Pressure Vessels In Gases And Liquids Engineering Essay

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction

AA force per unit area vesselA is a closed container which is capable of keeping gases or liquids at aA pressureA well different from the ambientA force per unit area. It is by and large a cylindrical or spherical in form and is a metal container which can defy force per unit areas exerted by the unstable stuff enclosed. Pressure vass are of extreme importance as legion fluids ( liquids and gases ) have to be stored under high force per unit area conditions. The strength of the force per unit area vas is particularly emphasized to forestall detonations ensuing fromA rupture. International safety codifications for the safety of such vass have been developed that enlist all inside informations for the design of the container for specified conditions.

Normally force per unit area vass are necessitated to transport merely low force per unit areas and hence are constructed utilizing sheets and tubings rolled to organize cylinders. In certain instances, force per unit area vass are required to transport high force per unit areas, nevertheless, and the thickness of the force per unit area vas walls must be increased so as to supply the necessary strength. Pneumatic and hydraulicA cylinders are machine elements that are different signifiers of force per unit area vass.

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Theoretically, force per unit area vass may be of about any form, but shapes dwelling of parts of domains, cones, and cylinders are largely used. A really common design is a cylinder holding terminal caps calledA as caputs. Head forms are by and large either dished ( torispherical ) or hemispherical. Other more complicated forms have historically been more hard to measure and analyse for operating safely and are by and large much more hard to build.

Theoretically, the optimum form of a force per unit area vas is a sphere. Unfortunately, its is hard to fabricate a spherical form, therefore more expensive, so normally force per unit area vass are cylindrical in form with 2:1 terminal caps or semi-elliptical caputs on each terminal. Smaller force per unit area vass can be assembled from two screens and a pipe. A disadvantage of these force per unit area vass is that, the larger the diameter of the cylinder, the more expensive, so that for illustration the most economical form of a 1,000A litres ( 35 cuA foot ) , 250A barsA ( 3,600A pounds per square inch ) force per unit area vas might be a diameter of 914.4A millimetres ( 36 in ) and a length of 1,702A millimetres ( 67 in ) which includes the 2:1 semi-elliptical vaulted terminal caps.

1.2 Construction Materials

In theory about any stuff with comparatively good tensile belongingss which is stable chemically in the chosen application can be employed. However, application criterions ( ASME BPVC Section II, EN 13445-2 etc. ) and force per unit area vas design codes contain drawn-out lists of stuffs which are approved along with their several restrictions in temperature scope.

Steel is used to do many force per unit area vass. To build a spherical or cylindrical force per unit area vas, rolled and possibly forged parts may hold to be welded together. A few mechanical belongingss of steel obtained by hammering or turn overing might be adversely affected by welding, unless necessary particular safeguards are taken. Current criterions purely recommend the usage of high impact opposition steel, in add-on to adequate mechanical strength, particularly for vass used in low temperature conditions. For applications in which C steel have a opportunity to endure corrosion, particular corrosion immune stuff must be used.

Some force per unit area vass constitute ofA composite stuffs, such as woundA C fiberA held together with a polymer. Due to the highly high tensile strength of C fibre these vass tend to be really light, but are comparatively much more hard to bring forth and fabricate. The composite stuff can be wound around the metal line drive to organize aA composite overwrapped force per unit area vas.

Other really common stuffs includeA polymersA such asA PETA in carbonated drink containers andA copperA in plumbing.

Pressure vass can be lined with different metals, ceramics, or polymers to avoid escape and to protect the construction of the force per unit area vas from the fluid contained indoors. This line drive may besides function to transport a important part of the force per unit area burden.

1.3 Design and operation criterions

Pressure vass should be designed to run without hazards and should be safe at a specific temperature and force per unit area technically referred to as the “ Design Temperature ” and “ Design Pressure ” . A vas that is non adequately designed in order to manage a high force per unit area is a really important safety jeopardy to society. Due to this ground, the enfranchisement and design of force per unit area vass is regulated and governed by design codifications such as theA ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel CodeA in North America.

TheA ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel CodeA ( BPVC ) is aA standardA that provides regulations for the design, A fiction, and review ofA boilersA andA force per unit area vass. A force per unit area constituent designed and fabricated in conformity with this criterion will hold a long, utile service life, and one that ensures the protection of human life and belongings. Volunteers, who are nominated to its commissions based on their proficient expertness and on their ability to lend to the authorship, revising, interpretation, and administering of the papers, write the BPVC.A

Chapter 2

Air Receiver

2.1 Definition

An air receiving system is defined as a force per unit area vas designed for compressed-air installings that are used both to shop tight air and to allow force per unit area to be equalized in the system. It is indispensable to every compressed air system to move as a buffer and a storage medium between the compressor and the ingestion system.

Air receiving systems in tight air systems serve the of import intents of equalising the force per unit area variationA from the start/stop and modulating sequence of the compressor and storage of air volumeA equalising the fluctuation in ingestion and demand from the system. In add-on the receiving systems serve the intent of roll uping condensate and H2O in the air after the compressor. The air receiving system must in general be sized harmonizing to theA fluctuation in the consumptionA demand and the compressor size and theA transition scheme

2.2 Importance of Air Receiver

Air Receiver armored combat vehicles are perfectly indispensable to any compressed air system ; they non merely function as impermanent storage, but besides allow system to execute more expeditiously. Because of the huge force per unit area they contain and because of their importance to an air compressor system, air receiver armored combat vehicles must be built to be exceptionally strong and lasting. To be certain that your air receiving system armored combat vehicles will last for many old ages to come and will be able to manage the force per unit areas of mundane usage, it is perfectly indispensable to buy from reputable traders and trade names.

2.3 Hazards

Lubricating oil sedimentations tend to roll up in the line from the compressor cylinder to the air receiving system which supplies compressed air during operation. As the supply line ‘s diameter becomes lesser, the temperature of the compressed air which is already high additions once more to a point where there is a high opportunity that the contamination will light.

From there flickers are transported into the air receiving system at which point, oil from the compressor, which is largely present as a mixture with air in the air receiving system, burns explosively. As the force per unit area alleviation valve is non designed for such an event, rupture of air receiver vas is likely to happen. In other air compressor accidents, inactive electricity flickers have besides been identified as a beginning of fires and detonations.

ASME should be used for counsel on carry oning an review of Air-Receivers. In general, the extent of the review and how frequently reviews should happen should be sufficient to guarantee proper operation of the force per unit area equipment.

2.4 General Accessories of an Air Receiver

Pressure Relief Valves

Every air armored combat vehicle must be protected by at least one safety valve and other controlling and bespeaking devices that will guarantee safe operation of the armored combat vehicle. If the volumetric capacity of the armored combat vehicle is greater than 2,000 gallons, it should be fitted with two or more safety valves. The smallest of these safety valves should hold a relieving capacity of a lower limit of 50 per centum of that of the largest valve. These commanding and bespeaking devices should be located, constructed and installed in such a manner that they can non be readily rendered inoperative.

Safety valves should be of the direct spring-loaded type. If the force per unit area is 2,000 pounds per square inch or less, it should be equipped with a significant lifting device so that it is possible to easy raise the phonograph record from its place greater than 1/8 the diameter of the place when the force per unit area in the armored combat vehicle is three-fourth of the force per unit area at which the safety valve is supposed to open. For force per unit areas greater than 2,000 pounds per square inch, the lifting device is non necessary provided the valve is checked and tested at least one time every twelvemonth and a record of the trial is kept and made available to the several inspector.

For devices with force per unit areas more than 2,000 pounds per square inch, it is possible to utilize acceptable rupture phonograph record alternatively of spring-loaded safety valves. Every safety valve must be ASME stamped and rated for air force per unit area service. The rupture phonograph record and safety valves should be set to open at non more than the air armored combat vehicle ‘s allowable on the job force per unit area ; moreover the relieving capacity should be plenty to forestall an addition in force per unit area in the armored combat vehicle of more than 10 per centum above the allowable on the job force per unit area when all connected compressors are in operation and at the same time all unloading devices are rendered inoperative.

The cross-sectional country of the gap or connexion between the armored combat vehicle safety valves is at least equal to the combined countries of all the safety valve recesss which are attached. There should non be any valve of any description placed between the air armored combat vehicle and the needed rupture phonograph record or safety valves.

It should be ensured that all safety valves are in good operating status by proving often and at regular intervals. Safety valves up to 200 pounds per square inchs puting must be tested at least one time every month. The cross sectional country of discharge pipes from rupture phonograph record and safety valves installed on air armored combat vehicles should be at least equal to the combined mercantile establishment countries of all the valves that discharge into them, and they are designed and installed in such a manner that that there can non be any intervention with the discharge capacity or proper operation of the rupture phonograph record or safety valve. There should non be any valve of any description in the discharge pipes. All the discharge pipes are fitted with unfastened drains which should forestall the accretion of liquids above the rupture phonograph record or safety valve place. To forestall undue emphasiss on the rupture phonograph record or the safety valve, the discharge pipes should be installed and supported in such a mode. The discharge from all rupture phonograph record and safety valves should be led to a safe topographic point for discharge.

Pressure Gauges

Every air receiving system must be fitted with a suited pressure-indicating gage equipped with the dial graduated to at least 1.2 times the force per unit area at which the safety alleviation valve is designed to map.

Drain Connection

Every air receiving system should be fitted with a manually operated, valve drain nowadays at the lowest point in the receiving system where H2O may roll up. Automatic drains must be fitted with a manually operated beltway. It is suggested that the receiving system is drained one time every twenty-four hours of operation.


Adequate support and commissariats for quiver moistening and enlargement must be installed to constituents attached to receiver and shrieking, to forestall inordinate burden on the receiving system. This should be carried out utilizing flexible connexions at the vas mercantile establishment and recess ( s ) . It is besides suggested that overly long tallies of piping, if in topographic point, should be decently supported and should be provided with daze isolators to cut down fatigue tonss from being transmitted back to the receiving system.

Shrieking from the force per unit area vas receiving system to the first shut off valve should be rated extra-heavy. Fictile piping or tube can ne’er be used for any air distribution system.

Chapter 3

Merchandise intended.

3.1 General Description

One figure 300 three-dimensional pess Vertical type air receiving system with 150 PSI soap working force per unit area and made out of Steel – ASME Grade SA516 GR 70 with

2 ” recess and mercantile establishment noses each

2 ” drain stopper

2 ” alleviation valve

A? ” force per unit area gage

3.2 Partss of Air Receiver

Dish – The terminal parts of the perpendicular air receiving system are dish shaped.

Shell – The shell is made out of 8mm thick steel sheet and its inside diameter is 1585mm and blast tallness is 4100 millimeter.

Nozzles – The air receiving system is provided with seven flanged noses of different sizes – for manus hole, recess, mercantile establishment, drain, blowhole, for force per unit area gage and a spare.

Supports – Four angle support legs and one of them is provided with earthing cleat.

Hoisting mechanism – Three raising Lugs at 610 millimeter radius.

3.3 Basis of Design

Design is based on ASME design codification ASME SEC VIII DIV. 1 ED 2004 & amp ; AD 2005. ASME Code Section VIII, in add-on supported by Sections II ( stuffs ) , V ( NDT/NDE ) and IX ( welding ) – Published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

ASME Code Section VIII, in add-on supported by Sections II ( stuffs ) , V ( NDT/NDE ) and IX ( welding ) . Published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This Division of Section VIII provides demands applicable to the design, fiction, review, proving, and enfranchisement of force per unit area vass runing at either internal or external force per unit areas transcending 15 psig.

Such force per unit area vass may be fired or unfired. Specific demands apply to several categories of stuff used in force per unit area vas building, and besides to fabrication methods such as welding, hammering and brazing.

It contains compulsory and non-mandatory appendices detailing auxiliary design standards, nondestructive scrutiny and review credence criterions. Rules refering to the usage of the U, UM and UV Code symbol casts are besides included.

Scope & A ; Service Restrictions ; General Requirements ; Requirements for Fabrication by Welding, Forging, or Brazing ; Requirements Refering to Classes of Materials for Carbon & A ; Low Alloy Steel ; Nonferrous Materials ; High Alloy Steel ; Cast Iron ; Clad & A ; Lined Vessels ; Cast Ductile Iron Vessels ; Ferritic Steels with Tensile Properties Enhanced by Heat Treatment ; Layered Construction ; High Stresses at Low Temperatures.

3.4 Design Calculations

Cylindrical vas with semi-elliptical terminals:

In a vas with a 2:1A facet ratio, mass of force per unit area vas,

Minimal Plate thickness ( T ) in millimeter is taken as

T = ( PR / ( SE-0.6P ) ) + C.A

P = internal force per unit area design

R = inside radius of the shell class under consideration

S = allowable emphasis value for a SA 516 Gr.70

E = Weld Joint Efficiency

C.A = Corrosion allowance.

3.4 Design of Shell

D – Internal diameter = 62.40 in

C.A – Corrosion Allowance = 0.0000 in

R-Inside radius of shell class under consideration ( in corroded status ) = 31.20 in

P – Internal design force per unit area = 150 pounds per square inch

Internal design temperature = 131 grade F

S – Allowable emphasis value for SA 516 Gr.70 at design conditions = 20000 pounds per square inch

E – Weld Joint Efficiency = 0.85

T – Minimum needed thickness of shell = 0.28 in

Thickness computation for shell under internal force per unit area:

T = ( ( PR ) / ( SE-0.6P ) ) + C.A

( 150.00 * 31.201 ) / ( 20000*0.85 – 0.6*145.04 ) = 0.2768 in

With Corrosion allowance = 0.340 in

As per UG 16 ( B ) ( 4 ) lower limit thicknesses of shells & A ; caputs in steam services shall be ( 3/32 ) inch sole of any corrosion allowance. Hence minimal thickness required inclusive of C.A is 0.156 inch.

Selected thickness = 0.315 inch = 8mm

Ratio of internal diameter to thickness is greater than 15.

There will be two chief emphasiss moving – tangential and longitudinal. Radial emphasis is neglected. It is assumed that digressive emphasis is uniformly distributed over the cylinder wall thickness.


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