Relationship Between Firms Capital Structures Liquidity And Performance Finance Essay

There are many surveies on the relationship between houses capital construction, liquidness and public presentation but this peculiar survey is about the oil gas sectors and selected industrial ( fabric ) houses registered in KSE 100 index ( Karachi stock exchange ) of Pakistan. Capital is really of import for every concern, to take a capital construction which will maximise the company ‘s net incomes at minimal cost, so choice of such capital construction is dilemma for the concerns all the clip. Liquidity is really of import to able a house to make its concern successfully, there must be balance in houses liquidity degree ; it should non travel through surplus or deficit in run intoing its short term duties. Profitableness of house is critical for long term growing, so these constituents of house ‘s fundss should be understood and house ‘s direction will merely be able to take of import determinations about house ‘s capital construction and its assets liquidness and public presentation when they have clear cognition of these relationships.

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Capital is lifeblood for every organisation and organisations ever strive for acquiring capital at lowest possible cost for maximising profitableness of houses. Companies do this besides to stay competitory in market.

Firms Capital construction is a mix of different securities issued by house for raising capital. Every house wants to maximise profitableness by taking degree of capital construction which generates maximal return for the house. This is most controversial subject in corporate finance and still no consensus is built on the capital construction degree which generates maximal gross for the house.

The thought of optimum capital construction is first explained by Miller and Modigliani survey ( Modigliani & A ; Miller, 1958 ) when they presented MM Proposition 1, in which they presented the thought that capital construction is irrelevant with the rating of the house in perfect market where no dealing fees, no revenue enhancements, free market with the big figure of purchasers and Sellerss. But this proposition merely keep under perfect market, when it comes to inefficient market this premise will non keep longer as there is no perfect market in universe.

In the existent universe ( Modigliani & A ; Miller, 1963 ) MM Proposition 2 provinces that fiscal hurt, bankruptcy costs and revenue enhancement shields nowadays, which leads to optimum capital construction and maximizes the value of the house. When the degree of debt is increased in capital construction of the house than the revenue enhancement shield increased, which is followed by the addition in profitableness of the house. However, as we add more debt cost of fiscal hurt is besides addition so the value of the house is maximized when the revenue enhancement shield compensates the addition in present value of cost of fiscal hurt.

By adding more debt to acquire maximal revenue enhancement shield as it is explained by adding more debt cost of fiscal hurt besides addition and another factor is the seashore of equity besides addition which is due to adding more debt the hazard for equity holders increase, an of import facet to this factor is debt holders have anterior claim to gain than equity holders.

So under inefficient market capital construction may hold impact on cost of capital which rise, as shown in a survey by ( Ben-Shahar, 1968 ) .

Liquid is the extent to which a company ‘s assets or securities can be easy converted into hard currency without losing excessively much value or at low cost. Liquidity is of import for the companies in such manner that it provides an chance to last in the period of low net incomes as on that clip external funding is non easy available or at higher cost.

It is good understood phenomena in finance is ; “ higher the hazard, higher will be the return ” to acquire higher net income investor should hold to bear higher returns these two factors are related, keeping an plus in liquid signifier besides have drawback that house often sacrifice an chance to put in undertaking which can give higher returns in interest of higher hazard.

When houses need fundss and in instance of external fundss which are merely available at higher cost than retain net incomes can function as liquid plus and house can bask it at lower cost which is chance cost of that fund, which house have in form of retain net incomes. So leverage and liquidness may hold positive or negative relationship which varies by different factors.

It can be presume that liquidness may hold relationship with houses capital construction which include different types of financess picks by houses which are normally debt funding, equity and preferable stocks, it can change from house to tauten depending upon its fiscal places and type of concern.

To mensurate the relationship, there are different ratios by which liquidness can be measured and same for capital construction. Profitability is another of import factor which is ever under great concern with the house ‘s operations.

In old surveies different steps have been taken to gauge the relationship, in this survey we will utilize long term debt ratio, short term debt ratio, entire debt ratio as placeholder for capital construction and current ratio, speedy ratio fir liquidness and for the houses public presentation gross net income ratio, return on equity ratio and net incomes per portion ratio.

Research inquiries:

“ Is at that place any relationship between house ‘s capital construction, liquidness and public presentation? ”

“ Does the house ‘s liquidness have negative relationship with house ‘s capital construction? ”

“ Does the house ‘s public presentation have positive relationship with house ‘s capital construction? ”


Null hypothesis Ho: “ there is positive relationship between house ‘s liquidness and capital construction and negative relationship between capital construction and public presentation of house. ”


H1: “ capital construction significantly impact on liquidness and profitableness of house. ”

H2: “ there is negative relationship between house ‘s liquidness and capital construction and positive relationship between house ‘s public presentation and capital construction ”


Research aim:

To gauge the relationship between capital construction, liquidness and house public presentation

To happen ways that can heighten public presentation of house

To what extent of liquidness that house should keep

To find determiners of capital construction.

To enable house ‘s directors to take appropriate determination in taking houses best capital construction in relation to house ‘s liquidness and profitableness.

6. Literature reappraisal:

To happen the relationship between house ‘s capital construction, profitableness and liquidness many surveies have significantly contributed, but this survey has its ain importance, as there is really small work or surveies have conducted in Pakistan. In old surveies on other states have some contradiction in their consequences, so a survey on developing state like Pakistan in this peculiar country of finance will hold its ain deduction?

A survey conducted by ( Anderson, 2002 ) on UK and Belgian listed non fiscal houses and collected informations from one-year studies for the period of 1989-2001 for UK houses and for Belgian houses informations of non fiscal houses for the period through 1986-1999 and there consequences were contradictory for both states which were: the relationship between long term purchase and liquid plus retention is positive and it is negative for short term purchase and liquid plus keeping for the UK houses and when they tested same variables for Belgian houses consequences were reverse in both instances of long term and short term purchase with liquid assets keeping.

So it means that different states show different behaviour for this relationship.

( Ortiz-Molina & A ; Phillips, 2010 ) in his survey has shown assets liquidity affects houses cost of capital in both the cross subdivision and clip series, they find the negative relationship between houses liquidness and cost capital, sample for the survey included 6260 houses and for the period of 1984-2006, as if houses hold liquid assets than in the period of low hard currency flows, liquidness will supply benefit by supplying discoveries but houses have to lose its long term investing chances.

A batch of work has been done on the relationship between houses cost of capital and capital construction, harmonizing to M & A ; M theory under efficient market when there is no revenue enhancements than cost of capital and capital construction is independent.

( Ben-Shahar, 1968 ) When capital construction is efficient than the cost of capital will constant but it rises when capital construction of house become inefficient. The relationship between cost of capital and assets liquidness is negative, so it is cleared that when houses operate in inefficient markets, there cost of capital addition and is positively related with capital construction, so capital construction is negatively related with houses liquidness.

( Amihud & A ; Mendelson, 2008 ) used NYSE and AMEX listed houses over the period of 1960-1980 to prove the relationship between liquidness and plus returns and happen positive relationship. In the deduction of capital construction and liquidness they established relationship as in inefficient market as if dealing and information cost addition, liquidness of houses stock is affected by the capital construction of steadfast peculiarly its equity cost of capital, if company ‘s debt to equity ratio addition than the hazard for equity holders increase therefore cost of capital addition.

A survey conducted by ( Lipson & A ; Mortal, 2007 ) on the relationship between liquidness and capital construction of house on the U.S companies data from 1986-2004 which raises outside capital, if the company keep more liquid stocks than it more likely prefer equity as comparison to debt, so it can presume that capital construction should hold relationship with houses liquidness.

In this survey writer finds out the impact of capital construction on profitableness of 272 houses listed in NYSE for the period of three old ages ( 2005-2007 ) .Authors selected two industries one is fabricating and service industry for comparing intents. After regressing dependent variable capital construction on independent variable corporate public presentation consequences shows positive relationship between Short-term debt to entire assets and profitableness of the house in the services industry and entire debt to entire assets and profitableness ( ROE ) of houses in the services industry. These consequences besides show positive relationship between short-run debt to entire assets and profitableness of houses, long-run debt term debt to entire assets and profitableness, entire debt to entire assets and profitableness in the fabrication industry ( Gill, Biger, & A ; Mathur, 2011 ) .

This paper surveies the relationship between capital construction and profitableness of houses runing in Tehran stock exchange ( TSE ) writers selected sample of 320 listed fabrication houses for the period of ( 2003-2009 ) .Results generated through regressing utilizing pooling methods ( fixed effects theoretical account, Hausman tests ) and F-tests. Consequences indicate profitableness, which is measured Tobin, s Q and EPS are positively related with the capital construction, on the other manner capital construction is negatively related with profitableness step ( ROA ) .Moreover consequences postulates undistinguished relationship between capital construction on profitableness step ( ROE ) ( Saeedi & A ; Mahmoodi, 2011 ) .

In this survey, writer examines the relationship between capital construction and fiscal public presentation by taking sample of 28 non fiscal houses from Palestine stock exchange ( PSE ) for the period of ( 2006-2010 ) .After regressing variables consequences shows that capital construction is positively related to marketing public presentation steps ( Tobin ‘s Q, EPS, MBVR ) and accounting steps ( ROA and ROE ) these are besides statistically important with TDTA except MBVR, which is important with TDTA every bit good as with SDTA so happening to propose the important impact of debt on houses profitableness ( Abu-Rub, 2012 ) .

Another analytical survey which shows the relationship between capital construction and fiscal public presentation of houses, Authors takes the sample of 30 houses from Colombo stock exchange for the period of ( 2005-2009 ) after correlativity analysis writer showed consequences that weak positive relationship exists between capital construction and Profitability step ( gross net income ) and negative relationship between capital construction and profitableness steps ( ROA and ROI ) besides overall consequences shows undistinguished negative association exists between capital construction and fiscal public presentation of houses ( Pratheepkanth, 2011 ) .

Another survey examines the consequence of capital construction on profitableness of houses by taking 50 non fiscal houses from the Nigeria stock exchange for the period of ( 1990-2004 ) .Authors used pool, random consequence and fixed theoretical account and shows consequences that profitableness is positively associated with short-run debt and equity and negatively correlated with long-run debt. Furthermore, consequences show negative relationship between entire debt to entire assets and profitableness of the house. These findings suggest that houses in Nigeria more dependent on external funding ( Salawu, 2009 ) .

In Another survey, writer takes the sample of 127 industries, and he takes 1143 observations collected from all fabrication houses excepting chemical industry for the period of ( 1990-2004 ) he examines steadfast public presentation with the hurt events in the industry so with simple and random effects theoretical account shows consequences that debt ratio is negatively associated with profitableness of house and house size is the steadfast size is positively related to industry adjusted profitableness. Furthermore, higher pre hurt profitableness seems to be more station hurt profitableness ( Ramachandran & A ; Nageswara Rao, 2010 ) .

In Another survey, writers proved the capital construction in Taiwan house ‘s writers examined the relationship between capital constructions on steadfast public presentation ; they take the sample of 37 non fiscal houses for the period of ( 1987-2007 ) by utilizing ROE as a placeholder for profitableness. They explains optimum capital construction in Taiwan shows the inclination that debt ratio of house ‘s moves toward the optimum capital construction twelvemonth by twelvemonth writer besides states that this motion towards the optimum capital construction is in line with the past historical behaviour which is consistent with trade off theory ( Chou & A ; Lee, 2010 ) .

Another paper besides surveies this relationship of corporate construction on fiscal public presentation of houses in the building sector of Malaysia with context to 2007 crisis.

Writers take the sample of 49 building companies listed in the chief board of Bursa Malaysia for the period of ( 2005-2008 ) .Authors divided houses harmonizing to size of houses with paid up capital. This survey shows beliing consequences. For large companies ( ROC ) return on capital with ( DEMV ) Debt equity market value and ( EPS ) with ( LDC ) long run debt capital shows positive relationship and on other custodies, it shows ( EPS ) with ( DC ) is negatively related and in medium houses merely ( OM ) runing border and ( LDE ) has positive relationship and ( EPS ) with ( DC ) shows negative relationship in little houses of building industry ( San & A ; Heng, 2011 ) .

Research Methodology:

This survey will carry on to prove the relationship between house ‘s capital construction, liquidness and public presentation of oil & A ; gas sector and selected industrial ( fabric ) houses registered in KSE 100 index ( Karachi stock exchange ) of Pakistan.

For this purpose secondary informations will be collected from the KSE functionary web site of listed companies and from the company ‘s ain web site for the period of 2006-2011.

To prove the relationship correlativity and arrested development analysis tools will be used. In this survey merely nonfinancial house ‘s will be selected because the difference of fiscal houses in the feature of capital construction and liquidness.


Control variables: house size, concern hazard

Capital structure=


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San, O. T. , & A ; Heng, T. B. ( 2011 ) . Capital Structure and Corporate Performance of Malayan Construction Sector. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1 ( 2 ) , 28-36.


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