What factor should be taken into account to determine the most appropriate recruitment and selection methods? Discuss how process of interviewing can be improved in organisation to strengthen the validity and reliability of the method. In the era of globalisation and fast changing business conditions, organisations are looking for effective management and employee recruitment and selection. The current situation demands a complete strategic approach to HRM. Therefore it is important to look at the traditional methods and modern approach in the recruitment and selection process.
Growing evidence suggests that employee selection and recruitment involves accuracy and predictability in order to achieve better talent management. While recruiting candidate’s organisation need to adapt right selection method to get right candidates for the right post. This warrants a thorough analysis of vacancies, job description, job analysis, accurate selection method, interviewing techniques to recruit right candidates. In the recruitment and selection and selection process interview method is considered to be the most popular method in ever changing times due its accuracy, reliability, validity and convenience.
While looking at the benefit and risks of interview method benefit outweigh the risks. A complete analysis of contemporary approach and modern approach in the recruitment and selection process would be an ideal approach. Recruitment and selection process are same process it can be consider separately. A system approach to recruitment and selection is base on the systems has inputs, processing unit and output. Here inputs are candidates, the processing unit consists of different method and output is effective candidates. The source of recruitment takes place within the labour market.
This includes a mass of available people who have the skills to fill open position. Sources of recruitment depend upon the availability of the right kind of people in the local labour market as well as on the nature of the position to be filled. An organisation ability to recruit employees often hinges as much on the organisation reputation and the attractiveness of its job offer (Pilbeam & Corbridge, 2006; 65). Human resources seek and demand for the personal qualities and skills among the personal candidates human resources plans in the organisation to select the people within the organisation.
HRP looks to attract people with right skills and experience. They are trained to adopt the change in environmental. The design of a job such as introducing more flexible working system. Flexible working system reduce costs, increased productivity and competitiveness, improved customer service, improve ability to recruit and staff improved motivation and commitment (Cornelius, 2007; 37). “Human resource planning is a process for identifying an organisation current and future human resource requirement, developing and implementing plans to meet these requirements and monitoring their overall effectiveness”.
The general process of the human resources planning is basis step to recruitment to avoid future problems, wastage and through planning training program to asses not only in the quantity also involved quality skills in the organisation. Human resource planning is a process with demand and supply and good plan lead to understand the future changes, demographic, social changes in the organisation human resource plans plays important role in the organisation (Beard well & Calydon, 2007; 153).
Human resources planning (Torrington et al 2002) is termed as “Man Power Planning”. Human resourcing planning is related to recruitment and selection and retaing of an employee. It is one of the most important function in organisation human resource department normally has primary responsibilities for recruitment and selection of qualified employee. The purpose of recruitment and selection process is to achieve goals by appointing right person at the right job. Armstrong (2005) says that traditional HRP to reflect aims more appropriate for contemporary circumstances.
Strategic planning requires to the social economic, political and technological how the organisation is processing. The internal circumstances are strength and weakness; external circumstances are threat and opportunities. Resourcing strategy is also value statement. The aim of the strategy achieve the goal in organisation (Beard well & Calydon, 2007; 173). Scenario planning is used to find the demand and forecast of the organisation. In the organisation HRP is responsible to senior management needs. The objectives of these units are to find demand for human resources in various departments.
Demand is estimated with quality and quantity of human resources need. In this several method of forecasting in regular uses like technical and non-technical methods we can analysis internal and external environment (Beardwell & Calydon, 2007; 174). Recruitment can be defined as the process of locating identifying and attractive prospective and capable employees to the organisation. Before the employees can be recruited the manager must have a clear idea about the activities and responsibility required in the job being filled.
Therefore job analysis is an early step in recruitment process the accuracy of the individual specification and of all the subsequent stages in selection will depend on the quality of the job analysis. A meeting between the person responsible for selection and the head of the people who will fit it and a time for selection based on the urgency with which the vacancy has be filled up (Braton & Gold, 2003; 231). Once the job description has been determined and accompanying hiring or person specification is developed.
Hiring or person specification defines as the education, experience skills that an individual should have in order to perform effectively in the position. The characteristics specified should be relevant only those which or failure in the job should be specified and independent. Any over lapping elements should be avoided and assessable. The attributes that can be assessed with the selection tools available should be included (Cornelius, 2007; 39). Job specification includes knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests, specific qualifications.
Job specification is main function in the management of employee at work. Analysis that during the selection process insufficient level of knowledge necessary for effective performance of the person (Weddle; 2008). The various selection techniques are carried in the selection process. For example Screening application forms are wealth of information and should be used wisely. It should be interpreted correctly. The primary objective would be to eliminate failing to meet minimum, qualifying requirements. Work sampling- It is an effort to create a miniature replica of a job.
The applicants demonstrate that they possess the necessary skills by actually doing the tasks. Assessment centre- In assessment centres, line executives, supervisors and qualified psychologists evaluate candidates as they go through two or four days of exercises that stimulate real problems that the candidates are likely to encounter on the job. Psychological test- These tests are considered extremely beneficial. They can, however can be easily misused and misinterpreted by untrained people. Good tests are useful in the circumstances because they can provide objective measures of people’s abilities.
These tests are a most sophisticated tool for measuring human characteristics tool for measuring human characteristics and are unbiased as compared to other tests and are therefore extensively used in selection decision (Torrington and Hall, 1998; 228). Some psychological tests are, Intelligence tests- Certain intelligence tests that are used now a day to measure the learning capacities of the candidates (Binet simson test and Thurstone tests). MATRIX (Management Trial Exercise) designed by proctor and gamble. CAT (Clerical Aptitude Test) it is to assess vocabulary, spelling, arithmetical ability, details checking.
PAT (Pilot Aptitude Test)- It is to assess coordination between hands and feet movements. Computer Aptitude Test- It is to assess power of reasoning and analysis. Interest tests- These tests are designed to find the interest of an applicant in the job he has applied for. Two of the most widely used tests are as follows, Strong vocational interest blank- In the test the applicant is asked whether he likes, dislikes or is indifferent to many examples of occupations, amusements, peculiarities of people and particular activities.
The answers given are compared with the answers earlier given by successful people in specific professions and occupations. Kuder preference record- A questionnaire tests the interest in mechanical, scientific, clerical, social service, computation, persuasive, artistic, literary and musical abilities. Personality tests- This is of great important and should be conducted for all posts. Individuals possessing intelligence, aptitude and experience for certain job have often been found unsuccessful because of their inability to get along with others.
Some of the personality tests are given below, Thematic apperception test (TAT)- this is one of the most popular projective tests in which the candidate is shown a series of pictures, one at a time and asked to write a story for each of the pictures. Rorschach inkblot test- In this test the candidates are asked to organise unstructured inkblots into meaningful concepts. An integrated picture of the candidate’s personality is then formulated. Interview is designed to probe into areas that cannot be addressed by the application form or tests.
These areas usually consist of assessing candidate’s motivation, ability to work under stress, inter-personal skills and ability to fit-in the organisation. The use of the interview in selecting executives makes sense whereas for lower level jobs appear questionable (Nieto, 2006; 125). Finally selection decision will be probably be three or four candidates; it is unlikely that any of the three or four remaining applicants meet the person specification in every way. The personnel specialist together with line management will now have to depend on management judgment.
Labour turnover can be both positive and negative it is a measure to find the rate of change in an organisation. Cost of waste according to Marcose et al (1999) if the employees have not required skills or knowledge in the particular fields the wastage will be high. There are two types of labour market internal and external market. Internal market refers to operation runs inside the organisations like labour turnover, work force, and profile and cohort analysis. Interview is more popular method of selecting the person for jobs (Torrington et al 2002; 242) interview is one of the in disposable and objective assessment technique.
Interview method seems to be most acceptable in the selection process due to its accuracy for any kind of job. Reasons for its accuracy and predictability can be stated due to its flexibility and accuracy. The change of failure of these methods is rare because selection of question and interaction with candidates during interview process enables the interviewer to select the right candidates on the basis of face to face interaction. Candidates are evaluated on the possible approach to the given situation these methods perhaps helps to predict the suitability of particular candidates for a given role or job.
It has been observed that the interviewing technique in selection process helps to analysis communication skills of a candidate’s body language, enthusiasm and commitment level for a particular job. Hence interview method attains the top position in the pyramid of selection process due to its accuracy and predictable (Tyson & York, 2000; 125). The interview method can be more reliable in the process of selecting candidates. The key attributes of reliability could be the right selection method maintaining consistency regardless of environment more importantly interviewers are will equipped and trained to conduct interviews.
By and by enlarge more than one interviewer conducts interview to arrive at accurate are select right candidates (Mc Keen & Beech, 2002; 67). Interview method can be considered to the reliable because the questions asked during the interviewers are well structured and prepare hence this can be more reliable. The validity of interview method can be justified by evaluating the candidates knowledge level for the define job. For example an interviewer can ask to define the key element required to accomplish a particular task. The interviewers are conducted after through job analysis by the interviewer.
This kind of preparation helps the interviewer to conduct interview in a structured manner and minimise the chance of errors. (Werick; 2008). Looking into the interview process and its validity and reliability, it can be best concluded that amongst the various selection methods available for the employer, interview method seems to be more accurate, predictable and also flexible. The theoretical basis of interviewing methods like system approach and contemporary approach supports the current practices of interviewing techniques to achieve better outcome in terms of reliability and validity.
The key attributes could be broad structure, measurability of candidate’s fitment for a particular job and his/her overall capability to execute the assigned task. Very importantly interview method helps organisation to leverage the pool of talent to fit in a particular job function more accurately. This helps the organisation to achieve better performance and productivity not only in the short run but also in the long run. Hence, it can be concluded that interview method is the most suitable method for selecting the right candidate for the right job with more accuracy and predictability.
REFERENCES Beardwell, J & Claydon, J (2007). Human resource management, a contemporary approach; United Kingdom: prentice hall. Bratton, J & Gold, J (2003). _Human resource management theory and practise (3rd ed. )_; United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. Corbridge, M & Pilbeam, S (1998). Employment resourcing; United Kingdom: prentice hall. Cornelius, N (2001). Human resource management, a managerial perspective (2nd ed. ); London: Thomson learning. Maund, L (2001). An introduction to the human resource management, theory and practice; United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mckeen, E & Beech, N (2002). Human resource management a concise analysis; United Kingdom: prentice hall. Nieto, L. M (2006). An introduction to human resource management, an introduction approach; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Pilbeam, S & Corbridge, M (2006). People resourcing, contemporary HRM in practice; United Kingdom: prentice hall. Torrington, D & Hall, L (1998). Human resource management; United Kingdom: prentice hall. Werick, K. (2008). ‘The perfect interview’. _HR Magazine_, 53(4), 85-88. Weddle, P. (2008). ‘Developing a positive recruitment