SOLUTIONS Title I. Objective: To study some phenomena related solution. II. Apparatus: Test tubes, Bunsen burner, mortar and pestle, conductivity Apparatus, test tube holder, calibrated test tube. III. Materials: Crystals of blue vitriol, benzoic acid, table salt, denatured alcohol, kerosene, 10ml of very diluted sulfuric acid, 2g brown sugar, 10ml of each of the following: 1 M solution of sodium acetate, ammonium chloride, ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and ethyl alcohol.
IV. Procedure and Observation A. 1. Factors influencing Dissolving Velocity A. Each of 5 test tubes was filled up with 10ml of diluted H2SO4 solution. a. One crystal was dropped into the first test tube and set aside into the test tube rack, after several minutes the crystal was slowly dissolved. b.
Another crystal was suspended into the second test tube by means of a sling made from a piece of mimeo paper about 1/4 inch wide and 4 inches long and set aside into the test tube rack, after several minutes the crystal was slowly dissolved. c. Powdered Blue Vitriol was placed into the third test tube and set aside into the test tube rack, after several minutes the powdered blue vitriol was slowly dissolved but faster than in 1. and 1. b. d. Powdered Blue Vitriol was placed into the fourth test tube and shaken vigorously until the powdered blue vitriol was totally dissolved. The powdered blue vitriol was dissolved faster compared to 1. c. e. Powdered Blue Vitriol was placed into the fifth test tube which was heated solution. Continuously heating of the solution until the powdered blue vitriol was completely dissolved. The powdered blue vitriol was dissolved faster compared to 1. d. B. Data and Results Solution |Factors |Rank | | | |(slowest -to- | | | |fastest) | |Blue Vitriol Crystals(CuSO4)+ H2SO4 |Particles Size |5 | |Blue Vitriol Crystals(CuSO4) + H2SO4 |Surface Area |4 | |Powdered Blue Vitriol (CuSO4) + H2SO4 |Particles Size |3 | |Powdered Blue Vitriol (CuSO4) + H2SO4 |Agitation |2 | |Powdered Blue Vitriol (CuSO4) + H2SO4 |Temperature |1 | 2.
Solubility of Different Solutes in Different Solvents 1. a The 1/2g of table salt was divided into three equal portions in three separate test tubes. The first test tube was filled up with 2ml of H2O and the second test tube was filled up with 2ml kerosene. After filling up the two test tubes then shake. The third test tube was reserved for C. 1. a. The table salt was dissolved most in the 2ml H2O, and least dissolved in kerosene. 1. b The benzoic acid was divided into two equal portions in two separate test tubes. The first test tube was filled up with 2ml of H2O and the second test tube was filled up with 2ml kerosene.
After filling up the two test tubes then shake. The benzoic acid was dissolved most in the 2ml kerosene, and least dissolved in H2O. 2. Data and Results |Solvents |Table Salt |Benzoic Acid | |2ml Water (H2O) |Soluble |insoluble | |2ml Kerosene |Insoluble |Soluble | |2ml Alcohol |Insoluble |Soluble | 3. Influence of Different Solutes in Different Solvents 1. The 1/2g of table salt from the third test tube from B. 1. a was filled up with enough water and added slowly pinch-by-pinch of table salt until no more table salt dissolved. The water-salt solution was thoroughly wet and being concentrated solution. 2. b The solution from C. 1. a was heated to almost boiling and added slowly pinch-by- pinch of table salt. After several minutes, when the solution was being cooled the table salt returned to its solid state. The water-salt solution was made supersaturated wherein the water was unable to dissolved the salt in the solution. B. 1. Electrolytes (Strong and Weak) and Non-electrolytes
The Instructor had demonstrated. A. Each of the solution listed below had tested its conductivity by placing 10ml of each in a conductance tube and dipping it in the electrodes of the conductivity apparatus. a. 1 M HCL – Bright Light b. 1 M HOAc – Dimmed Light c. 1 M NaOH – Bright Light d. 1 M NH4OH – Dimmed Light e. 1 M NH4Cl – Bright Light f. 1 M NaOAc – Bright Light g. NaCl solution – Bright Light h. Sugar solution – Dimmed Light i. Distilled water – No Light j. Tap water – Dimmed Light k. Ethyl alcohol – No Light 2. Classification of all the solution listed as weak electrolyte, strong electrolyte or non electrolyte. Weak Electrolyte |Strong Electrolyte |Non Electrolyte | |Acetic Acid |Sodium Chloride |Distilled Water | |Ammonium Hydroxide |Hydrochloride |Ethyl Alcohol | |Tap Water |Ammonium Chloride | | |Sugar Solution |Sodium Hydroxide | | | |Sodium Acetate | | VI. Conclusion
It takes time for a diluted Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to dissolved the crystal blue vitriol compared to the powdered blue vitriol because they varied in the particles size, when shaking were applied on the solution the speed of the solubility were increased. In the heated solution the solubility was very fast due to the increased in temperature. The factor affected the solubility of water and salt solution, water and benzoic acid solution, was the nature of solute and the solvent, the polar solute were dissolved only in the polar solvent and slightly or insoluble to non polar solvent, then non polar solute were dissolved only in the non polar solvent and slightly or insoluble to polar solvent.
Thus water is polar solvent and salt is polar solute therefore salt is soluble in water, whereas benzoic acid is a non polar and water is polar solvent so, benzoic acid is insoluble in water. Benzoic acid is soluble in kerosene and alcohol because they are non polar solvent. When salt was added into the water pinch-by-pinch, the salt absorbed the water wherein the amount of water in the solution were decreased by adding more salt, when water cannot dissolve more salt, the water-salt solution is saturated. Solutions having weak electrolytes are those weak acid or base solution, solutions having strong electrolytes are those strong acid or base solution. The non electrolyte solutions are those organic solutions.