Punishment And Rehabilitation In The Community Criminology Essay

Critically measure the usage of the prison as a sentence of the tribunal in England and Wales over the last 20 old ages.

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The 1990 ‘s witnessed a crisp rise in the politicization and in the badness of condemning policy ( Maguire et al, 2007 ) . Since the 1990 ‘s statute law has been to a great extent criticised, this saw the forsaking of cardinal pillars, yet the rise of others. Therefore, The Criminal Justice Act as slightly revolutionised conveying frontward newer statute law over the old ages that have impacted on the manner sentences are used. The alteration in authorities from Conservative to New Labour besides saw a baffled mixture of new constabularies, which have contributed and influenced the usage of the prison.

Since the station war old ages the prison population began to spread out, which led to a sense of crisis for the authorities from two positions. The first was in footings of societal control. The important and quickly lifting prison population had the possible to be perceived as a dislocation in societal order. The other country of concern was due to the spread outing prison population and the addition in outgo. At the clip the authorities were seeking to cut down outgo and incite new community sentences to restrict the figure of wrongdoers who really went to prison. Consequently, there have been many theoreticians who have attempted to construction the condemnable justness system. There have besides been new political orientations for how the prison should be used as a sentence. By analyzing the usage of the prison it will assist to specify modern-day prisons in western societies, non least since there is considerable consensus that the penal system in England and Wales has been in a province of of all time intensifying crisis since the 1960 ‘s ( Maguire et al, 2007 ) .

Statisticss show a major addition in the prison population. In 1989 the prison population was 48,600 throughout the twelvemonth and in 2008 the prison population increased to 83,190. Crime measured by the British Crime Survey ( BCS ) fell from 18.5 million offenses in 1993 to 11.7 million by 2003/04. BCS offense fell by around a 3rd in England and Wales at the same clip as the prison population increased by two-thirds ( Home Office 2008 ) . These statistics suggest that the usage of the prison has been really effectual by how recorded offense rates have fell over the old ages and that the figure of wrongdoers traveling to prison as increased. However, it strikes contention due to the addition in prison populations. In 1997, Labour had created 16,000 more prison topographic points when the Government were seeking to cut down outgo in that country.

‘The lead up to the 1991 Criminal Justice Act witnessed a displacement in penal policy. The on-going concerns of of all time turning prison Numberss accompanied a widespread disillusion with the ‘rehabilitative ideal ‘ and concerns were raised about the matching of sentences to wrongdoers instead than the offense ‘ ( Brownlee 1998 ) . The conservative authorities had issued major alterations to the condemning model influenced by ‘retributivist ‘ theory and the construct of ‘just comeuppances ‘ where wrongdoers were punished in proportion to the offenses they had committed. Besides the 1990 white paper, Crime, Justice and Protecting the Public introduced new statute law in the condemnable justness system. Now, Community sentences could be used as options instead than the usage of imprisonment. Home Office ( 1990 ) besides claimed a more consistent attack to condemning so that felons get at that place merely comeuppances.

The cardinal purposes of condemning were merely sweets and relative sentences ; nevertheless, disincentive was demoted as a sentence. This unfavorable judgment was made of the 1991 Act and 1993 Act as there was an impracticable intercrossed condemning model.

‘The Criminal Justice Act 1991 was clear that the chief sentencing determination was to cipher offense earnestness and a proportionate ( commensurate ) sentence. Prison hence, was used to maintain people in detention by the earnestness of the offense ‘ ( Easton et al, 2005 ) . Consequently, the usage of the prison had changed by admiting the earnestness of the offense, whereas before anybody who committed a offense would merely travel to prison. Therefore, person convicted with slaying would travel to prison, whereas person who was vandalizing would more likely wage a mulct or have a community sentence depending on the fortunes.

‘This important piece of statute law appeared to pave the manner for community sentences, and so the Probation Service to play a cardinal function in condemnable justness policy. Courts were now guided by earnestness thresholds, which required them to warrant why a sentence was either “ serious plenty ” for a community punishment, or “ so serious ” that merely a tutelary sentence could be warranted ‘ ( Cavadino & A ; Dignan 2002 ) . By 1993 nevertheless the incoming Home Secretary made it clear that he was an advocator of tutelary steps for wrongdoers in his statement “ Prison Works ” .

The 1993 Criminal Justice Act rescinded on some of the positive facets of the earlier 1991 Act, and marked a Resurrection of jurisprudence and order rhetoric in finding condemnable justness policy. By 1995 in the Green Paper ‘Strengthening Punishment in the Community ‘ , despite the considerable alterations brought about to community sentences by the 1991 Criminal Justice Act, the claim was made that probation supervising was still regarded as a soft option. The subsequent White Paper ‘Protecting the Public ‘ clearly emphasised the demand for community sentences to hold a punitory instead than rehabilitative focal point, and called upon these sentences to be physically, mentally or emotionally disputing with a emphasis on personal duty and subject.

‘The rapid addition in the prison population and the Numberss sent to prison represented a extremist interruption with the practical stableness of old decennaries. Even so, two considerations should be borne in head before imputing the entire duty for the addition in prison population entirely to Michael Howard. First there is some grounds that public sentiment took a more punitory bend in the 1990 ‘s, which might explicate why the awaited public call against Howard ‘s policies was so hushed, and why the mass media were mostly supportive of these policies ‘ ( Hough, 1996 ) . Ryan ( 2002 ) besides argued that ‘a series of ‘moral terrors ‘ was manipulated by politicians to win the support of electors for a tougher jurisprudence and order platform. ‘Populist Punitiveness ‘ had a major consequence on statute law because it became cardinal to the concerns of the general populace and there responses to offense.

A outline of the 1991 and 1993 Criminal Justice Act highlight the usage of the prison by how serious the offense is. The prison is used to impound autonomy and by 1993 and the usage of community sentences made it more definable by the degree of offense committed by utilizing seriousness thresholds. However, by 1995 they recognised that the probation service was to soft and needful amendments. The usage of the prison was now seen as a last resort or for really serious offenses. In add-on, public sentiment had a major influence on offense, which is argued one of the grounds why the prison population is said to be so high due to the populaces position and fright of offense.

‘In May 1997, the Conservative Party was ejected from power as Labour ; Led by Tony Blair enjoyed a landslide triumph. Tony Blair, thought to change Labour to New Labour, and one of the ways he did this was through public image by going tough on offense ‘ ( Mathews 1999 ) . Labour introduced a assorted sum of statute law, which led to the circulation of community punishments. This was apparent in the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act, which created the Drug Treatment & A ; Testing Order, and the 2000 Criminal Justice and Court Services Act. This brought about the Probation Order, Community Service Order and the Combination Order. Two farther sentences were besides created that are the Exclusion Order and the Drug Abstinence Order. However, the Drug Abstinence Order was subsequently abandoned as it was proved impracticable ; this could be due to ‘Populist Punitivism ‘ . The conservative authorities have a right wing attack, whereas New Labour comes from the left. This nevertheless, had small consequence for the usage of the prison as labor emphasised on the conservative attack to offense and made it stronger.

Although there was new statute law that gave the tribunal more power and options over the wrongdoer, prison Numberss continued to lift. This was besides evident when David Blunkett became Home Secretary as the prison population started to quickly turn months after ( Guardian 2001 ) . In 2001, the prison crisis of over crowding, and the financial jobs were highlighted once more, which resulted in new statute law from consequences drawn from the Halliday Report.

‘The reappraisal was born out of a belief that the present sentencing model suffers from serious lacks that cut down its parts to offense decrease and public assurance ‘ ( Halliday 2001 ) .

The study highlighted cardinal restrictions and suggested new attacks to beef up the condemnable justness system. One of the highlighted jobs was the short prison sentences of less than 12 months and that they had no consequence on the wrongdoer. It was besides noted that relentless wrongdoers do non look to have significantly longer prison sentences. Halliday ( 2001 ) shows that in a sample of male wrongdoers aged over 18 and sentenced in1998, the mean sentence for burglary for an wrongdoer with 10 or more old strong beliefs was merely 4 months more than person with no strong beliefs.

The Halliday Report led to the White Paper in 2002, Justice For All, which sets out the Governments far making proposals for the reform of the condemnable justness system and resulted in the 2003 Criminal Justice Act. ‘The Halliday Report noted that merely comeuppances and the penalty suiting the offense are cardinal characteristics of the statutory model set up in 1991 and that there is nil incorrect with this in itself. However the study now focuses on three grades of earnestness established by the Act: mulcts, community penalty and detention ‘ ( Easton, 2005 ) . This created a new model and hence saw the prostration of merely comeuppances. Alternatively of concentrating on merely how serious the offense was for penalty, the tribunal now had power to penalize the wrongdoer in many of different ways depending on the offense.

From the 2001 Halliday Report and the 2002 White Paper the new findings created a new model to sentences. The Act clearly sets out the intents of sentencing, which include retaliatory, disincentive and reductive, reform & A ; rehabilitation, public protection, and reparation, ( Criminal Justice Act 2003 ) . The Halliday Report besides influenced the new statute law in 2003 by placing a spread in the sentencing model. The Act replaced all the grownup community sentences with a generic community sentence. This allowed the tribunals to attach demands to this community sentence from a figure of options ; supervising, unpaid work, activities, prohibited activities, accredited programmes, curfew, exclusion, abode, mental wellness intervention, drug rehabilitation, intoxicant intervention, attending Centre ( for under 25 yr olds ) ( Criminal Justice Act 2003 ) .

The Criminal Justice Act 2003 besides introduced a figure of other steps such as Conditional Cautions, Strengthened postponement of sentence to include an component of probation supervising, Custody Plus, Intermittent Custody, new Suspended Sentence Order ; nevertheless, these steps show ill-defined boundaries between community and tutelary punishments. Therefore, the statement against this is whether the tribunals will favor a detention followed by a rehabilitative sentence and that they will go more popular, which will assist cut down overcrowding. Faulkner ( 2002 ) prior to the 2003 Criminal Justice Act urged cautiousness in seeing the debut of a new condemning model as the reply to turn toing offense. He states that: ‘If the new sentences are to lend to cut down rates of offense or re-offending, they will at the really least hold to be applied in the context of a prison system which is no longer distracted by overcrowding, of a well-resourced and advanced National Probation Service ‘ . This may propose that there is a covert significance under the new model for the usage of imprisonment. By using community sentences it is thought that this will liberate prison infinite, which will halt over crowding and do penalty worth while. However, statistics show far greater usage is being made of the prison and probation service because ‘in 1996, 85,000 wrongdoers were given a tutelary sentence and 133,000 were given a community sentence. By 2001, both had increased by 25 per cent, with 107,000 wrongdoers given a tutelary sentence and 166,000 wrongdoers having a community sentence ‘ ( mention ) .

The usage of the prison as changed significantly over the old ages, with a major influence from the alteration in authorities and the alteration in the sentencing model. Originally, the prison was used for any type of offense but due to over herding the authorities came to recognize that the prison should be used for the more serious offenses and introduced the community service for junior-grade offenses. Community service was perceived to liberate up prison infinite and the financial crisis, nevertheless the prison population kept spread outing over the old ages. This could be due to the Numberss of wrongdoers caught and sentenced as constabulary powers had expanded or the addition in the overall earnestness of the offenses brought to justness or the addition in the sentence badness for specific offenses. New statute law allowed the tribunals to hold an option, nevertheless, this shortly expanded concentrating more on community services utilizing the prison as the last resort. Cipher wants to travel to prison ; hence by publishing a community service it is giving them a strong warning utilizing the prison as the most feared penalty. Persons who so break the community service penalty will so be sent to prison.

A new Act came Criminal justness and in-migration act 2008 brought frontward the release day of the month of captives functioning sentences greater than 4 old ages imposed before 4 April 2005. It did non use to captives functioning life sentences or functioning sentences for violent or sexual offenses. This subdivision came into force on 9 June 2008. This was in order to relieve prison overcrowding.

prisons are for suspects refused bond and detained before test, or convicted but non yet sentenced, are held in detention to guarantee that the class of justness returns to its decision and that everyone concerned is protected against the likeliness of injury in the meantime.

The system needs to guarantee that the increased investing in prison and probation is targeted efficaciously to cut down offense and keep public assurance. The usage of prison and probation has increased by over a one-fourth since 1996, even though the figure of people arrested and sentenced has remained loosely changeless. The growing is due to the increased badness of sentences, which is linked to the autumn in the usage of mulcts.

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