CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 1. 1 PROBLEM DEFINITION: The existing forms of security systems using surveillance cameras better known as CCTV are not enough. As they only provide the user with the video of any incident, which is of no use when it comes to stopping the incident from taking place if there is no one is present monitoring the screens at that point of time. This project will allow only the registered user to turn on the tracking system. This project will keep the information of every tag that has been given a specific identification number.
Using this project we could easily calculate are the number of goods that are within the range of the RFID reader. Even if there is no one monitoring the system the alarm will alert the user as well as a text message will alert the user. 1. 2 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT: Software required: Microsoft XP, JDK, SQL Microsoft XP is used as a operating system, JDK is use for writing the java program and SQL is use for writing the queries. Proper implementation of such RFID and GSM technologies will benefit all in the field of security. The consumers need not worry about their valuables at any time and anywhere.
Besides, this idea also can implement to other valuable belongings such as laboratory equipments in institutes, books in the library, etc. What they need to do is just simply attached to the RFID tag to their respective belongings and run the security program for the function needed. As the RFID tags are getting cheaper, it is a very economical solution to all the security system needed . CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE REVIEW OF LITERATURE A low cost GSM/GPRS based wireless home security system Home security system is needed for occupants’ convenience and safety.
In this paper, we present the design and implementation of low cost, low power consumption, and GSM/GPRS (global system for mobile communication /general packet radio service) based wireless home security system. The system is a wireless home network that contains a GSM/GPRS gateway and three kinds of wireless security sensor nodes that are door security nodes, infrared security nodes and fire alarm nodes. The nodes are easy installing. The system can response rapidly to alarm incidents and has a friendly user interface including a LCD (liquid crystal display) and a capacitive sensor keyboard.
The wireless communication protocol between the gateway and the nodes is also suitable for other home appliances. Furthermore, some methods are taken to ensure the security of system information . Navigation and Mobile Security System of Home Security Robot We have recently developed an intelligent security architecture in robot (ISR). Image system, security system, multi-interaction system and obstacle avoidance system can all communicate with each other through intelligent automation robot system (IA robot).
We also discuss the modes and distance of obstacle avoidance that influence in the pathway of obstacle avoidance. In order to navigate IA robot to complete mission with obstacle avoidance system and security system by using IR sensors, and USB Web-camera installed in IA robot. Therefore, because the limitation of IR sensors and the action mode we have set, we have to choose a critical distance. When IA robot approaches an obstacle into this distance, ISR will start to avoid obstacle. We also provide seven kinds of functions installed on this IA robot to reach security service.
We have successfully demonstrated the modes and distance of obstacle avoidance and the security system . A new secure SIM-card based RFID reader Nowadays, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has recently aroused great interest due to its convenience and economic efficiency, and the RFID technology has become mature and its manufacturing cost is reduced constantly, this technology has already widely used in a lot of field such as supply chain management, entrance guard system, intelligent home appliances, electronic payment, production automation, etc.
But it also threatens security and privacy of individuals and organizations. So to effectively answering the challenges of security and privacy, in this work, we introduce a new way to authentication and encryption that use Sim card . CHAPTER 3 PROJECT DESCRIPTION PROJECT DESCRIPTION 3. 1 EXISTING SYSTEM An RFID (radio frequency identification) security system is perhaps the most convenient security system you can create. It can be used for many kinds of special problems, especially when dealing with security.
From calculating the number of items inside your refrigerator to tracking a vehicle, the uses of RFID are limited only by your imagination. One simple way to use RFID is to build a basic RFID door-lock which works with a card key for example. Fig. 3. 1 Existing System The RFID tag used for gasoline purchases today employ the same type of back end checks to spot spurious use that were developed by major credit card issuers. These are systems issues, not related to the data carrier — whether an RFID tag, a magnetic stripe or the human readable on a credit card.
SafeWatch-SafePass includes a key fob in the form of a plastic tag with a passive RFID inlay that operates at 13. 56 MHz embedded in it. When the key fob is waved within about 2 inches from the security system’s touchpad, an RFID reader inside of the touchpad reads the RFID inlay’s unique ID number. The ID number takes the place of manually entered codes typically used to turn the security system on or off, and change its settings. 3. 2 DETAILS OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE HARDWARE: 1. GSM Terminal The GSM terminal is used as the SMS interface to send SMS message for the system.
Since the notebook shown does not has any DB9 serial connector port, an USB to Serial Communication cable is used to connect the GSM modem to the notebook USB port. 2. RFID Reader The RFID reader shown at the left of the laptop is used to communicate to the tag that had been attached to a mobility laptop . Fig. 3. 2 RFID Reader SOFTWARE: Operating System:- Min Microsoft Windows XP Front End:-Visual Basic Back End:- MS Access 3. 3 OVERALL DESCRIPTION 3. 3. 1 PRODUCT PERSPECTIVE: The system proposed in this paper will use RFID technology as a single hop network.
The RFID reader will have the ability to read RFID tags and pass that information to server, which the user shall be able to maneuver the data collection and analyze the collected data as shown in Fig. 3. 3. RFID tag will be attached to the laptop and RFID reader will be connected to the server. The reader then scans the tag at every two seconds. If an unauthorized user removes the laptop out of the reader coverage area, the reader cannot detect the tag signal. Then the alarm system will be activated. Once the laptop moves back within the range, the alarm system will be terminated.
Thus, if someone tries to remove the laptop, the alarm sound will be played, drawing attention to the attempted laptop theft. To enhance the system, GSM terminal is used to send SMS to the laptop owner that the laptop had been stolen by unauthorized person. Typically GSM terminal will come with a RS232 connector to external terminal equipment, and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cardholder and the external connector. The GSM terminal equipment is standing alone mobile equipment that is capable to handle SMS sending and receiving function. In this system, only SMS sending function is applied.
The SMS Inter-Working Mobile Switching Center (MSC) passes the message to a Short Message Service Centre (SMSC). The SMSC then forwards the message to the destination GSM network through a specific GSM MSC called the SMS gateway MSC (SMS GMSC). Following the GSM roaming protocol, the SMS GMSC locates the serving MSC of the message receiver based on the information received from the Home Location Register (HLR) and forwards the message to that MSC. The SMS Inter Working Mobile Switching Center (MSC) passes the message to a Short Message Service Centre (SMSC).
The SMSC then forwards the message to the destination GSM network through a specific GSM MSC called the SMS gateway MSC (SMS GMSC). Following the GSM roaming protocol, the SMS GMSC locates the serving MSC of the message receiver based on the information received from the Home Location Register (HLR) and forwards the message to that MSC . Fig. 3. 3 System Setup 3. 3. 2 PRODUCT FUNCTIONS: Utilizing all hardware as shown in the above figure could show the demonstration of laptop security system. The RFID reader shown at the left of the laptop is used to communicate to the tag that had been attached to a mobility laptop.
The GSM terminal is used as the SMS interface to send SMS message for the system. Since the notebook shown does not has any DB9 serial connector port, an USB to Serial Communication cable is used to connect the GSM modem to the notebook USB port. The notebook shown here will act as the base station to run the program. The scenario demonstrated here is running in system with parameter set to COM4 for the communication port number of the RFID reader, and COM5 for the communication port number of the GSM terminal.
The system is then run through the Laptop Security program written in C# language. In this GUI, there are two buttons, labeled with “Start” and “Stop”, and a list box. Initially, when the “Start” button is pressed, it will call the “start” functions. RFID reader begins to read the signal from the tag, GSM terminal turn from shutdown mode to standby mode, and the timer start counting. Then, the timer and the tag ID that had been detected by the reader will be displayed in the list box.
Once the reader has detected the tag, the timer will reset and count from 1 again, the tag is in static mode and stated within five meters line of sight to the base stations seen in this system, the reader will detect the tag at each 2 – 5 seconds. After doing a lot of observations and statistics, and consider the distance between the base station and the tag, decision had been Made if the timer is more than 5 seconds and the reader is still failed to detect the signal from the tag, then an alarm system will be activated to alert the laptop owner.
However, there is a possibility that the reader might not detect the tag signal temporally due to some uncertainties factors. In order to make this system become more practical and compatible to the real world, a GSM SMS service had been integrated into this system. The GSM terminal only will send a confirmation message to the laptop owner’s mobile phone when timer is count more than eight seconds. It is implied that if the reader can detect ‘back’ the tag signal within 8 seconds, then the timer will start counting again from the beginning.
Meanwhile, the alarm sound that was active will stop sounding . CHAPTER 4 PROJECT ANALYSIS PROJECT ANALYSIS 4. 1 EXTERNAL INTERFACE REQIUREMENTS 4. 1. 1 User Interface: A user interface for a radio frequency identification interrogation system is disclosed, which interface may include graphics, sounds, lights, or combinations of the foregoing that provide information to a user in regard to the materials being interrogated. Software Requirements: Operating System:- Min Microsoft Windows XP Front End:- Visual Basic Back End:- MS Access 4. 1. 2 Hardware Interfaces:
The prototype environment consists of a sensing network that helps the location tracking of mobile users/objects within certain granularity and accuracy, and a wireless network that enables the communication between mobile devices and the Internet. The sensing network primarily includes the RF readers and RF Tags as mentioned earlier. The other major part of the infrastructure is the wireless network that allows wireless communication between mobile devices like PDAs and the Internet. In addition, it also acts as a bridge between the sensing network and the other part of the system.
As the reader is equipped with the capability of communicating wirelessly using IEEE 802. 11b wireless network, all the tag information gathered from readers is sent over to the supplied API sitting on a specific server (the location server). This feature does not have the problem of having a wire-connection to the readers, thus reducing the possible restrictions of where the readers could be placed. In addition, the wireless network will serve as the fundamental framework of all the communications in the infrastructure. 4. 1. 3 Communication Interfaces:
The communication functions required by this product are network server communication protocols, Serial port for connecting with the Gsm module. To enhance the system, GSM terminal is used to send SMS to the laptop owner that unauthorized person had stolen the laptop. Typically GSM terminal will come with a RS232 connector to external terminal equipment, and the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cardholder and the external connector. The GSM terminal equipment is standing alone mobile equipment that is capable to handle SMS sending and receiving function.
In this system, only SMS sending function is applied. 4. 1. 4 System Features: Proper implementation of such RFID and GSM technologies will benefit all in the field of security. The consumers need not worry about their valuables at any time and anywhere. Besides, this idea also can implement to other valuable belongings such as laboratory equipments in institutes, books in the library, etc. What they need to do is just simply attached to the RFID tag to their respective belongings and run the security program for the function needed.
As the RFID tags are getting cheaper, it is a very economical solution to all the security system needed. 4. 2 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS LEVEL 0 Fig. 4. 2(a) DFD Level 0 ` LEVEL 1 Fig. 4. 2(b) DFD Level 1 CHAPTER 5 PROJECT DESIGN PROJECT DESIGN 5. 1UML DIAGRAMS: 1. USE CASE DIAGRAM: Fig. 5. 1(a) Use Case Diagram 2. CLASS DIAGRAM: Fig. 5. 1(b) Class Diagram 3. ACTIVITY DIAGRAM: Fig. 5. 1(c) Activity Diagram 4. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM: Fig. 5. 1(d) Activity Diagram 5. COLLABORATION DIAGRAM: Fig. 5. 1(e) Collaboration Diagram CHAPTER 6 IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION 6. DEVELOPING THE PCB The performance of an electronic circuit depends upon layout and design of Printed Circuit Board (P. C. B. ) . Modern electronic system would be virtually impossible to package without incorporating circuit into their design. Printed circuit board having excellent peel strength and conductance resistance is provided with a substrate, a resin insulating layer formed thereon and roughened at its surface, and a conductor formed thereon, in which at least a portion of the conductor is composed of an eutectic metal layer. PATTERNING (ETCHING)
The vast majority of printed circuit boards are made by adhering a layer of copper over the entire substrate, sometimes on both sides, (creating a “blank PCB”) then removing unwanted copper after applying a temporary mask (eg. by etching), leaving only the desired copper traces. A few PCBs are made by adding traces to the bare substrate (or a substrate with a very thin layer of copper) usually by a complex process of multiple electroplating steps. LAMINATION Some PCBs have trace layers inside the PCB and are called multi-layer PCBs. These are formed by bonding together separately etched thin boards.
DRILLING Holes, or vies, through a PCB are typically drilled with tiny drill bits made of solid tungsten carbide. Automated drilling machines perform the drilling with placement controlled by a drill tape or drill file. These computer-generated files are also called numerically controlled drill (NCD) files or “Excellent files”. The drill file describes the location and size of each drilled hole. When very small vies are required, drilling with mechanical bits is costly because of high rates of wear and breakage. In this case, the vies may be evaporated by lasers.
Laser-drilled vies typically have an inferior surface finish inside the hole. These holes are called micro vies. Fig. 6. 1(a) Drilling on PCB It is also possible with controlled-depth drilling, laser drilling, or by pre-drilling the individual sheets of the PCB before lamination, to produce holes that connect only some of the copper layers, rather than passing through the entire board. These holes are called blind vies when they connect an internal copper layer to an outer layer, or buried vies when they connect two or more internal copper layers. The first step is to design the schematics in a PCB Layout Editor such as EAGLE.
After the schematic is entered, the PCB layout program is used to place the parts on the board and route the copper traces. After the first few parts are mounted, the “ratsnest” begins to clear up. If you’re lucky, you get a PCB that requires no external jumper wires. Fig. 6. 1(b) Drawing Layout on PCB When the layout is done, the board layers are printed onto special toner transfer paper with a laser printer. This board “image” is transferred to the bare copper board with a laminating machine, or a hot clothes iron. After laminating, the board with the paper stuck to it is soaked to remove the paper, leaving only the toner behind.
After etching, the toner is removed with solvent and the board is tinned using a soldering iron and a small piece of tinned solder wick. Tinning isn’t absolutely necessary but it improves the appearance of the board, and prevents the copper from oxidizing before it’s time to solder the parts to the board. Then holes are drilled for any leaded components and mounting holes. After completing this completed board ready to be populated . Fig. 6. 1(c) PCB 6. 2 INTERFACING RS-232 is simple, universal, well understood and supported but it has some serious shortcomings as a data interface.
The standards to 256kbps or less and line lengths of 15M (50 ft) or less but today we see high speed ports on our home PC running very high speeds and with high quality cable maxim distance has increased greatly. An RS-232 port can supply only limited power to another device. The number of output lines, the type of interface driver IC, and the state of the output lines are important considerations. The types of driver ICs used in serial ports can be divided into three general categories: * Drivers which require plus (+) and minus (-) voltage power supplies such as the 1488 series of interface integrated circuits. Most desktop and tower PCs use this type of driver. ) * Low power drivers which require one +5 volt power supply. This type of driver has an internal charge pump for voltage conversion. (Many industrial microprocessor controls use this type of driver. ) * Low voltage (3. 3 v) and low power drivers which meet the EIA-562 Standard. (Used on notebooks and laptops. ) Fig. 6. 2 RS232 Interfacing 6. 3 LAYOUTS OF COMPONENTS RF TAGS Fig. 6. 3(a) RF Tag Layout RS232 BOARD Fig. 6. 3(b) RS232 Board 6. 4 PROGRAM CODE 6. 4. 1 Micro-Controller Code Include crystal = 11. 0592 Include C Code 89Sxx. lib
Include C Code bcd. lib Include C Code TMR. lib Include C Code VARIABLE. INC TIMER0 = 0 Count1 = 0 Count2 = 0 TIMER0 = 1 ENABLE INTRUPS Main: If Count1 ; 25 And Count2 ; 25 Then Reset Buzzer If Rfid1 = 0 Then Count1 = Count1 + 1 If Rfid1 = 1 Then Count1 = 0 Set Led1 Print “TA” End If Waitms 50 If Rfid2 = 0 Then Count2 = Count2 + 1 If Rfid2 = 1 Then Count2 = 0 Set Led2 Print “TB” End If If Count1 ; 25 Then Reset Led1 Print “T1” Gosub Send_sms1 End If If Count2 ; 25 Then Reset Led2 Print “T2” Gosub Send_sms2 End If If Count1 ; 25 Or Count2 ; 25 Then Set Buzzer
Goto Main 6. 4. 2 Software Code Login Form: Private Sub Data1_Validate(Action As Integer, Save As Integer) End Sub Private Sub Command1_Click() Dim username As String Dim password As String username = Text1. Text password = Text2. Text If password = “bill” And username = “bill” Then Master. Show Else MsgBox (“Invalid username or password”) End If End Sub Private Sub Command2_Click() Dim f As Form For Each f In Forms Unload f Next End End Sub Master Form: Private Sub Command2_Click() Mobile. Show End Sub Private Sub Command3_Click() TagDetails. Show End Sub Private Sub Command4_Click() Dim f As Form
For Each f In Forms Unload f Next End End Sub Private Sub Command5_Click() If MSComm1. PortOpen = False Then MSComm1. CommPort = 1 MSComm1. PortOpen = True Command2. Caption = “STOP” Form1. Show ElseIf MSComm1. PortOpen = True Then MSComm1. PortOpen = False Command2. Caption = “START” End If End Sub Private Sub Command6_Click() If MSComm1. PortOpen = True Then MSComm1. PortOpen = False End If End End Sub Private Sub MSComm1_OnComm() Dim strData As String If MSComm1. CommEvent = comEvReceive Then strData = MSComm1. Input Text1. Text = strData If strData = “T1” Then tagid = “101” Form1. Show End If
If strData = “T2” Then tagid = “102” Form1. Show End If End Select End If End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() End Sub Mobile Details Form: Private Sub Command1_Click() MsgBox (“Number changed Successfully”) End Sub Private Sub Command2_Click() Master. Show End Sub Private Sub Command3_Click() Dim f As Form For Each f In Forms Unload f Next End End Sub Private Sub Command4_Click() On Error GoToAddErr datPrimaryRS. Recordset. AddNew txtNew. SetFocus Exit Sub AddErr: MsgBoxErr. Description End Sub Private Sub List1_Click() End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() End Sub Tag Details Form: Dim tagid As String Dim num As Double
Private Sub Command1_Click() Adodc1. Recordset. MoveLast Adodc1. Recordset. AddNew MsgBox (“New Tag added Successfully”) Text1. SetFocus End Sub Private Sub Command2_Click() ‘TagView. Show tagid = Text1. Text num = CDbl(tagid) Adodc1. CommandType = adCmdText Adodc1. RecordSource = “select * from product where TagId= ” &num& ” ” Adodc1. Refresh Text2. Text = Adodc1. Recordset. Fields(“ProductName”) Text3. Text = Adodc1. Recordset. Fields(“Company”) Text4. Text = Adodc1. Recordset. Fields(“Description”) End Sub Private Sub Command3_Click() Master. Show End Sub Private Sub Command4_Click() End End Sub
Private Sub Command5_Click() Text1. Text = “” Text2. Text = “” Text3. Text = “” Text4. Text = “” End Sub Private Sub Command6_Click() Adodc1. Recordset. Delete Adodc1. Recordset. MoveNext End Sub Private Sub Form_Load() End Sub Tag Info Form: Private Sub Form_Load() tagid = “101” num = CDbl(tagid) Adodc1. CommandType = adCmdText Adodc1. RecordSource = “select * from product where TagId= ” & num & ” ” Adodc1. Refresh Text2. Text = Adodc1. Recordset. Fields(“ProductName”) Text3. Text = Adodc1. Recordset. Fields(“Company”) Text4. Text = Adodc1. Recordset. Fields(“Description”) End Sub CHAPTER 7
RESULT AND DISCUSSION RESULT AND DISCUSSION 7. 1 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Login Form: Master Form: Mobile Details Form: Tag Details Form: Tag Info Form: CHAPTER 8 TESTING TESTING 8. 1 WHITE BOX TESTING: In white box testing we make sure that the system that we built is being fully exercised thus ensuring that it is performing the functions for which it has been programmed. In our system we have interfaced various methods and we have to make sure that this interface is visible to the user. Here our main and sole aim is to exercise all the technical capabilities of the system that we have built. 8. 2 BLACK BOX TESTING:
In black box testing we test the system at random for some random functionalities and depending on the output that we get we come to the conclusion that whether the system we have built is right or wrong. 8. 3 TEST PLAN Component Testing Transistors can be tested for basic functionality with a multimeter. If you use an analogue meter, be aware that when on the ohms range, the red probe is negative. Digital meters retain the “correct” polarity. A BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) can be thought of in terms of two diodes, as shown in Fig. . As with any diode, they should conduct in one direction, but not in the other.
All BJTs may be tested this way, revealing open circuit, leaky or shorted junctions. The test tells you nothing about gain, voltage breakdown, or anything else, only that the device is likely to be functional. Fig. 8. 3 Basic Transistor Test Model Transistor Quick Check Check in both directions with your multimeter between the base and emitter/collector of each power and driver transistor. An NPN transistor will show a “resistance” of 600-700mV (shown as ohms, but is actually voltage with 99% of digital meters) with the positive (red) lead of a digital meter connected to the base, and the black lead on emitter and collector.
Reverse red and black and measure again – in some cases, one connection may still show 600-700mV because of a connected power or driver transistor – this is normal. By using this method, the proper conduction of each diode can be checked – as with any diode, the forward voltage drop is around 650mV (which as explained above shows on most digital multimeters as 0. 65k ohms), and the reverse bias condition should show infinity(keep your fingers away though). In-circuit tests can also be done like this, but the results may be misleading because of other devices in the circuit.
In case you were wondering (and you are by no means the first to do so), you cannot use two ordinary diodes wired as shown as a transistor. Transistor operation relies on the junction between the “diodes” (hence bipolar junction transistor) . Other Components Testing Resistors should read their correct value, but again, in-circuit tests can be misleading. All diodes should show proper conduction and blocking as the probes are switched from one end to another. This is not a useful test for LEDs or zener diodes, but at least you will know if it is open or short circuit.
Capacitors really need a capacitance meter (as well as an ESR [Equivalent Series Resistance] meter) to test properly, but you can still get a fair idea with a multimeter. Shorts are uncommon in film caps, but can occur, although in most projects this is highly unlikely. Electrolytics should show a low resistance at first, which will rise as the cap charges. Reverse the leads and make sure that the cap discharges (expect to see silly resistance values at first), and charges up again. Low voltage reverse polarity will not harm electros.
Most other components (transformers, connectors, wiring) needs only to be checked for continuity, and that all wiring is connected to the proper place . CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK CONCLUSION Basically, the RFID reader is functioning as a base station and connected to the server via serial communication port. Meanwhile, the program is able to collect data from the reader and perform analysis. Our Topic has shown that with the proper implementation of such RFID and GSM technologies, the laptop security is being benefited in long runs.
The consumers need not worry about their laptop at any time and anywhere. Besides, this idea also can implement to other valuable belongings such as laboratory equipment’s. What they need to do is just simply attached to the RFID tag to their belongings and run the security program. FUTURE WORK As our project is using RFID to track any tags going out of the range of the reader to signal that, theft has taken place. We can further enhance the system by using passive tags an d use the reader to track even small products.
The software can be further modified to track location of the tags by using complex infrastructure of multiple readers and multiple reference tags. REFERENCES  A. B. Author, Title of Book, APMTTEMC Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2005. http://ieeexplore. ieee. org/Xplore/login. jsp? url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore. ieee. org%2Fiel5%2F30%2F4560070%2F04560131. pdf%3Farnumber%3D4560131&authDecision=-203 http://ieeexplore. ieee. org/Xplore/login. jsp? url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore. ieee. org%2Fiel5%2F4273787%2F4273788%2F04273824. pdf%3Farnumber%3D4273824&authDecision=-203 4]http://ieeexplore. ieee. org/Xplore/login. jsp? url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore. ieee. org%2Fiel5%2F5546326%2F5551331%2F05551845. pdf%3Farnumber%3D5551845&authDecision=-203  Ryder, Laptop Security, Part One: Preventing LaptopTheft, http://www. securityfocus. com/infocus/1186. July 2001.  C. D. M. Cordeiro, S. Abhyankar, R. Toshiwal and D. P. Agrawal, “A Novel Architecture & Coexistence Method to Provide Global Access to/from Bluetooth WPANs by IEEE802. 11 WLANs,” Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE International Performance, Computing, and