Reversal Of Knowledge And Power Cultural Studies Essay

Oriental studies constitutes a system of evident cognition about the Orient in which the “ other ” is ne’er allowed or invited to talk therefore estranging him of this true power and cognition. The indispensable intent of Orientalism was that they Westerners defined themselves in grounds to the opposing qualities which they found in the Easterners. Consequently, they characterized them of unreason and incivility which automatically reinforced their domination as being rational and sophisticated. It is really the “ position of all signifiers of idea and representation for covering with the foreigner ” ( 1988, Pp. 261 ) which needs to be interrogated and restructured.

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Mary Douglas ( 1972, Pp. 12 ) claims that India is a “ mirror image ” of Europe and therefore a wholly opposite universe to the West so that Liz, bridges the spread between her innate western civilizations in order to plunge in the oriental civilizations. The impressions of ego find and self fulfillment that directs her pursuit may be credited to the fact the Orient is extremely romanticized. Clark ( 1997, Pp. 54- 55 ) enunciates that the metaphysical pursuit derives from the desire for merger with faith and nature. However the contention that the Orient is “ weaker that the West which elide ( s ) the Orient ‘s difference with its failing ” ( 1978, Pp. 204 ) demands to be examined. Subsequently Liz ‘s flight and yearning for reclamation history for the question of the domination of the West. Liz ‘s word picture to achieve self satisfaction, regard and assurance is evidenced through the journey in India and Bali and through which, the movie explores the contrasting yet mutualist between Eastern and Western relationships.

The fact that Liz affirms that she has “ lost ” “ everything ” and her “ topographic point ” immediately contradicts the western word picture as a individual being “ rational, mature, normal ” ( 1978, Pp. 40 ) . The spectator is challenged by the improbable state of affairs in which the powerful West, here exemplified by Liz is “ weak, perverse and different ” ( 1978, Pp. 40 ) , qualities by and large related with easterners. In this sense, the movie is thought provocating for the spectator as it directs one to the estranging of power kineticss. Puting both the Guru Gita every bit good as Ketut, the medical specialty adult male in the place of ushers and therapists for Liz suggest that the West suggest that the power and kineticss are non incontestable and pre eminent. The powerful public presentation of the Easterners through their airing of cognition to Liz to reconstruct herself non merely leads to the reversal of power kineticss but besides intimations at the change in the homogenous building between the East and West. Likewise this state of affairs reflects that Liz ‘s individuality as a Westerner is seized by the eastern power over her spirit. Harmonizing to Focault ( 1972, Pp. 101 ) power is “ multiple and nomadic field of force dealingss ” , “ ne’er wholly satble ” so that the counter hegemony of Western power becomes believable. He every bit states ( the order of things p 326 ) that the other, exemplified by the medical specialty adult male or the Guru Gita, is representative of an “ indistinguishable newness ” “ indispensable to [ her ] ” as Liz “ emerges in the field of cognition ” . In an effort to oppose hegemonic discourse, Spivak advocates manners of “ dialogue ” and “ review ” which “ unsettle the dominant from within ” . ( 1997, Pp. 85 ) The signifier of reversal of cognition and power symbolizes the negociation and appropriation of “ persistently transforming conditions of impossibleness to possibility ” ( 1986: 201 ) .

Merely like Xena, in Xena The Warrior Princess makes usage of Laoma ‘s powers to face and overmaster the Green Dragon, so does Liz combines western civility every bit good as eastern civility and she therefore finds the “ perfect balance ” . The cognition of self avowal and look that she acquires puts into inquiry the impression of civility as a human being so far. This analysis supplements Adorno ‘s contention that the “ neuroticism ” that defines the “ native source ” should be altered into the beginning of “ mending force, that of cognition ” ( 1967, Pp. 252 ) . In this position, Spivak ( 2003, Pp.15 ) vindicates that interaction with the other outputs to an openness with the latter, enabling him to redefine himself as a topic of development. The re-appropriatiation of cognition and power kineticss may be interpreted as a response to “ an accrued record of misunderstandings in the narrowly realist sense ” in Ahmad ‘s position ( 1992, Pp. 185- 186 ) .

Chapter 2:

The meeting of civilizations

Pulling from the impression of hegemonic civilization, Orientalism has helped to specify Europe as its “ contrastive image, thought, personality, experience ” ( 1979, Pp. 1-2 ) so that the West makes usage of the East to set up its significance every bit good as concept its civilization. However cultural hybridity is an influential agencies of visualizing an interconnected and united construction between Eastern and Western relationships such that an chance of rhenium finding the estranging procedures of pigeonholing the other becomes possible. In this chance, Ahmad articulates that “ boundary lines happen as an consequence on intensifications of feelingaˆ¦individual and corporate organic structures surface through the very orientations we take to objects and others ” ( 2004, Pp. 39 ) . Analyzed from a practical point of position, the movie Eat pray love ( 2010 ) significantly illustrates the deconstruction of boundaries through cultural hybridity in every facet.

The scenes in the movie contextualize the thought of interlacing civilizations from different states such as notably Italy, India and Bali. Liz crosses the span of western civilization in order to adopt the eastern civilization. Her ocean trip of self-discovery pushes her forward to the find of other civilizations and through her journey, she mends the connexion between the E and the West. As a consequence, the religious journey of Liz enables her to adopt different ‘food civilization ‘ , ‘dressing codification ‘ and besides ‘religious cults ‘ so that she is she is symbolical of the living illustration of the kernel of cultural hybridity.

Westerners and Easterners are mutualist in constructing a common civilization and Bhaba ‘s accent on impressions like “ diaspora, discplacement and resettlement ” ( 1994, Pp.247 ) , showcases the evolving and flexible of the nature of civilization and every bit provides a possibility through which the other can retrieve from this dominated place as the West will depend on the latter for common cultural building. Seen from this point of view, this theoretical model illustrates three overriding constituents in footings of the deconstruction of barriers, connexion between eastern and western buildings every bit good as the complementary paradigm of both civilizations.

At one point, in the movie, she besides pictures the scene of her nuptials with her American hubby but she was dressed in Indian manner. Such image casts the visible radiation on ‘cultural hybridity ‘ whereby two individuals are acquiring married with two different dressing codifications, one Western and the other strictly eastern. In the way of seeking religious enlightment, she lives in an Ashram with the Indians sharing the same civilization as them. Through the speculation session in the ashram, she learns to understand the ‘Guru Gita ‘ which was none of her spiritual wont. Besides, she besides builds friendship ties with the Indian miss Tulsi to whom she dedicates her ‘Guru Gita ‘ , the sacred book. In this sense Ahmed ( 1999 ) propose how intercrossed persons are able to unify in a shared harmoniousness.

It can be farther argued that, at the intersection of both cultural individualities both Eastern and Western lie the optimum of cultural hybridity. In fact, the optimum can be reached at the harmonious interaction of different civilizations which leave room for coexistence. Language interaction in the movie, is effectual in representing Fanon ‘s look that “ to talk aˆ¦means above all to presume a civilization, to back up the weight of a civilisation, ” ( 1967: 17-18 ) . This point can clearly be justified as in the movie, other Europeans in the Ashram usage Indian words such as “ seva ” and that Liz Teachs English, to her religious maestro Ketut. Thus, verbal communicating the linguistic communication of the coloniser does non certify for hegemonic discourse but alternatively vindicates willingness for active engagement in civilization. Besides, this acknowledgment and blessing of function shapes the significance of civilization as it is capable to transmutation. As such linguistic communication interaction represents the avowal of other voices that have been restricted from look so far. The cultural building is every bit dynamic so that it no more sees linguistic communication as a ownership of the coloniser due to its dependance on the function of the colonized every bit good to give it form. This statement purports that Said ‘s accent has remained on the misbehaviors of the Europeans instead than set uping the manner in which cultural interaction could finally take topographic point.

Chapter 3: Constructing a Cosmopolite Identity

The “ ontology of Occident and Orient which appearsaˆ¦.. throughout all cultural minutes ” may “ belie far more heterogenous conditions and operations ” . ( 1991, Pp.5-6 ) . This leads us opening the relationship between the Orient and them Occident, which, when analyzed from a cosmopolite point of view confirms that the hegemonic cultural building of Eastern and Western relationships may acquire “ constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed as people pursue their individualities ” ( 1994: 27 ) . In the same vena Handler ( 1994: 27 ) affirms that individuality has “ de facto go a globalised construct, omnipresent ” “ in the different corners of the universe ” . Therefore, the fact that Europeans define themselves as fixed, unfaltering, supremacist individuality compared to the Orientals loses land for cosmopolitanism implies a pluralistic attack where one individuality is non fixed and inactive but more planetary and fluid.

In fact, the movie deeply depicts this image of Liz interrupting all barriers or obstructions in order to make the concluding terminal of ultimate ego fulfilment which the western civilization could non procure. Brought up in the western civilization, she finds no felicity or complacency about her life and she eventually decides to go to Italy, India and Bali with the purpose of happening the losing parts in her inner ego. In this specific kingdom, the dichotomising relationship between coloniser and colonized has no raison d’etre as Liz embraces the political orientation of persons holding legion properties who co-exist with other persons of assorted civilizations with every bit opposing involvements and truenesss. Liz, accordingly is representative of those people of different roots populating up in topographic points where they forge new individualities. The pre established image about the Orientals as the “ other ” , exemplified by Ketut, Guru Gita every bit good as Tulsi, in the European head later leads to the contention to the equality and togetherness of all human existences every bit good as value for human self-respect.

This exchange and interaction between these two opposing poles interestingly form a complementary whole for both parties. This “ profusion ” which paves the manner to “ self creative activity ” ( 1998, **** ) , is evidenced through the engagement or partnership between the colonized and the coloniser as the effectivity of boundary line land besides emerges. This accounts for the aim to construct up the terrain to “ accomplish a globality beyond the colonial ” ( Dirlik, 2003 ) . As such, the chief characters in the movie are symbolical of go-betweens who come to footings with their colonial yesteryear in order to re organize as good re form a new hereafter, where the “ Other ” is valorised as an active and true topic and non insignificantly an object of history.

Liz is characterised as an “ antevesin ” which in the movie is explained to be “ the 1 who lives by the boundary line because they renounce to the comfort of household life in order to seek enlightenment ” . In this position, seeking ego development is so a procedure which takes times to gain. It is common that the procedure of ego development constitutes atoms of different civilizations. As such, Beck ( 2002, Pp. 35 ) refers to cosmopolitanism as an effort to cover with the “ clang of civilizations within one ‘s ain life ” . In contrast to the authorization of the hierarchal system of Orientalism ( 1978 ) , a discourse of cosmopolitanism recontextualises the stiff western individuality as one which is non “ unquestionable, remarkable and non negotiable given ” ( 1996, 297 ) . ( 0 neil ) From this point of view, Liz demonstrates that the individuality and self image of “ a western manner for ruling, restructuring, and holding authorization over the Orient. ” ( 1978, Pp.A 3 ) alters in both an evolving and fluid individuality in relation to the Easterners. Sing the oppressed, Spivak ( 1991, Pp.158 ) the whole point is to defy to imposed individualities and stable definitions that serve the Occidentals. As such when applied in a cosmolitan discourse to counter attack the hegemony of Orientalism, the topic no more finds its contemplation in the object but instead unites with his chap other in equality. As such the symbiotic interaction between westerners and easterners by and large made impossible by Said should be allowed to be nurtured.


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