [ 3 ]

2.3.1 Main Concept

Compressed air energy storage system operates much the same manner as a conventional gas turbine except the manner compaction and enlargement occurs independently and different times Because the compaction force provided by a separate full end product turbines can be used to bring forth electricity for development, whereas the conventional gas turbines typically use two-third of its end product to present to execute compressors. The CAES works operates at off-peak electricity to compact air into an belowground reservoir or surface vessel/piping system.

Media in the land such as cavern in salt or stone formations, porous stone formations, and depleted natural gas field usage as a medium for hive awaying tight air energy. [ 3 ] There will be stored as an energy beginning. During the twenty-four hours and at peak hours the air released and heated utilizing little sums of natural gas. The het air flows through in a turbine generator to bring forth electricity. In conventional gas turbine power coevals air that moves the turbine is compressed and heated utilizing natural gas. On the other manus compressed air energy storage engineering needs les gas to bring forth power during peak demand periods because the air has been compressed and stored resistances. Figure 2.1 is big graduated table ( CAES ) . [ 4 ]

Figure 2.1: Large Scale ( CAES ) .

2.3.2. Belowground Storage

Involves energy storage should be in the first thing must you see and look is for suited topographic points to hive away energy for air compaction. Salt cavern, an abandoned hard-rock mine, depleted gas Fieldss or an aquifer choose for reservoir for the system. The last apparatus although allow for a low force per unit area release of air and subsequent lowering of energy storage capacity of the unit. Tide a gum elastic or steel beds along with a concrete liner to incorporate the air in to the belowground storage cavern. [ 5 ] The volume of air storage required for typical CAES works is most economically provided by geological constructions. Underground cavern can hive away gases and liquid for over 40 old ages [ 6 ] .

The usage of salt caverns for the belowground storage of gases and liquids is exhaustively understood and in common usage. It is proven the salt caverns has engineering higher geological hazard and besides have benefit of being really customizable. Figure 2.2 show the conventional for making belowground storage cavern. The cavern is created by boring a conventional well where fresh H2O is pump into salt dome.

Figure 2.2: Conventional for making belowground storage caverns

2.3.3 Advantage of CAES

Separation map of the compaction of rhythm of the burning rhythm to supply CAES works operations, many advantages and benefits can accomplish compared with simple rhythm ( SC ) and combined rhythm ( CC ) of natural gas electricity coevals. These characteristic translate into a assortment of benefits as follows

High Thermal Efficiency

CAES is a system of energy production has a high thermic efficiency, so that CAES be one of the most competitory electricity power manufacturers.

Table 2.1: Comparison system storage

CAES works

Gas fired power works in combined rhythm manner

Simple rhythm gas turbine

Less than 4,500 Btu/kWh

6,300-8000 Btu/kWh

8,500-12,000 Btu/kWh

Higher Ramp Ratess

A CAES works is able to rage up 2 to 3 times faster than other gas-fired workss because it is non restrained by compaction demands. The undermentioned chart 3 illustrates the incline rate advantage enjoyed by CAES over simple rhythm ( SC ) and combined rhythm ( CC ) based on 300 MW workss.

Figure 2.3: Ramp Rate

Stable Heat Rate at Low Capacity.

Supplying accessory services the system CAES can keep better its heat rate at low capacity factor. CAES workss experience merely minimum heat rate debasement when operating as low 50 % of their generating capacity.

Figure 2.4: Expected Thermal Loss

High Output in High Ambient Temperatures

During high ambient temperature status the CAES public presentation can keep. CAES burning is at a changeless temperature and force per unit area because there is no decrease.

Figure 2.5: Ambient temperature

2.3.4 Disadvantages of CAES

The chief disadvantages of CAES is their location is dependence signifier on geographical. It is hard to find where the belowground reservoir of electricity coevals to be built, near to the electricity web, able to keep conditioning and big plenty to press a peculiar application.A Consequently, capital and building costs are really high for the system CAES.A Besides, CAES still utilizing fossil fuel ( gas ) to bring forth electricity.A As a consequence, conditions and safety ordinances are similar to conventional gas turbines.A Finally, there are merely two CAES of the installations that presently exist, which is still non see the potency of engineering. [ 7 ]

2.3.5 Comparison between little and big CAES system.

There are many differences that must be observed between big and little CAES system. To make a little graduated table CAES, need to analyze all feature of big graduated table because of the map and operation it still same with little graduated table CAES but the hardware different. Table 2.2 show the comparing between little and big CAES system.

Table 2.2: Comparison between little and big CAES system

Large graduated table CAES

Small CAES system

Large system size

Use big air compressor attach with Gas Turbine Power Plant.

Small system size

Small portion of constituents such as micro-turbine and generator.

End product: Large Capacity

End product: Small Capacity

Use belowground such as salt cavern, depleted gas Fieldss, an aquifer, an abandoned hard-rock mine.

Replace system reservoir with force per unit area vas.

Use Axial compressor attach with gas turbine.

Use Piston Air Compressor type

Use existent recuperate

Use Air drier

2.5 Overview Mini Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage.

A new engineering created for replace coevals is use today is more environmentally is Compressed Air Energy Storage ( CAES ) . For this paper is aimed to plan a little graduated table CAES to bring forth 12 VAC electromotive force. Hardware used is based on the chief thought big CAES but it is appropriate equipment for little end product. The hardware it use 4 parts, which is Air Compressor, micro turbine, DC electric generator and DC-AC convertor circuit. Figure 2.6 show little graduated table system chief constituent. [ 8 ]

Figure 2.6: Show little graduated table system chief constituent.

But this system no achieved their mark to acquire end product electromotive force 12v. The aim is partly achieved merely 5V to 6V DC end product.

2.6 DC-DC Converters

Modern electronic systems require high quality, little, lightweight, dependable, and efficient power supplies. The DC-DC convertors are electronic devices used whenever we want to alter DC electrical power expeditiously from one electromotive force degree to another. The DC-DC convertor is an electrical circuit that transportations energy from a DC electromotive force beginning to a burden. The energy is first transferred via electronic switches to energy storage devices and so later switched from storage into the burden. The switched are transistors and rectifying tubes ; the storage devices are inductances and capacitance. This procedure of energy transportation consequence in an end product electromotive force that is the input electromotive force by the responsibility ratios of the switches. The maps of DC-Dc convertor are:

Convert a District of Columbia input electromotive force Vs into District of Columbia end product electromotive force Vo.

Regulate the District of Columbia end product electromotive force against burden and line fluctuations ;

To supply isolation between the input beginning and the burden.

To protect the supplied system and the input beginning from electromagnetic intervention ( EMI ) .

They ‘re needed because unlike AC, DC ca n’t merely be stepped up or down utilizing a transformer. In many a DC-DC convertor is the Dc equivalent of a transformer. They are many different types of DC-DC convertor, each of which tends to be more suited for some types of application illustration to run personal Cadmium participant where 5V DC on a personal computing machine motherboard must be stepped down to 3V. The non-isolating type of convertor is by and large used where the electromotive force demand to be stepped up or down by comparatively little ratio ( less than 4:1 ) . There are four chief types of convertor in this non-isolating group, normally called vaulting horse, encouragement, buck-boost and CUK convertors. The vaulting horse convertor is used for electromotive force step-down/reduction, while the encouragement convertor is used for voltage increase. The buck-boost and Cuk convertor can be used for either step-down or step-up. [ 9 ]

2.6.1 Buck Converter

Buck convertor normally known as the step-down dc-dc convertor. The basic circuit constellation used in the vaulting horse convertor is shown in figure 2.7. As can see there merely four chief constituent exchanging power MOSFET Q1, flywheel rectifying tube D1, inductance L and end product filter capacitance C1.

Figure 2.7: The basic circuit for a buck type of DC-DC convertor.

A control circuit ( frequently as individual IC ) monitors the end product electromotive force and maintains it at the desired degree by exchanging Q1 on off t fixed rate ( the convertor ‘s operating frequence ) but with changing responsibility rhythm ( the proportion of each exchanging period Q1 is turned on ) . When Q1 is turned on, current Begin fluxing from the input beginning through Q1 and L and so into C1 and the burden. The magnetic field in L therefore builds up, hive awaying energy in the inductance – with the electromotive force bead across L opposing portion of the input electromotive force. Then when Q1 is turned off, the inductance opposes any bead in current by all of a sudden change by reversaling its EMF and now supplies current to the burden itself via D1. A duty rhythm of 50 % gives a step-down ratio of 2:1 for illustration as needed for a 24/12V step-down convertor. [ 9 ]

2.6.2 Boost Converter

The encouragement convertor is non complicated than the buck convertor. But the convertor constituent agreement has otherwise because the circuit in the order to step up the electromotive force. It is comprised of District of Columbia input electromotive force beginning Vs, encouragement inductance L, controlled switch Q1, rectifying tube D, filter capacitance C, and burden opposition R. Q1 as a high velocity switch, with end product electromotive force control by changing the exchanging responsibility rhythm. Current flows from input beginning through L and Q 1 when Q1 in switched on. The energy stored in the inductance ‘s magnetic field. The end product electromotive force is hence higher than the input electromotive force and it turns out that the electromotive force increase. [ 9 ] The circuit show in Figure 2.8.

Figure 2.8: The circuit for encouragement convertor.

2.6.3 Buck-Boost Converter

The circuit combine both of the convertor them can bring forth an end product electromotive force much larger than the input electromotive force can name buck encouragement convertor. Switch over manner power supply with a same circuit with to the encouragement convertor and the vaulting horse convertor. Three basic dc-dc convertors use a brace of switches, normally one controlled ( MOSFET ) and one uncontrolled ( rectifying tube ) . The circuit besides has utilizing one capacitance and one inductance to shop and reassign energy from input to end product. [ 9 ] The circuit shows in Figure 2.8 is different manner configured. This allows the electromotive force to be stepped either up or down, depending on the responsibility rhythm.

Figure 2.9: The Buck-Boost convertor circuit.

Q1 is turned on, for a clip continuance DT, the switch behavior the Inductor L current and the rectifying tube becomes change by reversal biased. When switch is turned off, current at L bead to go on to flux and diode go forward prejudices and current flows into the burden and to reload C1. So when Duty Cycle is less than 50 % and stairss it up when the responsibility rhythm is greater than 50 % it is call buck-boost convertor. The buck-boost convertor is besides a electromotive force inverter.

2.7 Timer 555

The 555 timer comes in a assortment of figure appellations. The most common are NE555 and LM555. There are two manners of operation it is monostable and stable. In monostable manner a individual pulsation with a fixed breadth is created by agencies of linking an external resistance and capacitance to the appropriate pins. The end product pulsation occurs after a trigger signal is sent to the timer. If different pulse breadths are required the easiest manner to implement this is to replace the resistance with a potentiometer. Adjust the potentiometer for the new pulse breadth scene and so trip the timer. [ 10 ]

In astable manner, sometimes called free running, multiple pulsations are produced utilizing two external resistances and one external capacitance. The wave form has a fixed period and responsibility rhythm. Choosing different values of resistances and the capacitance can alter the period and responsibility rhythm. No trigger signal is required for pulsations to be generated in astable manner. [ 10 ]

Figure 2.10: Internal agreement of a Timer 555

Figure 2.11: Pin layout agreement of a Timer 555

2.7.1 Monostable Operation

In the diagram above, pin 2, labeled V2, is the input trigger signal and pin 3, labeled V3, is the end product signal. In its normal province of operation the signal at pin 2 is held to the power supply electromotive force, VCC. The end product at pin 3 is zero Vs. When the signal at pin 2 is momently connected to land, the electromotive force at pin 2 will go zero Vs. As the electromotive force at pin 2 lessenings and becomes & lt ; 2/3 ( VCC ) , the end product at pin 3 goes high to the VCC value. When pin 3 peers VCC the internal discharge transistor turns away. The capacitance C begins to bear down with a clip invariable of I»=RC. As the capacitance is bear downing the electromotive force at pin 6, the threshold electromotive force, is increasing. When the electromotive force at pin 6 is & gt ; 2/3 ( VCC ) , the end product goes to zero because the discharge transistor turns on and discharges the capacitance. For the end product to travel low after a trigger pulsation, the trigger signal must return to the high, VCC province. Otherwise the end product will non reset to zero Vs. [ 10 ]

Figure 2.12: Monostable constellation

Figure 2.13: Monostable constellation border trigger pulsation

2.8 Drumhead

This chapter explains about the literature reappraisal about the construct and development of the old undertaking to accomplish the nonsubjective end. All constituent that been discoursing earlier are merely as preliminary determinations merely. So, possibly following procedure there will be modifying in the chief portion of constituent in the circuit and the system to run into the aim of the whole undertaking. All the portion and circuit based on cognition and information found from the research on several books, diary and cyberspace beginnings.

Chapter 3


3.1 Introductions.

This chapter will further depict how the mini CAES and convertor will be developed. In order to finish a undertaking, methodological analysis is one of the most of import things to be considered to guarantee the undertaking run swimmingly and the expected consequences could be achieve. Basically, undertaking methodological analysis is an of import portion in a undertaking procedure which is it explicate about the work processs and flow for finishing the undertaking. Each phase required research and apprehension to enable the system of the little CAES system and compatible the convertor for the system can utilize for electrical contraptions. ‘

3.2 General Approach

This undertaking involves the development of small-CAES system and conducts an analysis of the feature of each portion and ensures the system can be used to provide at electrical contraptions. Figure 3.1 shows the flow chart and the building of the undertaking design.A First, the literature reappraisal conducted to roll up elaborate informations about the system CAES including constructs, history of old undertakings, and so on. There are four chief portion of the system consist of AIir Compressor, Micro-turbine, Dc Generator, and DC/AC Converter circuit. After that, proving the undertaking and take consequence end product electromotive force. As a consequence of determinations and analysis made is to see there are some job ensuing end product electromotive forces. So the following procedure is to plan the system with selected specification. The suited specification that have been selected after discuss with supervisor by mentioning to old undertaking information. After treatment with supervisor, he made the determination to make a convertor circuit to increase the electromotive force available.

The undertaking completed when the system mini CAES compatible with the convertor and achieved the good end product electromotive force. Besides that, proving and trouble-shooting for the hardware demand to be done in order to look into the system work smooth and decently. After the system can work swimmingly, the system can be runing to provide power to electrical contraptions. If the system have job occur, the hardware must modify with another method. If the system works absolutely, the system ready can roll uping informations have done to make the expected consequence.

START3.3 Flow Chart

Literature Review

Design Hardware Circuit Inverter



Hardware proving



Roll uping Datas


Target Consequence

Characteristic analysis, treatment and decision


Figure 3.1: Flow chart of development the undertaking.

3.4 Project Design

Undertaking design is function to work out the job from the undertaking caused by the province of the system end product electromotive force is excessively little. There are some proficient jobs are identified. So that one has chosen the alternate way to make a convertor to increase the end product electromotive force to accommodate served on the bing inverter. The little CAES system must hold four chief parts to run the system. If do non hold one of the chief parts, the system can non decently operate. In order manus, each of chief parts is related and has relationship with each other. The system has a flow from one portion to another portion as shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2: Block Diagram Scope of Project

3.5 Converter Circuit Design.

After making the survey and making all the research about all types convertor, the new convertor circuit has been design. That is a type of dc-dc encouragement convertor. The circuit has been design that base on old design job which is that equipment mini CAES produce little end product electromotive force. The circuit convertor has been design that base on less constituent usage and most simple design. The design was base on generate lupus erythematosus losingss produce, less cost and simples design but with the same efficiency. The circuit diagram utilizing MULTISIM 9 show in Figure 3.3 below.

Figure 3.3: Dc-Dc encouragement convertor.

This convertor is a 6V to 12V Dc-Dc encouragement convertor can travel burden in 12V about 3A. The 555 timer IC can run on monostable manner and can bring forth about 29Khz frequence of approximately 54 % responsibility rhythm of the thrust transistor TIP41C. 1000uF capacitance smoothen the end product electromotive force of Dc-Dc convertor. LED and Resistor 1.5Kohm serves as index of the stableness of end product and the burden when no burden is connected.

3.5.1 Software Multisim 9.

Multisim are new plan to larning electronics and planing usage circuits. With Multisim, infinite supplies of parts are available to you. This include the ability to put them in any agreement along with the treating power to imitate. Multisim are the practical add-ons to your workshop. They are powerful synergistic tools that allow speedy to your workshop. The package plans use a personal computing machine to imitate what would othererwise be a existent electronic work bench, complete with drawings, parts, tools, and instruments.

Hardware Operation.

In general the little CAES system that has been development and operation as show Figure 4.1. The system is start operate with utilizing off-grid supply which 3 stage 415v to provide at 3hp Air compressor to bring forth tight air. It can hive away the tight air in Compressor armored combat vehicle it automatically cutoff if to the full complete stored.

The valve 1 will open and compressed air can flux to the force per unit area vas. The map of the force per unit area vas is as medium storage with big storage with big capacity. To make the mark, the force per unit area vas is set to hive away merely 8bar ( 116psi ) compressed air. The valve 2 will open and compressed air flow through air filter to divide oil and vapour from force per unit area vas. A clean air so flux through air drier to bring forth dry compressed air.

Then it will flux through air regulator. Air regulator is use to put at certain force per unit area of the tight air before flow into inlet micro-turbine. Micro-turbine blade rotate the individual shaft that connected to the generator. The generator so converts mechanical energy to electrical energy and produce electricity.

Figure 4.1: Diagram of little CAES system

Method of trial

There are 2 method utilizations in get for the preliminary consequence for this chapter. The method 1 of trial that usage to roll up informations on the little CAES system and method II with utilizing to plan system convertor to work out the job end product electromotive force from the little CAES which is utilizing simulation at MULTISIM. The consequence from the convertor with expected to change over the electromotive force from 5volt to 12volt. Besides that, the method can be used to analyse the system. The trial equipment usage proving in show figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2: Testing Equipment

3.8 Project Testing and Modification.

Test the undertaking is on manner to guarantee that the system is in good status and can be used. In the testing phase, difference tonss will be apply to the convertor and inverter to look into the end product electromotive force altering and what sort of burden can be run. Beside, this proving besides to prove how many burden can be apply at the same clip.

3.9 Drumhead

This chapter explains about the agenda procedure of the undertaking from the beginning until it was terminal. There are several jobs that might be happening during finishing the undertaking, but if the undertaking is following to the agenda swimmingly, the full job can work out within the period that been set up earlier and the undertaking can be complete on clip.

Chapter 4



This chapter described the preliminary consequence proving on the little Compressed Air Energy Storage ( CAES ) system and alternate system provide to utilize for solve job end product at small-CAES. The informations consequence are collected from two method consist of Method 1 and Method 2. The method will be explained in this chapter. Then, from this information consequence the feature will be discuss in following chapter to get the better of this job.

Target consequence.

The expected consequence is the little CAES system can smoothly operate and do the better end product consequence. So the analysis about the feature of the system can be done. The chief portion little CAES and combination of convertor can be used to bring forth the end product electromotive force of 12 V. So all the job that arise should be analyze and range to guarantee that the system can be usage in electrical contraption.

When the combination of the portion are related and can bring forth 12 V which is analyze the system can utilize for electrical contraptions by utilizing a figure of instances of electrical equipment to see how long the electrical equipment can be used & amp ; efficiencies that can be generated by the system.

Consequence I

In 1st consequence, foremost air will compact utilizing Air Compressor to bring forth tight air and shop in the force per unit area armored combat vehicle until reach 8bar. This force per unit area armored combat vehicle will move as storage unit in this little CAES system. Air regulator will be set up to 8 saloon 10 valves 3 as diagram at Figure 4.1 will be opened. Take clip to to the full compact. Compressed air will flux through into the recess Micro-Turbine and through in Air Dryer and rotary motion of Micro-Turbine shaft will be created. Measure of end product DC electromotive force created by DC generator. Measure the DC electromotive force end product produced by DC generator and take clip how long the system can bring forth the end product. Repeated the testing process five times to analyse the system.

Table 4.1: Consequence DC Output Voltage

No. of Trial

Maximum compressed air force per unit area ( saloon )

Maximum Output Voltage

( V )

Maximum Output Ampere

( A )





















From table 4.1 above at that place have a different value of end product electromotive force produced with the same air force per unit area applied. The trial repeated five times to obtain the mean value of end product electromotive force produced. By mentioning the tabular array, the electromotive force produced from the system non consistent and highest the DC electromotive force can bring forth 5.40V.

Table 4.2: Previous Result informations

No. of Trial

Maximum compressed air force per unit area ( saloon )

Input air force per unit area to micro-turbine ( saloon )

Maximum Output Voltage

( V )





























From the tabular array 4.2 above, show difference in end product electromotive force produced caused by the difference in the air force per unit area applied. The intent of the mean value is to give more truth on the consequence informations. By mentioning the tabular array, at highest air force per unit area ( 8bar ) the DC generator produced 5.38V and at lowest DC produced 2.74V. It show that when the air force per unit area applied is decrease from 8bar to 1bar, the end product electromotive force produced besides lessening.

4.4 Result II

Second consequence been develop to assist or work outing the job on mini scale CAES system which is end product electromotive force that been produce it excessively little. The demand electromotive force is 12 V. One of the solution can be usage to increase the end product electromotive force is create DC convertor. By making a convertor for this method hopefully can work out this job. Advancement for the design convertor circuit design is still in the survey because it has non produced the desired end product electromotive force of 12 V. Voltage is produced does non make in mark but the current achieved the mark 1.5 above. The consequence from the simulation show in table 4.3:

Table 4.3: Consequence from Simulation Circuit

No. Of Trial

Output Voltage ( V )

End product Ampere ( A )







Output Voltage

Figure 4.3: Converter Circuit Design

Chapter 5


6.1 Discussion

From analysis of the end product electromotive force produce from the mini graduated table CAES the mark consequence is when the air force per unit area applied at 8 saloon the generator can bring forth 12Vdc. But when air force per unit area is applied at 8bar brand DC generator produced 5.35Vdc and 5.38Vdc severally. This job may do by non sufficient of air force per unit area to inlet Micro-turbine. Harmonizing the consequence end product electromotive force green goods is depending on the velocity rotary motion of micro-turbine blade and air force per unit area that applied to the system. Both parametric quantities are changing to end product electromotive force green goods.

But for another solution can be used that to accomplish the mark end product electromotive force at 12V which is to change over the end product electromotive force 5.38v to 12Volt. To accomplish the mark, design encouragement convertor to step up the electromotive force. The design can be describe with the design the circuit utilizing package and imitate the circuit to acquire the end product electromotive force consequence. But the convertor can non bring forth the coveted electromotive force value because there in the circuit constituents are non appropriate to step up the voltage.A Therefore, be created by altering the circuit once more and add the constituent to acquire the electromotive force to 12 volts.A The compatibility the both system really of import in this undertaking because the better consequence from the end product electromotive force can be analyze and can be use to applied at electronic and electrical contraptions.

6.2 Decision

From this undertaking we can reason that Analysis on Small Scale Compressed Air Energy storage ( CAES ) system characteristic for power coevalss is about the system to develop and bring forth end product electromotive force to provide for electrical contraptions. The system must compatible each other. Before the analysis is done, hardware of the system is must be done to plan the circuit and the can use at the mini graduated table CAES. The system is design for each constituent to accomplish the mark consequence.

In order to guarantee this undertaking is successful procedure to is planned good and done consistently. The survey and research must ever be done to cognize elaborate information about the CAES system and convertor system. The combination 2 portion of the system is needed to order do certain the system completed and can be swimmingly operated and can utilize at electrical and electronic contraptions. Therefore, the analysis on the feature of the system can be done.


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