Reviewing The American Play Writer Tennessee Williams English Literature Essay

Tennessee Williams ( 1911- 1983 ) was one of those American drama writes whose dramas enjoyed great modern-day success and even to this twenty-four hours they are continued to be performed in different large theatre companies. Because of Williams ‘s interesting personal life, his being a homosexual and a Southerner, his dramas are largely read harmonizing to its biographical nature. It is true that the psychological province of his head has played a great function in making his life-like characters who are largely castawaies like himself, unable to get by with their societal environment, though it is non all. Williams was non merely interested in issues such as gender anxiousness, subjugation, battle for laterality and regional differences under the influence of his personal life, but he was besides concerned with the societal and political discourses of his clip and dealt with the same issues within a larger historical context. Like many other station war authors, doubtless, Williams was influenced by the destructive effects of the Second World War.

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Opening in 1947, two old ages after the Second World War, A Streetcar Named Desire appears to be different from earlier dramas written by Tennessee Williams. Without a uncertainty Williams like many other Americans during the 1940s and 50s was affected by the wake of the atomic warfare. Critics consensually believe that August 6, 1945 Markss one of the greatest turning points in human history. The atomic bomb non merely destroyed the whole metropolis of Hiroshima, but besides it changed for good the whole universe and created a dreadful atmosphere which affected human positions on the significance of life. Americans, who were populating about out of the conflict field and its direct devastations, learned from the studies in media how atomic bombs could destruct an full metropolis in the wink of an oculus. The memory of the bomb which killed soldiers and civilians likewise including adult females and kids, and the fright that such destruction could go on once more even to the Americans themselves, pervaded the postwar old ages.

It was during these old ages when Williams wrote A Streetcar Named Desire and unimpeachably in this drama he was stand foring his reaction to the war and to the political relations and civilization of his clip. He shows his anxiousnesss and his negative feelings towards the universe around him in the scene of the scene in which Blanch enters the New Orleans. He quotes from Hart Crane ‘s “ The Broken Tower ” : “ And so it was I entered the broken universe to follow the airy company of love, its voice an blink of an eye in the air current ( I know non whither hurled ) but non for long to keep each despairing pick ” ( Streetcar, 239 ) . This paragraph is largely read as a mirror to Blanche ‘s head and her stormy feeling upon coming to the Elysian Field. It has encouraged psychological and symbolic reading of the text like The Broken World of Tennessee Williams ( 1965 ) by Ester Merle Jackson. Fling from her “ tattered existence ” ( Jackson, 1965 ) Blanch looks for salvation and a oasis, though the universe she comes to is shattered and broken every bit good. Jackson claims that signifier in Williams ‘s play is “ the imitation of the single hunt for a manner of delivering a tattered existence ” ( 27 ) . This broken and tattered existence is Williams ‘s universe excessively, it is his ain clip period after the terminal of Second World War when the universe due to the technological promotions is shrunk and there is no safety or a sense of stableness and certainty as a consequence of the atomic bomb.

To demo that the universe had laid tonss of force per unit area on people in a manner that every one is discerning about the political personal businesss and anticipates the Third World War, Williams uses the impressionistic plastic theatrical production provided by the transparent walls which allows the invasion of the sight and sounds of the metropolis. This sort of presenting conveys a sense of entrapment and inability to get away from the wake of the war and its destructive effects. While at place, the sounds enter the room and the spectator/ reader can experience the beat of the metropolis through the “ Blue Piano ” of which Williams in his phase way says: “ you are practically ever merely around the corner, or a few doors down the street, from a tinny piano being played by brown fingers ” ( Streetcar, 243 ) .

Descending from a drive on “ a street-car named Desire and so reassign [ pealing ] to one called Cemeteries ” ( Streetcar, 246 ) , she enters a scene which Williams describes as an “ ambiance of decay ” ( Streetcar, 243 ) . Located between L & A ; N railway paths and the “ brown river ” lined with warehouses which emit “ weak bouquets of bananas and java ” , the Kowalski place stands little and inexpensive in thick of Vieux Carre. Even when the doors are closed, the sound and odors of the close lower- category metropolis fall in them in the air. The music of “ Blue Piano ” and the blare of the trains down the railway paths penetrate each scene. Blanche ‘s reaction to her sister ‘s life conditions is as follows: “ Never, ne’er in my worst dreams could I visualize – – merely Poe! Merely Mr. Edgar Allen Poe! – – could make it justice! Out at that place I suppose is the ghoul- obsessed forest of weir! ” ( Streetcar, 252 ) . This word picture of the new universe contrasts with the Belle Reve which now belongs to the history. Belle Reve intending beautiful dream may non be precisely what Blanch has described but at least at that place, Blanche had the ability to make that semblance. In this new environment, Blanch can non execute the thaumaturgy she has spent her whole life making. She attempts to convey a small of that appeal to the flat by covering bare bulbs with paper lanterns and spraying her aroma throughout the house but all to no help. In this universe there is no possibility for an Edenic flight like Blanche ‘s metaphoric Elysian Field significance Eden, the unbelievable power of bomb increases the human capacity to destruct. Just as the sights, sounds and odors of the metropolis permeate the Kowalski ‘s place, the wake of the postwar is ineluctable.

War had a great influence on the households in general and on the relationships between hubby and married woman in peculiar. As Elaine Tyler May ( 2003 ) in her article describes, World War II opened up great chances for adult females because so many work forces joined the armed services and went abroad, go forthing unfastened many occupations that had been antecedently closed to adult females. It had been long false adult females could non make those occupations — technology, other professions in the scientific disciplines, fabricating occupations that had been considered work forces ‘s work, things adult females were believed to be excessively weak to make. Women entered these occupations, excelled, and enjoyed them for the most portion. Women made aeroplanes and war vessels, weaponries and armored combat vehicles, working in proficient and scientific Fieldss for the first clip. They enjoyed the work, the good wage, the chances for promotion, and the exhilaration of working with other adult females and work forces on of import occupations that needed to be done for the war. Most wanted to go on working after the war ended. But, of class, 1000000s of work forces came back from functioning in the military and there was a widespread fright that there would be another depression one time the war ends. Womans were asked to go forth their occupations so the returning veterans could be re-employed. Though many left their occupations or became employed as secretaries, waitresses, or in other clerical occupations their position to their functions at place and society changed. They no longer could bask their traditional lives and play a function of a nurturing female parent whose occupation is merely at place without an of import societal duty. Therefore, work forces coming place in hunt of a safe oasis became defeated with the new state of affairs.

War besides changed the position to the ideal patriarchal system. After the war, fables of Patriarchy lost their authority. Those mighty states, about all male centered, who were proud of their high civilization and considered themselves as cradle of civilisation, started a war and proved their lacks ; the universe ruled by work forces fell apart. In Streetcar, Belle Reve is representative of the failed patriarchal system. Belle Reve has been “ lost ” to what Blanche euphemizes as her male relations ‘ “ epic fornications ” ( Streetcar, 248 ) . The patriarchs of Belle Reve have let the household down. Surprisingly the old ages after the World Wars were extremely patriarchal. Returning veterans found post war America less hospitable than war clip America, they faced a state of affairs where adult females claimed more power and wanted to maintain their places which they held during the war. In response to the frights that adult females posed to work forces ‘s manhood, work forces turned to functions designed to reconstruct the strength of maleness. Chauncey ( cited in Long, 1996 ) wrote that the ‘strenuous life of maleness ‘ , unsmooth athletics, prizefighting, and hunting was reactionist activities to which work forces hold to protect their manfulness and therefore gladiators, cowpunchers, soldiers and crewmans became popular heroes. Thus images of work forces as powerful, suppressing and winning in the Second World War were popularized in war movies of the fortiess.

Martin Fradley ( 2006 ) in his article “ Hollywood Genres and Postwar America: Maleness, Family and Nation in Popular Movies and Film Noir ” reviews two books which examines the relationship between the historical anxiousness of American maleness and the USA ‘s planetary movie industry. He believes that the American maleness has someway been in disruptive provinces of ‘crisis ‘ since the terminal of World War II and has been a prevailing discourse in popular and critical circles. Mentioning Susan Faludi, Fradley writes: “ in the station war narrative ” the implicit in job of maleness is “ the disabling misrecognition of the male officeholders of the American century ” . The soldiers who return place to a civilian life after the war find no appropriate topographic point to exert their bodily power and wartime strength ; hence, their animalism becomes debatable and really likely it would by displaced into inappropriate societal or domestic force.

Another critic concerned with the issues of maleness after the World Wars, is E. Wennerberg ( 2003 ) who in “ Masculinity in Film ” explores maleness in the films directed by Hitchcock. He believes that the Post-war crisis in maleness became a cardinal subject in Hitchcock ‘s movies in the 1950s.A In his films Hitchcock efficaciously remarks on the negative facets of modern society and manhood while still keeping the regard of the audience.A With the aid of histrions like Cary Grant and Jimmy Stewart who were held in such high regard by the American audience, and were considered as an icon for American manhood, he revealed the less coveted facets of man.A Wennerberg believes these facets include the presence of a egotistic maleness in American society, every bit good as the crisis of maleness that became evident after World War II. Narcissistic maleness is described by Wennerberg as the “ indurate, lonely and figuratively violent behaviour that is sponsored by the Americans ” . Besides egotistic maleness, he believes the shame or guilt generated by World War II and the fright of adult females and of sexA could be possible grounds for the crisis in masculinity.A Harmonizing to Amy Lawrence ( Cited in Wennerberg, 2003 ) it is a guilt that is produced by the “ trouble of separating between ‘moral ‘ and ‘immoral ‘ Acts of the Apostless of slaying ” .

A

As a whole, sing different remarks, the station war civilization in America suffers from a terrible crisis in maleness. Williams is the review of the same society and the households in his dramas are mirrors reflecting the tensenesss and anxiousnesss predominating in the American society during the 1950s. In fact, he transfers the modern-day issues into the familial relationships and his households are the microcosm of the same patriarchal society. In Streetcar, male characters are true images of the postwar maleness. His animalism, force and his efforts to rule the female characters of the drama are portion of the larger cultural postwar maleness which derives from the hyper- maleness of the society. Stanley, the displaced warrior, has no topographic point in which to utilize or to vent his hyper-masculine physical power which was necessary and glorified in wartime.

Streetcar is non really consecutive forward in its unfavorable judgment therefore different readers/ witnesss with different cultural background or cognition about the societal and political facets of the station war society may happen it hard to make up one’s mind which character in the drama deserves their understanding. John S. Bak ( 2004 ) after analysing many different types of unfavorable judgment on A Streetcar in his article “ Criticism on A Streetcar Named Desire: A Bibliographic Survey, 1947-2003 “ concludes that this drama is equivocal and it remains a conundrum because there is no consensus among the critics as to whether this drama is about Blanche ‘s calamity or it is Stanley ‘s narrative. Some critics sympathize with Stanley like Elia Kazan, Streetcar ‘s first, and arguably most influential, manager. Although he identifies with Blanche ‘s predicament, his support is with Stanley. He concludes that Stanley ‘s “ spinal column ” is to maintain things his manner that he must contend the destructive invasions of Blanche who “ would bust up his place ”

Blanche is unsafe. She is destructive. She would shortly hold him and Stella combat. He ‘s got things the manner he wants them around at that place and he does non desire them upset by a hypocrite, corrupt, ill, destructive adult female. This makes Stanley right! Are we traveling into the epoch of Stanley? He may be practical and right. [ aˆ¦ ] but what the snake pit does it go forth us? ( Cited in Bak, 2004, 6 )

Kazan ‘s way to a great extent favored doing Stanley the victim of Blanche ‘s onslaughts on his name, his heritage, his maleness, and eventually his household. On the contrary, Harold Clurman the following manager of the route version of the drama made the sympathy displacement to Blanche and she became the victim of Stanley ‘s inhuman treatment and force. All in all, historical groundss and besides the drama itself seem to back up the latter thought more powerfully. The manner the Kowalski ‘s place is depicted reveals that it is Stanley ‘s universe and Blanche is a alien who threatens the authorization of the house. The ambiance of the level provides merely what Stanley needs: the kitchen, where Stella prepares his nutrient and the sleeping room where she satisfies his desire. Unable to suit in this universe, Blanche spends much of her clip in the bathroom, the lone topographic point which has a door. Here Blanche flights from Stanley ‘s universe in an effort to conceal herself from rough world of her new milieus.

When it is said this is Stanley ‘s universe, or work forces ‘s universe, it dose non intend that the reader/spectator must sympathise with him. Supporting this thought, Terese D. Henry ( 1998 ) concludes in his thesis that though Williams at the surface degree seems to reenforce established societal codifications such as patriarchate and heterosexualism by stand foring a strong sexual male and a frail, pure adult female as the ideal image of their sex, deep down Williams inquiries these systems and because he knew society was non ready for crisp resistance, he did it inconspicuously.

Though Williams ne’er decided to compose a women’s rightist drama harmonizing to Georges Claude Guilbert ( 2004 ) , Streetcar can be read as one. In fact one of its cardinal preoccupations is gender and the rigidness of the gender functions society enforces. Guilbert believes that in a patriarchal society, adult females ‘s organic structures are colonized by work forces and sexual minorities are crushed, sexual minorities and adult females are every bit victimized, to assorted grades. David Savran ( Cited in Guilbert, 2004 ) writes: “ Williams ‘s destabilization of mid-century impressions of maleness and muliebrity is accomplished, in portion, by his ability both to expose the frequently homicidal force that accompanies the exercising of male authorization and to valorize female power and female sexual desire ” ( 90 ) . Guilbert besides refers to Blanche ‘s lunacy at the terminal of the drama as something in which Blanche takes safety in and as a reaction to the oppressive patriarchal society. Anca Vlasopolos ( Cited in S. Bak, 2004 ) besides argues that Blanche ‘s victimization has “ less to make with the history of the South as we now have it than with gender determined exclusion from the larger historical discourse ” ( 11 ) .

To knock the patriarchal society, Williams characterized Stanley in a manner which was relevant to the postwar images of work forces. In stage way he goes:

He is of medium tallness, about five pess eight or nine, and strongly, compactly built. Animal joy in his being is implicit in all his motions and attitudes. Since earliest manhood the centre of his life has been pleasure with adult females, the giving and taking of it, non with weak indulgence, dependently, but with the power and pride of a richly feathered male bird among biddies. Ramifying out from this complete and hearty centre are all the subsidiary channels of his life, such as his vigor with work forces, his grasp of unsmooth wit, his love of good drink and nutrient and games, his auto, his wireless, everything that is his, that bears his emblem of the gaudy seed-bearer. ( Streetcar, 128, my italics )

Similarly, for the managers in different productions of the drama, what has been really of import was the 1 who played Stanley ‘s function, his organic structure was every bit of import as his words and actions. They found out that any figure of actresses can play Blanche but happening a convincing Stanley was highly hard. Ray Schultz ( 2005 ) in his reappraisal of the drama directed by Garry Hynes in 2004 proposes that the character of Stanley should supply “ sufficient danger to proceedings and exhibit an external menace to Blanch. His maleness, his physical stature and sexual personal appeal are necessary to bring forth the “ barbarous desire ” that both attracts and repels Streetcar ‘s adult females ” ( 123 ) . Stanley ‘s character reflects an environment based on outlooks of postwar maleness. This maleness stems from alterations which began at the bend of the century when as George Chauncey writes, “ work forces ‘s anxiousnesss about their manfulness intensified, a preoccupation with menaces to manhood and with turn outing one ‘s manhood became cardinal to the rhetoric of national intent ” ( Cited in Long, 1996, 107 ) . Stanley seldom negotiations, he “ shouts, ” “ bellows, ” “ roars, ” or “ bellows. ” He seldom gives, puts, takes or draws, he “ throws, ” “ broken winds, ” “ dorks, ” “ boots, ” “ sweeps, ” or “ shoves. ” All those verbs in the phase waies are at that place to take a firm stand on male force. Yet, it is really of import to hold on a point which is Stanley ‘s maleness and ferociousness is attractive to Stella. Like many muscular, good looking returning soldiers, Stanley was really attractive to the immature misss like Stella.

Streetcar is really a battleground in which Stanley, representative of the masculine society, at the terminal of the drama wins over the adult females who are shown defeated and oppressed ; nevertheless, the drama besides shows adult females ‘s efforts to overthrow the state of affairs and besides their battles to rule the male 1s. Through their duologues, physical and emotional actions, each attempts to get the better of his/her competition and have the upper manus. When the drama opens, Blanche seems despairing and powerless. She is without a hubby, a occupation, or money. She is after happening some sense of security by coming for aid to Stella with the hope of recovering some stableness in the hereafter. Stanley senses Blanche as potentially destructive and feels her presence as a menace to his household and his satisfactory relationship with Stella. He fears that she will act upon Stella to abdicate her present pleasance with him and travel back to her old system of values. Bing a shrewd animate being as Blanche believes him to be, from the beginning he is watchful and takes a defensive place which subsequently in the drama shifts it to an invading position. From the beginning Stanley who believes that Blanche has cheated on Stella, takes the place of the more powerful and asks inquiries. He demands information about the temperament of Belle Reve. However, similar to his relationship with Stella, to procure his power and stabilise their relationship in a manner that allows him a greater part of power, whenever he can non maintain up with the antagonist by utilizing linguistic communication, he resorts to force and his physical strength. When he sees that by linguistic communication he can non acquire the needful information he turns to utilize force. “ Where ‘s the documents? In the bole? . . . [ Stanley crosses to the bole, shoves it approximately unfastened and begins to open compartments. ] ” ( Streetcar, 41 ) Then with inhuman treatment he “ bits ” the love letters written by her dead hubby.

To stand up against Stanley ‘s ferociousness, Blanche avoids direct confrontation which makes her less powerful, alternatively she attempts to win Stanley by utilizing her feminine trickeries. She flirts with him by utilizing flattery: “ You ‘re simple, straightforward and honest, . . . That is why, when you walked in here last dark, I said to myself-‘my sister has married a adult male! ” But Stanley will non be fooled with flattery: “ Now let ‘s cut out the re- Federal Bureau of Prisons! ” ( Streetcar, 40 ) she subsequently on acknowledges that a power battle has been happening between them: “ I hurt him the manner that you would wish to ache me, but you ca n’t! I ‘m non immature and vulnerable anymore ” ( Streetcar, 42 ) . Though she knows she is less powerful and the lone manner she can utilize is her appeal, she refuses to accept licking.

She considers herself to be above him in engendering and in instruction. Her addresss are aureate and full of polysyllabic words of Latin beginning: “ retreated ” , “ endow ” . Her forms are complex and formal which reflects her high instruction and her occupation as an English instructor. To the contrary, Stanley ‘s addresss are simple, short and direct. To overmaster Stanley, Blanche celebrates her ain household beginning and debases him by mentioning to him as other. She compares him with the work forces she and Stella went out with at place and finds him wholly different from the gentlemen of the Belle Reve. To rule him she ascribes to Stanley, a white character, the characteristics which are chiefly attributed to the inkinesss in a racialized society. Gorge W. Crandell ( 1997 ) points to these features as being: “ ( a ) great physical size or strength ; ( B ) inability to pass on ; ( degree Celsius ) deficiency of intelligence ; ( vitamin D ) unmanageable desire ; and ( vitamin E ) potent gender ” ( 339 ) . Stanley Kowalski is of Polish descent and in American civilization of that clip it was no much difference between cultural and racial groups, both were considered inferior to the white Americans. Along with the mentioned features is comparing inkinesss to animate beings. Blanche following the fire hook dark calls Stanley an animate being and goes: “ He acts like an animate being, has an animate being ‘s wonts! Chows like one, moves like one, talks like one! There ‘s even something – subhuman- non rather to the phase of humanity yet! Yes, something ape like about him ” ( Streetcar, 323 ) . In an effort to withstand their abuses Stanley places himself as an American who is proud of his heritage, and he does non desire to be categorized in a negative manner in respect to his state of beginning.

Despite all the attempts she makes to overmaster Stanley she fails. Blanche and the things which symbolize her, are empty things: her name, her costumes, her paper lanterns and her aroma bottles. Towards the terminal of the drama, Blanche has used up all her fast ones of semblance and her emptiness is exposed. By happening out about her promiscuous life at Laurel, Stanley about wins Blanche but the last blow which led her off to an insane refuge was the colza scene. Rape, like other sexual torments is non about sex and enjoyment but it is really approximately power. The colza scene is the apogee of the long ill will ; it is the ultimate force toward a adult female. Paul Herbig in his article “ The Impact of Culture on Women in the Workforce in the USA, Mexico, and Japan ” believes many work forces, particularly in more masculine civilizations do non see sexual torment as inappropriate behaviour. Many adult females, nevertheless, do. “ Almost all adult females understand the definition of sexual torment as maltreatment of power. Many work forces use it as a tool to exert power or to take away a adult female ‘s power, to set her in her topographic point ” . Through colza, Stanley overpowers Blanche and seals his masculine, sexual Markss on her which in its nature contains the power of the modern-day masculine and mechanical, atomic age. The music which is heard in this scene besides provokes the same temper. The “ Blue Piano ” which was foremost associated with Southern Blacks, subsequently developed into the music of New Orleans ‘s bars and dark nines. It suggests unrestrained physical pleasance, carnal strength and verve and appears at important emotional minutes in the drama.

The colza scene dramas so of import a function that Williams and Kazan did non hold with its riddance in the movie version to fulfill the demands of the Breen Office. In an effort to maintain the colza scene, Williams wrote the undermentioned sentences: “ The colza of Blanch by Stanley is a polar, built-in truth in the drama, without which the drama loses its significance, which is the entrancement of the stamp, the sensitive, the delicate, by the barbarian and barbarous forces of modern society ” ( cited in Long, 1996, 154 ) . As Williams believes this scene contains “ really of import truths about the universe we live in ” . Lisa S. Long ( 1996 ) believes: “ Important truths of modern society in Streetcar include the horrors of Hitler ‘s colza of Poland and the cataclysmal misdemeanor of Japan every bit good as the silencing of those who were victimized by such horrors ” ( 154 ) .

Not merely Stanley but besides Mitch, the lone staying hope for Blanche ‘s recovery, turned out to be barbarous and representative of the victimising patriarchal society. Mitch is tolerant at first of Blanche ‘s unusual behaviour, he agrees to see her merely in hapless lighting ; he “ respects ” her and is contented to hold small fondness before matrimony but when Stanley tells him about her yesteryear, he rejects her. In Scene Nine he “ tears the paper lantern off the light bulb, ” so he “ turns the visible radiation on and stares at her ” ( Streetcar, 203-204 ) . Having therefore exposed Blanche, he accuses her: “ Oh, I knew you were n’t 16 any more. But I was a fool plenty to believe you was straight ” ( Streetcar, 204 ) . At the terminal of the scene he “ places his custodies on her waist and attempts to turn her about ” [ Streetcar, 206 ] :

Blanche: What do you desire?

Mitch [ groping to encompass her ] : What I been losing all summer.

Blanche: Then get married me, Mitch!

Mitch: I do n’t believe I want to get married you any more.

Blanche: No?

Mitch [ dropping his custodies from her waist ] : You ‘re non clean plenty to convey in the house with my female parent. ( Streetcar 207 )

The last scintilla of hope disappears, as Mitch becomes like Stanley and loses his grammar, and turns out to be a butch hog excessively, every bit good as a possible raper.

Still, there is another point to be mentioned about the effects of war on the relationship between work forces with themselves and as a effect on their relationship with adult females. Stanley ‘s brothers, Harold Mitchell, Steve Hubbel, and Pablo Gonzales, like himself are portion of a hyper- masculine order which develops from the bequest of World War II. Stanely and Mitch were “ together in the Two-forty-first ” ( Streetcar, 349 ) as Mitch tells Blanche in scene six. Their chumminess as Army buddies gives them certain duty to one another. Their friendly relationship forces Stanely to protect his chap from gaining control by the enemy. In fact, war has made work forces swear each other more and enabled them to link with each other well and do strongly supported groups. This connexion is non seen in the relationship between adult females. Womans are non merely alienated from work forces but besides from each other. Even after the war, this strong bond between work forces was seen in their relationship which is apparent in the fire hook dark scene. Poker is a game which is typically played by work forces and affirms at the same time male bonding and female expatriate. Scene three opens with a description of milieus during a fire hook dark. The description of the fire hook dark instantly introduces it as an all cats dark. Stanley, Steve, Mitch and Pablo, all work forces are described as have oning shirts that have colourss that are “ powerful as the primary colourss ” . These solid colourss suggest they are strong, powerful work forces who are “ harsh ” and “ direct ” . The difficult, strong intoxicant of whiskey on the tabular array besides implies maleness. If it was wine it would be excessively elegant for the juncture and vino is by and large seen in romantic state of affairss with adult females. Even after his battle with Stella and assailing her, his brothers took side with him, calmed him down and supported him emotionally.

To set it in a nutshell, Blanche as a delicate feminine animal representative of the old America is non able to populate up to the inhuman treatment and saltiness of the station universe war masculine America. In this manner, Williams criticizes his modern-day society for being so rough and stiff sing issues such as gender and homosexualism which victimizes the minorities.

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