The present survey was an effort to understand how a procedure of contemplation helped five foreign linguistic communication pupil instructors throughout their first instruction experience. This survey was conducted in the schoolrooms of five public schools in Colombia where English was taught to high school pupils. Datas were collected through schoolroom observations, pupils ‘ brooding diaries, lesson programs and semi-structured interviews. Findingss revealed that contemplation is a manner to assist foreign linguistic communication pupil instructors to better their first instruction pattern. The analysis was based in the visible radiation of two theories, contemplation in action and contemplation on action ( Schon ‘s, 1987 ) ; and Van Manen ‘s ( 1977 ) three degrees of contemplation.
Cardinal words: Practicum, contemplation, Schon, pupil instructor, Van Manen
El presente estudio fue un intento parity comprender como un proceso de reflexion ayudo a cinco estudiantes profesores de lenguas extranjeras en su primera experiencia de ensenanza. Se llevo a cabo en las aulas de cinco escuelas publicas en Colombia, donde Se ensena Ingles a estudiantes de secundaria. Los datos fueron recolectados a traves de observaciones, diarios de reflexion, planes y entrevistas. Los resultados revelaron que La reflexion Es una manera de ayudar a los estudiantes a mejorar su primera practica docente. El analisis Se baso en Department of State teorias, reflexiones sobre la accion Y en la accion Schon ( 1987 ) , y los tres niveles de reflexion de Van Manen ( 1977 ) .
Palabras clave: estudiante practicante, practica, refleccion, Schon, Van Manen
The Foreign Language ( FL ) plan in which this research took topographic point seeks to educate an effectual and brooding instructor who is able to confront worlds, challenges and jobs related to the educational scenes in which acquisition and learning a foreign linguistic communication occurs. This survey focuses on the FL practicum, developed in the schoolrooms of four public high schools, in which the pupil instructor is required to set theory into pattern, and develop a undertaking on instruction, research, administrative accomplishments and community battle. This is aligned with what The Ministry of National Education in Colombia expects from schools of instruction in that they should supply pre-service instructors with chances to interact with pre-school, primary or high school pupils from different contexts to ease the development of professional competencies.[ 1 ]
Therefore, this survey allowed trainee instructors to be engaged in a procedure of contemplation as a manner of giving them the chance to place debatable state of affairss and expression for ways to better their first practicum experience. In other words, trainee instructors embarked upon a procedure in which they were able to place critical cases in the schoolroom, and to see actions that responded to the identified state of affairss.
Taking into history that the cardinal phenomenon of this survey is contemplation and learning practicum, it is necessary to set up some theoretical foundations that contextualize this survey. Harmonizing to Dewey ( 1933 ) , brooding believing “ involves a province of uncertainty, vacillation, perplexity, mental trouble in which believing originates and an act of seeking, runing and asking to happen stuff that will decide the uncertainty and settee and dispose of the perplexity ” ( p. 12 ) . In a more recent construct, Richards and Lockhart ( 2005 ) stated that contemplation “ involves analyzing learning experiences as a footing for rating and determination devising and as a beginning for alteration. ” These constructs allowed the research workers to be cognizant of the importance of contemplation for trainee instructors confronting their first learning experience as a manner to increase their success and maximise the benefits of the practicum for them.
The research workers adopted Schon ( 1987 ) and Van Manen ‘s ( 1977 ) impressions and degrees of contemplation through the different phases in the development of the undertaking. The research workers used Schon ‘s ( 1987 ) constructs of contemplation in action and contemplation on action in order to place the type of contemplation pupil instructors went through during their first instruction experience. Harmonizing to Schon ( 1987 ) “ we may reflect in the thick of action without disrupting it ” ( p. 26 ) . This type of contemplation is defined as contemplation in action as we reflect while actions are taking topographic point. “ Our believing serves to reshape what we are making while we are making it. ” ( p. 26 ) . On the other manus, “ we may reflect on action to detect how our knowing-in-action may hold contributed to an expected result. ” ( p. 26 ) .This contemplation takes topographic point after actions are carried out.
In order to measure the extent to which pupils were engaged in contemplation, informations were besides analyzed utilizing Van Manen ‘s ( 1977 ) theoretical account. Harmonizing to this theoretical account, contemplations can be organized into three degrees: proficient, practical and critical. 1 ) Technical Reflection, the lowest degree of contemplation, concerns the effectual application of accomplishments and proficient cognition in the schoolroom scene. In other words, it focuses on reflecting on how effectual the agencies are, in order to accomplish a specific aim ; 2 ) Practical Reflection involves contemplations on premises that support instructors ‘ actions and the effects of such patterns. Harmonizing to Van Manen ( 1977 ) practical contemplation facilitates “ an interpretive apprehension both of the nature and quality of the educational experience, and of doing practical picks ” ( p. 226 ) ; 3 ) Critical Reflection, the highest degree of contemplation, incorporates moral and ethical issues. It may besides include facets from the two lower degrees of contemplation.
Several surveies have been published in this peculiar field in Colombia. Most research conducted on FL pre-service instructors has focused on linguistic communication acquisition and usage ( Farias & A ; Obilinovic, 2008 ) . Some surveies have focused on the strengths and failings that practicum supervisors have identified in their trainees, ( Quintero, Zuluaga & A ; Lopez, 2003 ) ; the usage of web logs and diaries when reflecting ( Insuasty & A ; Zambrano, 2010 ) , the usage of the counsellor ‘s notes to back up pupil ‘s readying ( Viafara, 2005 ) , and the design of brooding undertakings to fix pre-service instructors ( Viafara, 2004 ) .
Participants and Puting
Participants, who ranged in age from 21 to 26, were five undergraduate pre-service instructors: Marcia, David, Alice, Martin and Caroline ( anonym ) and belonged to the Foreign Language Program at the Universidad de Pamplona, where they were educated to go effectual and brooding instructors able to confront worlds, challenges and jobs related to larning and learning a foreign linguistic communication. Participants were chosen on a voluntary footing after holding expressed their willingness to take part in the undertaking. All of them did their practicum in English at five public high schools, and their linguistic communication proficiency ranged between B1 and B2.[ 2 ]. This field experience took topographic point on the concluding semester of the undergraduate plan merely before pupils face learning at a professional degree. Prior to their practicum, pupils take parting in this undertaking had merely 60 hours of learning with no experience on brooding activities.
This research involved the survey of an issue through five instances bounded in clip and infinite ( Creswell, 2005 ) . In other words, this survey was conducted during 16 hebdomads ; and focused on the first-teaching experiences of Marcia, David, Alice, Martin and Caroline in order to better understand how a procedure of contemplation could assist them to better their instruction pattern.
During the survey, research workers collected qualitative informations from several instruments: schoolroom observations, brooding diaries and semi-structured interviews. Data, gathered chiefly through the participants ‘ diaries, schoolroom observations and semi-structured interviews, provided the participants ‘ positions and contemplations as they went through their first instruction experience. Lesson plans complemented the information gathered from the other instruments. Participants ‘ contemplations were guided through a specific questionnaire ( See Appendix 1 ) . Research workers conducted three schoolroom observations per participant that allowed them “ to enter information as it occurs in a settingaˆ¦ ” ( Creswell, 2005, P. 211. ) For illustration, during these observations, two research workers were seated at the dorsum of the schoolroom taking notes. At the terminal of the survey, research workers interviewed participants for 30 proceedingss utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire ( See Appendix 2 ) .
With respect to data analysis, each instance was analyzed individually by coding and placing outstanding subjects. Cases so were compared and contrasted to arouse relevant information in order to understand how student-teachers reflected and which their chief concerns were. This analysis allowed the research workers to place several classs that resulted in a narrowed figure of subjects.
The research workers evaluated the information gathered from a ) participants ‘ diaries ; B ) schoolroom observations ; degree Celsiuss ) semi-structured interviews ; and d ) lesson programs. Several subjects emerged from this analysis and were largely associated with the procedure of contemplation, when and how it took topographic point ; the novitiate instructor ‘s chief concerns, and the alterations implemented as a consequence of their brooding procedure. The undermentioned subdivision presents the manner the research workers categorized those findings harmonizing to Schon ‘s ( 1983 ) constructs of contemplation in action and contemplation on action ; and Van Manen ‘s ( 1977 ) hierarchal theoretical account.
Contemplation in Action
Taking into history that when reflecting in action, “ we may reflect in the thick of action without disrupting it ” ( Schon, 1987, P. 26. ) . Participants found themselves doing sudden alterations in the center of an activity in order to get the better of hard state of affairss. For illustration, the research workers found that the pupil instructors decided to alter the manner a category activity had been planned in order to catch their pupils ‘ antiphonal attitude and actively prosecute them throughout the category. Making these on-the-scene determinations allowed practicians to happen a solution in order to maintain the category organized and working. Merely two participants reflected while engaged in learning. It seemed that they sorted out hard state of affairss by agencies of reflecting in action. For illustration, in her diary, Alice described when her pupils showed a deficiency of readying and involvement in take parting in a specific undertaking or when they were non able to take part because of a deficiency of readying for the assigned undertaking ; she thought of a program B in order to get the better of this state of affairs without disrupting the activity itself.
Similarly, Martin reflected in action when his pupils misbehaved and when the gait of the lesson became humdrum, as reported in his diary:
I have found myself doing some instant determinations in the schoolroom despite the clip spent be aftering a lesson program since in the minute things would work better if changed. For case, something that was non homework became prep ; the activity was intended to be worked in braces but because of bad behaviour was separately done.
Contemplation on Action
Research workers found that all participants experienced ups and downs during their practicum, and that contemplation on action allowed them to believe back on what they had done while learning their lessons, the sum of content taught, the schemes used, the gait of their lessons and some subject issues. Identifying what went incorrect in old lessons would enable them non to do the same errors and to modify future actions. The following extract from Alice ‘s diary explains how this brooding procedure allowed her to measure what she had done during a old category in order to present certain alterations to avoid hard state of affairss.
I have to alter some activities in the planning for the following group ; the first activity that I have to alter is the usage of role-plays. I have to give pupils a sheet of paper with the text because in this manner they can follow the public presentation, the function drama, and they will understand the subject if they do non cognize some sort of vocabulary.
Similarly, after a category, David reflected on the manner he made determinations to pull off the category more efficaciously, as he noted:
Tuve que reorganizar EL salon Y tomar medidas de disciplina como tomar nota de la actividad que tenian que hacer Y tambien darles un pequeno llamado de atencion una que otra vez. A pesar de ese pequeno problema, la leccion fluyo muy bien.
In making so, David decided to alter their original programs in the hope of catching and retaining the pupils ‘ antiphonal attitude throughout the lesson, and maintaining the category fluxing. It can be seen that the pupil instructors took some distance in clip and infinite from the events to happen executable solutions and do determinations for the subsequent planning.
From Technical to Critical contemplation.
Opposed to Schon ( 1983 ) , who presents contemplation as a procedure in which people may reflect in action and on action ; Van Manen ( 1977 ) sees it as a hierarchal graduated table organized into three degrees of contemplation: proficient, practical and critical. This survey found that all the participants achieved the proficient degree of contemplation ; while two of them reached the practical and the critical 1s.
At a proficient degree of contemplation, pupil instructors ‘ chief concerns were how to develop their lessons and make the ends set. Therefore, all participants considered the proficient application of educational cognition while reflecting on subjects such as category activities, stuffs, schoolroom interaction, group agreement, accounts, bringing of instructions, usage of the native or foreign linguistic communication and pupil ‘s rectification. For illustration, from Alice ‘s diary, research workers noticed that she was confident about assisting pupil develop their receptive accomplishments as she worked on grammar.
I used a listening exercising and some ocular postings to catch pupil ‘s attending ; the hearing exercising was a great tool in the development of the category because with this exercising pupils were involved in the most of import facet of the category, to retrieve the construction of uninterrupted tenses, pupils liked this activity since this sort of exercising is non used in most of their English categories.
In their diaries, pre-service instructors reflected on how pupils responded to the category activities. This helped them to do determinations during planning or when learning. For illustration, they admitted being frightened about non holding adequate activities for their categories, giving less or more clip to a specific activity and happening the suited stuff. In the undermentioned quotation mark, Alice described her sentiment about the alterations she made when reflecting on her actions:
I have to alter some activities in the planning for the following group, the first activity that I have to alter is the usage of function dramas. I have to give pupils a sheet of paper with the text because in this manner they can follow the public presentation, the function drama, and they will understand the subject if they do non cognize some sort of vocabulary.
Aspects refering the schoolroom interaction are besides explored in the pre-service instructors ‘ diaries. At the beginning of their practicum, Carolina, Martin, Alice asked themselves about the manner they were giving instructions or explicating a subject and whether or non pupils understood what they had taught. They were besides concerned about how a specific group agreement facilitated the schoolroom interaction, as stated by Martin:
In several categories I have used this sort of agreement ; foremost, by teamwork but it did n’t work so good because pupils kept speaking all the clip about things different to the category activity ; 2nd, in braces, it seems to be more manageable and makes me reason that single work or maximal two people is the advisable bound.
Similarly, the usage of the female parent lingua and the mark linguistic communication in the schoolroom is one of the most revenant subjects among participants. Possibly, because it is one of the most ambitious determinations for them to do as practicians. Research workers identified planning, learning and reflecting as the cases in which they used their L1 and L2 interchangeably. Although planning is done utilizing the mark linguistic communication, the drawn-out usage of the foreign linguistic communication in category was non a commonalty among participants. During the categories observed, English was non used for a considerable period of clip. Pre-service instructors used L1 for different intents ; for illustration, to pull off category better, to give instructions, to inquire inquiries or explicate the L2 system, to interpret a word or a sentence or to contextualize a subject or an activity.
Using the L2 seemed to be a quandary in the practicians ‘ learning experience. In malice of these troubles, during the categories observed, English was spoken to keep schoolroom subject, to give instructions or to explicate some linguistic communication characteristics. Deciding what linguistic communication the pupil instructor used in the category was a cardinal pick that they made at an early phase in their experience. However, it changed while confronting the world of the lesson since utilizing L1 or L2 facilitated or interrupted the schoolroom interaction. From the categories observed, it can be concluded that when the mark linguistic communication was used pupils got more involved and attentive to the category and their engagement increased while the usage of L1 resulted in riotous behaviour.
Participants reflecting at a proficient degree besides wrote about rectifying pupils to better linguistic communication truth. For case, Alice involved the whole category in rectifying errors while executing a role-play. David corrected errors otherwise ; while the pupils were reading aloud, he corrected their mispronunciation instantly.
By and large talking, proficient contemplation enabled participants to measure what they were making in the schoolroom and expression for ways of betterment, which resulted in get the better ofing methodological defects.
When pupils were developing their practicum, two of them were concerned with how their actions were supported by their theoretical positions on linguistic communication acquisition and linguistic communication instruction. Practitioners reflecting at this degree examined the relationship between their actions and the theories. In the undermentioned diary entry, Martin reached a practical degree of contemplation because he wanted to back up what he did in his schoolroom with a specific theory, as he stated:
I have tried to utilize all the information contained in the constructs shared in the theory, for illustration the function of motive when utilizing games and category activities, unwritten ability and vocabulary acquisition. Activities proposed profit the four accomplishments and the lexicon constituent.
In add-on, David reflected on the manner his actions and premises about schoolroom environment were rooted on theoretical footing. David ever favored a peaceable, comfy and fun acquisition environment. As he said: “ Me gusta seguir esta pauta que esta contemplada por Enright and McCloskey en su modelo llamado Integrated Language Teaching. ” Furthermore, when reflecting on activities David did in the visible radiation of Krashen ‘s Input hypothesis in the sense that he exposed pupils to quality input through a varied set of listening activities.
A farther concern that some pupil instructors implied was the focal point on learning values among their pupils. These contemplations are associated with Van Manen ‘s ( 1977 ) tierce and highest degree of coefficient of reflection because they deal with the inquiring of moral and ethical issues related straight and indirectly to learning patterns. Martin devoted some clip in his categories to cultivating good manners among his pupils. As he stated, “ I contribute the best I have and I am, non merely in academic issues but in those facets of life like regard, subject and duty. ” This exemplifies that there were non-linguistic facets that practicians kept in head when learning. In other words, the pupil instructors ‘ duties went beyond learning an FL, embracing facets such as moral values and good being, in order to vouch a safe and respectful environment for the acquisition procedure.
David negotiations about his picks when measuring and following his ain values. He reflected about his duty for the grades pupils had obtained, and how the tonss were their chief involvement. He analyzed how the rating procedure might be used to penalize pupils. David wrote this in his diary:
aˆ¦entonces yo simplemente tomaba La atencion del grupo Y por uno pagaban todos Y pues nunca tome represalias en cuestion de notas, porque ese es otro heroism que yo tengo, que a mi no me parece que la parte disciplinaria tenga nada que ver con La parte academica.
Questioning one ‘s ethical issues related straight to rating patterns is one illustration of what Van Manen defines every bit critical coefficient of reflection.
In add-on, the manner others perceived pre-service instructors was besides regarded to be a factor that shaped their position in the school community.
aˆ¦de decimo hacia adelante ya uno Es mas que un profesor, ya es diferente. El cambio de functions ya es demasiado drastico como parity afrontarlo asi de una sola manera, entonces que a uno lo llamen profesor alla Y aca todavia uno sigue siendo un estudiante de la universidad.
Despite the fact that they realized the context in which they were working, taking duty for their actions was disputing for them. During the interviews, practicians talked about premises when being a instructor, how they were seen by others and their function at the educational establishment. Although merely two participants reached this degree of contemplation, honing among all pupil instructors this critical position would be the first measure towards understanding non merely their schoolroom worlds and school community but besides the complexnesss of the context in which they act.
Participants in this survey reflected on of import facets which gave the research workers plenty informations to pull significant decisions as follows: ( 1 ) The act of reflecting on or in action is straight linked to the fortunes or events that occurred during the category, for illustration, contemplation on action is sometimes due to a old analysis which led them to alter those actions in future events. On the other manus, contemplation in action is observed in how they learned to manage state of affairss that are unexpected or got out of manus due to alterations given at the clip of the category, and how they changed their modus operandi. ( 2 ) All participants reflected in different ways and at different minutes ; this sort of contemplation made them travel beyond the simple act of being in forepart of the category learning a specific subject or lesson. ( 3 ) Contemplation gave them the chance to analyse how and why they acted as they did and how they could believe of alterations or new ways of instruction. ( 4 ) When contemplation took topographic point during instruction, trainee instructors adapted their actions whilst the category was happening.
With respects to Van Manen ( 1977 ) degrees of contemplation, this survey found that all the participants reflected at a proficient degree to work out immediate troubles in the schoolroom scene. The 2nd degree of contemplation, practical, was reached by two of the participants who supported their schoolroom actions on theoretical premises. Similarly, two participants engaged in critical contemplation as a manner to back up their actions with their values.
Since the findings of this little graduated table undertaking identified contemplation as a manner for the pupil instructors to reconstitute their public presentation, to confront jobs from a different angle, and to get the better of obstructions during their instruction experience, the foreign linguistic communication plan should supply its pupils with formal preparation on the issues of contemplation at earlier phases through effectual inquiring, schoolroom treatments, workshops and seminars.