Introduction:- Most Hospitality Operators use the term “Quality” somewhere in their advertising and promotion. What exactly does that mean? One would compile multiple responses, as management tries to define “Quality”. The same would be said for their staff, and, just as importantly, the customers. We all have different perspectives. Quality has become an essence to lifestyle and with intensification of competitors; there exist a constant drive to excel in business.
Various authors and individuals have defined quality as per the business aims and objectives, however a definite explanation of quality is quite impossible as the word quality itself is an ever changing phenomenon. This report attempts to define quality to its closest meaning, by comparing and contrast two definitions from different authors. It defines and differentiates service quality and product quality and finds out how Jumeirah Carlton Tower Hotel, which is the chosen organisation for this report, uses the EFQM quality model to maintain and enhance quality.
The information used in this report is collected by reviewing various authors’ books and journals in hospitality. Two definitions of Quality in hospitality contexts:- First definition of Quality:- Crosby, (1979) in his book, “Quality without tears” wrote that quality has to be defined as conformance to requirements. Though brief, Crosby’s definition places the organisation in the position of operating to something other than opinion and experience. It means that the best brains and most useful knowledge will be invested in establishing the requirements in the first place.
They will not be used in determining what can be done to smooth over the rough places. According to Crosby, Quality is to be provided in the first instance itself and there shouldn’t be situations, whereby the end user should find defects and recommend changes. For quality to achieve at its finest level there should be intense research done to prevent product deformities. Crosby identifies the conformance requirements that shall be included or addressed in specifications. Second definition of Quality:-
According to ‘The Museum of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art’ by Walsh et al (1833), Hospitality is a quality, whose very existence presupposes a surplus of means in those who exercise it. Reduce the means below par, and the hospitality will cease. Walsh et al measure Quality as wealth or income, reducing quality while exercising it, will no doubt, reduce hospitality. For the authors of this journal, Quality is a condition of excellence implying fine quality as distinct from poor quality as quality is achieving or reaching for the highest standard as against being satisfied with the sloppy or fraudulent.
Comparing both the definitions of Quality:- The only similarity between both the definitions is that, they have a general understanding that quality can be measured. Both the definitions of respective books and journal believe in understanding the quality requirements in a product or service, whereby, more the understanding of the customer requirements for quality better is the quality. Contrasting the two definitions of Quality:-
Although there isn’t much difference between Crosby’s definition and the other authors of the journal, as Crosby would like quality to be embedded in the product during its production and the writers in the latter definition would like to describe by measuring the embedded quality during the process of execution. Product Quality According to Leffler, K. (1982), Product Quality refers to the amounts of the unpriced attributed contained in each unit of the priced attribute. Leffler quantifies the elements involved in product quality. He prices each element or attribute in the product.
By increasing the number of attributes in the product, the quality will increase and so also the price. Service Quality As per Broh, R. (1982), Service Quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price and the control of the variability at the acceptable cost. A major reason for the development of services was the realization that services were in the extreme different from products. We typically think of a service as something that is done for us or to us. Once quality is introduced to it, value based definition takes the idea, one step further. It actually defines quality in terms of cost and price.
The difference between the product Quality and Service Quality. As per Schwartz (1992), a product is a transformation of matter and energy into a presumably desirable form, at presumably desirable locations, at presumably desirable times. Economists use the word “product” to represent the output, or result, of economic activity. Economists break down the overall category of product into two classes. The tangible product, which they call goods and the intangible product, which they call services. The word “product” is sometimes used in the quality literature to refer to both goods and services, consistent with the economist’s definition.
For example, Juran and Gryna (1980) state that “ we will frequently use the products as a short generic term to designate both goods (milk, clothes, houses, vehicles) and services ( electrical energy, bus rides, health care, education)”. When the word “service” is used to designate a product the same word used in the expression “product and service”, sometimes refers to either of two different additional meanings. A product is a physical and tangible thing. It can be seen and touched. When you buy it, you own it. Basically what you buy is what you get.
However a service is a task, provided by one party for another. It is not tangible, it cannot be seen or touched, and you do not own it. As per Pinson and Jinnett (2006) products are usually produced and then sold. By contrast, services are often sold first and then produced or performed. Products can be produced and stored as inventory; services can’t be stored, and this can create a challenge in anticipating supply and demand. Quality Model Quality models like the EFQM, ISO 9000 and BS5750 provide a framework for the implementation of quality management in an organization.
As per Have e al (2003) the European foundation for quality management (EFQM) model helps organization to establish an appropriate management system to set them on the path of excellence. The model explains gap in performance and helps identify improvements. It is a non-prescriptive framework underpinned by so called fundamental concepts which comprise of result orientation, customer focus, leadership and constancy of purpose, management by processes and facts, people development and involvement, continuous learning, innovation and improvement, partnership development, public responsibility. [pic]
Managers in Jumeirah Carlton Tower Hotel have fully embedded the EFQM Fundamental Concepts of Excellence into their organisation making them an integral part of the organizations’ management systems and the way its people work together. Conclusions Quality is a diverse concept and has been applied to many things. In Hospitality management it is applied to products and services and the process of management itself in total quality management. With hotels and restaurants, we are mostly concerned with product and service quality – ensuring that a product and services, whether it is a meal, tour or suite, fulfill an agreed set of criteria.
Hospitality industry has a lot of interest in service quality with its emphasis on the expectations and requirements of the customer and their fulfillment. The EFQM model is based on the premise that excellent results with respect to performance, customers, people and society are achieved through partnerships, resources and processes. Bibliography Crosby, P. (1979). Quality without Tears. New York: McGraw-Hill. Broh, R. (1982) Managing Quality for Higher Profits. McMillan. Have, S. T. , Stevens, F. (2003). Key management models: the management tools and practices that will improve. New Jersey: Pearson Education Juran, J. M. Gryna, F. M. , (1980), Juran’s quality control handbook, 4th ed. Michigan: McGraw-Hill. Leffler, K. (1982). Ambiguous Changes in Product Quality. American Economic Review, 72. pp. 5. Schwartz, L. , (1992) Public and private agricultural extension: beyond traditional frontiers, World Bank discussion papers, Banco Mundial, 236(63), pp. 68-82. Walsh, R. , Littell, E. , Smith, J. (1833). The Museum of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art. P. 674. Pinson, L. , Jinnett, J. (2006). Steps to Small Business Start-up: Everything you need to know to turn your idea into a successful business. 6th ed. Kaplan Publishing. Word Count: 1212