Job satisfaction has been mostly examined over the last few decennaries by many cordial reception sectors. Job satisfaction is of much significance in the cordial reception industry because cordial reception is a people concern ( Beck et al. 2006 ) . The cordial reception industry see mensurating occupation satisfaction and recognizing its forecasters is of paramount significance for the undermentioned grounds: ( Defranco & A ; Schmidgall, 2000 )
The human ruling facet of the industry
Keeping labour turnover at a definite degree is of import
Staffs ‘ dis/satisfaction with the services offered
Workforce is the most important component and the simply sustainable success factor of a company. A company is considered to be effectual if it is able to accomplish its ends and aims.
Furthermore, occupation satisfaction is an interesting topic to employees and even research workers. Directors who recognize their workers ‘ occupation satisfaction degrees would do all needed agreement to make a more dynamic on the job environment ( Tutuncu and Kozak, 2007 ) . Companies carry out occupation satisfaction studies in order to manage, manager and retain workers. Therefore occupation satisfaction is of import to successful accomplishment of a company.
Since the start of organizational scientific discipline, staff occupation satisfaction has been considered as of import factor for administration development. Staff behavior and company effectivity are influenced by occupation satisfaction. Directors are seeking hard to act upon occupation satisfaction positively, by placing employees ‘ satisfaction degrees, in order to organize a favorable and dynamic on the job environment. Therefore, bettering occupation satisfaction in administrations has become a twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours treatment. ( Tutuncu and Kozak, 2007 )
IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION
Assorted subjects such as direction scientific disciplines, economic sciences and psychological science have studied occupation satisfaction, which is a common researched capable affair in work and organisations. The ground behind it is that many research workers consider that occupation satisfaction influence workers ‘ public presentation, efficiency, enterprise, absenteeism and turnover. Furthermore, occupation satisfaction is considered an of import factor to calculate an person ‘s public assistance in general and his purposes to either maintain or discontinue his occupation. Harmonizing to Chi ( 2009 ) employee satisfaction is really important in assisting organisations to make their fiscal marks. The deduction of this statement is that if direction wage close attending to their employees, the latter will certainly take attention of the clients. Satisfied workers shall be more motivation and endeavoured than disgruntled 1s. Currently, service organisations are puting a batch for employee keeping, as about all cordial reception experts believe that diminishing employee turnover shall impact on the bottom-line. Furthermore, satisfied workers are more likely to give better service, which shall ensue in a satisfactory service experience.
POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES OF JOB SATISFACTION
Surveies have revealed that there is a positive but weak relationship between occupation satisfaction and productiveness ( Johns, 1996 ) . Luthans ( 1989 ) as good agrees with John ‘s statement. Harmonizing to Ostroff ( 1992 ) , companies with more satisfied workers are more effectual than companies with fewer workers. Hence, the more satisfied workers are more productive and consequence in higher effectivity of companies. Luthans farther adds that the most satisfied worker is non needfully the most productive employee. Furthermore, Robbins et Al. ( 2003 ) province that at organisational degree, there is a strong association between occupation satisfaction and productiveness which is non the same at single degree.
Organizational committedness is the degree to which workers show a strong willingness to remain in their company. They have the desire to work difficult towards the success of their organisation. Employees who are committed to their organisation, they really develop degrees of satisfaction consistent with their committedness ( Aldag and Kuzuhara, 2002 )
Negative CONSEQUENCES OF JOB SATISFACTION
Harmonizing to Spector ( 1997 ) employees who do non wish their occupations may see negative physical and mental wellness jobs. However, Luthans ( 2002 ) contradicts Spector and provinces that workers with high degrees of occupation satisfaction experience enhanced mental and physical wellness.
Every company would wish to hold the minimal rate of employee absenteeism as the latter is an indicant of hapless staff occupation satisfaction. Hellriegel, Slocum and Woodman ( 1989 ) province that occupation satisfaction degree is linked to absenteeism. Absenteeism is a manner to fly a disagreeable working ambiance ( Nel et al. 2004 ) . Rollinson et Al. ( 1999 ) affirm that there is an reverse association between occupation satisfaction and absenteeism. Hence as occupation satisfaction additions, absenteeism shall diminish. However, Johns ( 1996 ) found a moderate relationship between occupation satisfaction and absenteeism. Robbins et Al. ( 2003 ) further study that the moderate relationship between the two variables is due to factors like ill foliages and employees ‘ clip off.
Employee turnover is the voluntary or nonvoluntary lasting backdown from a company. Voluntary turnover may happen, as possibly workers want to seek new occupation chances or they want to show their dissatisfaction with occupations. French ( 2003 ) states that high employee turnover rate is due to dissatisfaction of workers at their workplace. Research conducted by Steel and Ovalle ( 1984 ) found that a moderate relationship between occupation satisfaction and turnover which implies that less satisfied employees are more likely to go forth their occupations.
CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION
Job satisfaction is described by Spector ( 1997 ) as how an employee feels about his occupation. Ellickson and Logsdon ( 2002 ) further support Spector ‘s statement by specifying occupation satisfaction as the degree to which workers like and bask their work.
The term occupation satisfaction is comprised of a scope of coveted and non-desired occupation happenings. It is every bit good defined as the grade of tantrum between occupation features and the outlooks of the worker. This type of ‘fit ‘ that workers are in hunt of can be split into several classs: intrinsic work involvement, salary & A ; wagess, professional relationship and degree of control. Thus the construct of occupation satisfaction is multidimensional as for illustration, workers can derive satisfaction with colleagues but dissatisfied with their work itself. Based on this construct, occupation satisfaction occurs if outlooks are fulfilled, otherwise the effects of hapless working experiences result to dissatisfaction ( Hoynala, 2009 )
Job satisfaction can be defined as an emotional reaction to find how good the outlooks and hopes of workers have been met ( Luthans, 1989, cited in Hall, Nuko, Peltzer & A ; Zuma, 2005 ) .
Harmonizing to Tagavi et Al. ( 2010 ) , occupation satisfaction is an property which recognizes the sum of people ‘s concern about their occupation and penchant to their professions.
Keplor and Minor ( 1994 ) stated that occupation satisfaction is the accomplishment and pleasance addition from one ‘s occupation. It is non the wage, publicity and benefits but the good experiences from the occupation that create satisfaction.
Steyn and Van Wyn ( 1999, cited in Hall, Nuko, Peltzer and Zuma, 2005 ) has illustrated occupation satisfaction in his research as the satisfaction happening from an employee ‘s feeling of his occupation.
As per Nelson & A ; Quick ( 2006 ) , occupation satisfaction is an agreeable status which comes from the positive rating of a worker ‘s occupation experiences.
FEATURES OF JOB SATISFACTION
There are two characteristics in order to understand the construct of occupation satisfaction ( Cherrington 1994 ) and they are:
Facet satisfaction can be described as the inclination for a worker to be either really satisfied or less satisfied with the different facets of his occupation like salary, supervising, working conditions, colleagues, professional relationship, work itself and chances for publicity ( Johns, 1998 ) . Job satisfaction of workers would be known by the degree of satisfaction based on the assorted occupation facets.
Job satisfaction is a important characteristic which administrations wish for their workers. Overall satisfaction is all about the interior status of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the individual. Satisfaction, described as pleasant co-workers, good wage, sympathetic supervisors and attractive occupations, consequence to positive experiences of the person. Whereas hapless wage, non-inspiring occupations and disapproval among co-workers are causes of dissatisfaction, taking to negative experiences of the worker. Hence, overall satisfaction is a feeling which depends on the strength of positive and negative experiences. ( Cherrington, 1994 ) . Hence, occupation satisfaction would be the amount of the satisfaction of each occupation facet.
JOB SATISFACTION THEORIES
Job Satisfaction has been categorized into three theoretical models and they are content theories, procedure theories and situational theories.
Maslow ( 1954 ) and Herzberg ( 1966 ) are the two content theoreticians who stated that when demands are fulfilled they lead to overall occupation satisfaction ( Locke, 1976 ) . As per Locke, content theoreticians said that true occupation satisfaction could be obtained by giving single sufficient duty to allow them develop psychologically. If employees are given this chance to turn mentally, later occupation satisfaction is the pleasant emotional province after one ‘s work experience. An person ‘s demand can be fulfilled by the work itself ( Herzberg ) and the environment ( Maslow ) .
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow studies that occupation environment has a hierarchal demand which begins with the single demands met by the occupation and so further higher sophisticated demands will hold to be met.
Abdullah ( 2002 ) claims that Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands is categorized into 5 degrees:
Degree 1 ( Psychological Needs )
The first degree is the about the satisfaction of psychological demands, which influence positively the worker ‘s competency ( Edwards, 1993 cited in Arnolds & A ; Boshoff, 2001 ) . Today, psychological demands are satisfied through monthly just wages. These demands are met if the worker has good working conditions, attractive wages ; subsidise lodging and free repasts at work topographic point ( Huczynski & A ; Buchanana, 1991 )
Degree 2 ( Safety Needs )
Degree 2 is comprised of the safety demands of the employee. At this degree, the employer must do available to the worker a secure working atmosphere ( Abdullah, 2002 ) . Safety for the employee implies occupation security and periphery benefits, which shall better his occupation public presentation ( Smith and Tisak, 1993 cited in Arnolds & A ; Boshoff, 2001 ) . Level 1 and Level 2 are primary demands and the last 3 degrees are the secondary demands.
Degree 3 ( Social Needs )
Degree 3 is about the employee ‘s societal demands, concentrating on the professional relationship with co-workers and higher-ups ( Abdullah, 2002 ) . Employees need to belong to societal group to get the better of solitariness. This degree of demand is achieved through frequent contacts with people. At this phase, workers ‘ societal support is of import to better their work accomplishments.
Degree 4 ( Esteem Needs )
At this phase, the regard needs is divided in two subdivisions:
Esteem demands are classified as internal and external. Internal demands are related to self-esteem, like accomplishment, capableness and assurance to confront the hard and nerve-racking working atmosphere. External demands are related to repute, position and work acknowledgment. When these esteem demands are fulfilled, the employee addition more assurance and strength.
Degree 5 ( Self Actualization )
Degree 5 is the last degree of Maslow ‘s hierarchy. When the old 4 degrees are satisfied to the full, it is so the self-actualization demands are considered ( Heller & A ; Hindle, 1998 ) . The employee ‘s self realization demands are improved by chances for publicity, independency, disputing undertakings and usage of one ‘s accomplishments.
Herzberg named the hierarchal demand as a ‘two factor ‘ theory of actuating occupation attitudes. Herzberg stated hygiene factors ( extrinsic ) which are supervising, working conditions, professional relationship, colleagues and wage are the causes of dissatisfaction. The motivational factors ( intrinsic ) which are the work itself and chances for publicity motivate people to work. Herzberg ‘s and Maslow ‘s theories were important for the rating of occupation satisfaction.
From a company ‘s point of position, occupation satisfaction is imperative, as it consequences to high dedication of employees towards their administration and this high committedness farther leads to company ‘s success and accomplishment as a whole ( Feinstein, 2000 ) . Determinedly, employees who are dissatisfied with their work leave the company, this lessening motive of the staffs who are still working at that place. Hence, workers become hapless performing artists and less competent and they may interrupt the working environment and discontinue their occupation ( Sonmezer and Eryaman, 2008 )
Factors THAT AFFECT JOB SATISFACTION IN TERMS OF HERZBERG ‘S Theory
Reflect Job Context and lower degree demands
Negative Job Environment create demands for
Good working conditions
Degree of dissatisfaction
Degree of occupation public presentation
Degree of satisfaction
Reflect occupation content and higher degree demands
Positive Job Opportunities allow worker to accomplish
Beginning: Grobler et Al. ( 2002, p. 107 ) .
Herzberg ‘s two factor theory is an of import model for directors who wish to understand occupation satisfaction and related occupation dimensions ( Schermerhorn, 1993 ) . Herzberg ‘s two factor helps to retrieve that occupations have two chief facets: Job content ( occupation undertakings ) and Job context ( work environment in which they work ) . Directors should all the clip eliminate the hapless hygiene factors of occupation dissatisfaction and heighten the incentive factors so as to increase occupation satisfaction.
Vroom ( 1964 ) and Adams ( 1963 ) are the two procedure theoreticians who discussed about occupation satisfaction including values, demands and outlooks ( Gruneberg, 1979 ) . Gruneberg stated that some individuals wish to accomplish higher than others and when a occupation offer no chance for accomplishments, therefore these persons become more disturbed compared to those people who have minimum demands. Adams affirmed that what workers contribute to their work in a ratio compared with the consequences they obtained from their work. If the employees identified that the consequence of their difficult work is non equal to their colleagues, there will be no equity and therefore taking to occupation dissatisfaction.
Glisson & A ; Durick ( 1988 ) and Quarstein et Al. ( 1992 ) are the situational theoreticians who consider that occupation satisfaction is the result of interaction of workers, their work itself and occupation dimensions ( Hoy & A ; Miskel, 1996 ) . They illustrated 3 occupation dimensions:
Individual features, which include age, gender, degree of instruction.
Job features, which include salary, work challenge, occupation assortment and occupation importance.
Company features, which include supervising, advice, civilization and professionalism.
Glisson and Durick tried to do usage of these 3 occupation dimensions to calculate occupation satisfaction. In their research, they found out occupation features to be the highest determiner of occupation satisfaction.
However, Quarstein et Al. disconnected occupation features into situational features ( worker rating before accepting a occupation ) and situational happenings ( worker rating after accepting a occupation ) . Harmonizing to the writers, overall satisfaction can be better known based on situational features and situational happenings together.
JOB SATISFACTION MEASUREMENT THEORIES
7 occupation satisfaction dimensions from Smith, Kendall & A ; Hulin ( 1969 ) , Weiss, Davis, England & A ; Lofquist ( 1977 ) and Paul E.Spector ( 1994 ) will be adapted by the writer throughout this research.
Research workers have proposed several theories for uncovering satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees ‘ at work. Each theory gives a different aspect of occupation satisfaction.
Job Descriptive Index ( Smith, Kendal & A ; Hulin, 1969 )
The JDI assesses satisfaction through the 5 aspects of occupations which is comprised of: Work itself, salary, supervising, colleagues and publicity. JDI is a technique which is easy to utilize with low educated persons, as it includes inquiries on likert graduated table and individual word replies, like Yes or No. The 5 factors are used to mensurate the degree of occupation satisfaction and a drumhead inquiry is used to mensurate the overall occupation satisfaction degree. The inquiry can be as follows: ‘I enjoy making my occupation ‘ .
Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire ( Weiss, Davis & A ; England, 1967 )
The MSQ steps intrinsic satisfaction, extrinsic satisfaction and general satisfaction as the amount of the two. Intrinsic satisfaction includes accomplishment, independency, security and assortment. Extrinsic satisfaction includes wage, publicity, policies, supervising, colleagues and working conditions.
Porter ‘s demand and satisfaction questionnaire
It is based on Maslow ‘s demand hierarchy. Maslow ‘s theory is established on run intoing the demands of primary human demands ( physiologic and safety demands ) and secondary demands ( being liked, being respected and the demand to turn out ) . From this point of position, Porter correlates the conditions of what employees presently perceive and ideally accept ( Strawser, 2000 )
Face Scale ( Kunin 1955 )
In this method, the respondent is requested to take the most appropriate face figure which represents how likely they are satisfied or dissatisfied with the properties under probe.
Job Satisfaction Survey ( Spector 1985 )
Spector ( 1985 ) developed Job Satisfaction Survey which measures 9 aspects of satisfaction including: Traditional nature of work, supervising, colleagues, publicity, wage, benefits, contingent wagess, runing processs and communicating. Entire satisfaction was assessed as the mean of the 9 aspects.
Ancestors OF JOB SATISFACTION
The factors act uponing occupation satisfaction are: ( Nel et al. , 2004 )
The conceptual model followed the aims of the survey and was developed by incorporating variables from different theories on occupation satisfaction from literature reappraisal. Independent variables were classified into occupation satisfaction dimensions ( work itself, wage, supervising, chances for publicity, professional relationship, working conditions and colleagues ) and personal factors ( gender, age, educational degree, old ages of service, station occupied )
Independent Variables Dependent Variable
Opportunities for publicity
Old ages of service
Harmonizing to Qu, Ryan & A ; Chu ( 2001 ) , the work itself is one of the dimensions of occupation satisfaction and it holds much importance, as the employee ‘s occupation satisfaction depends on it ( Locke, 1995 ) . Robbins et Al. ( 2003 ) described work itself as the degree to which the employee is inspired with his occupation and obtain chances to come on in his calling. Employees get satisfaction when their occupations give them the chances to use and capablenesss in existent work state of affairss ( Robbins, 1993 ) . Lacey ( 1994 ) states that workers gain more satisfaction when their occupations gave their psychological and physical encouragement. Nevertheless, Johns ( 1996 ) opposed the statement of writer Lacey and affirms that there exist employees who prefer simple and hardworking occupations. Most important to staffs ‘ occupation satisfaction is to do them believe that their occupation is of import and their duties have an of import consequence on their administrations. It is non necessary that employees find all their functions and duties animating but the employees should be made cognizant of the significance of their undertakings which lead to company ‘s success.
All workers wish for sensible wage and when they are good paid they finally turn into satisfied persons. In 2000, Oshagbemi carried out a research in UK and he found a major relationship between wage and occupation satisfaction. On the other manus, Young, Worchel and Woehr ( 1998 ) were non successful during their survey in puting an association between wage and occupation satisfaction. Clark ( 2005 ) excessively states that wage is non the lone major factor taking to occupation satisfaction. Furthermore, Brainard ( 2005 ) during his PhD research established an highly hebdomad association between wage and occupation satisfaction. As per the Social Comparison theory of Sweeney and Mc Farlin ( 2005 ) points out employees are influenced at the clip when they judge their salary with their co-workers. Therefore, the higher is their wage the more importance they receive as an person.
Employees consider fringe benefits as being really of import and they can even decline extremely paid occupations in favour of more attractive benefit bundles. Workers in cordial reception sectors like Airports of Mauritius ( AML ) are likely to hold one of the topmost grades of occupation satisfaction of any other sector. The ground is that AML staffs receive many travel chances and this typical benefit is free or decreased free transit and this element attracts many occupation searchers.
Supervision is an of import factor linked to occupation satisfaction where the supervisor should be able to supply emotional support and proficient aid to his subsidiaries ( Robbins et al. , 2003 ) . Supervisors are responsible for the low or high degree of assurance of employees at workplace ( Ramsey, 1997 ) . The manner a supervisor behave and near his employees may every bit good find occupation satisfaction degree of the worker ( Sherman & A ; Bohlander, 1992 ) . Wech ( 2002 ) states that high professional relationship brings high degree of occupation satisfaction and a trusting relationship is developed with the supervisor and his subsidiary.
Survey on supervising agencies finding the degree to which workers gain satisfaction from the professional relationship with their superior, that is, the leading manner. Rollinson et al. , ( 1999 ) depict two chief types of leading manners: Autocratic and Democratic. The leading manner can farther be divided and therefore there are four manners of leading in any company. First of wholly, there is wholly bossy, whereby the leader is highly rigorous and utilizations fear in his method of working. The determinations are taken by the higher-ups merely. Then there is the partly bossy manner, where the superior gives wagess to actuate their subsidiaries and subsidiaries are involved really small in determination devising. Third, there is advisory manner, where subsidiaries are consulted for some activities but still it is the direction who takes the chief determinations. Finally there is democratic manner where there is entire staff engagement. The higher-ups and subsidiaries have a really close professional relationship and determination devising involves both operational and direction degree.
In 1999 Packard and Kauppi carried out a research and found that workers holding democratic supervisors are more satisfied than employees holding bossy or laissez faire supervisors. Careful appraisal and determinations must be taken during choice of a supervisor. However, one must bear in head that first-class workers are non all the clip model supervisors. A supervisor has complex functions and duties. All supervisors need good direction endowments and the aptitude to handle all workers reasonably.
Opportunities for publicity
A publicity means a move up to a higher station, with more duties and better fiscal wagess ( Aldags and Kuzuhura, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to Pergamit & A ; Veum ( 1999 ) ; Peterson et al. , ( 2003 ) ; Sclafane ( 1999 ) , occupation satisfaction is linked to chances for publicity. Ellickson and Logsdon ( 2002 ) agree with the statement above and they conducted a research on municipal authorities workers. They affirmed a positive relationship between chances for publicity and occupation satisfaction. In the past history, writers have widely discussed on occupation satisfaction which is associated with employee ‘s perceptual experience of equity. Percept of equity is described the degree to which a worker perceives the manner he is treated on a just footing comparison to other employees in the administration. ( Khalifa, 2010 ) . Employees are satisfied with publicity when the latter are frequent, of import and desirable. Nevertheless, merely giving wagess does non vouch occupation satisfaction. Satisfaction with publicity is every bit good dependent on attempts placed in making one ‘s occupation. Furthermore McKenna states that the degree of satisfaction besides depends on how the company deals with publicities. The publicity system may be virtue based, experienced based or the combination of both. Actually, employees experience occupation satisfaction when publicity determinations are taken in a just manner.
Kreitner and Kinicki ( 2001 ) affirm that helpful and pleasant co-workers lead to increasing degree of occupation satisfaction. Madison ( 2000 ) carried out a research on 21000 adult females from high places and found that the adult females suffered from occupation dissatisfaction because they did non hold the support of their co-workers at work. Furthermore, Berta ( 2005 ) did a study with 1250 Food Brand workers and a positive association was found between relationship among colleagues and occupation satisfaction.
Some aspect forming portion of employee occupation satisfaction is the societal contact it brings, therefore leting staffs some clip for socialisation, for illustration, during lunch clip. This farther develop
friendly relationship and teamspirit at work topographic point. Employees spend most of their clip at work with their co-workers and co-operative work couples lead to occupation satisfaction. Today, in all companies, undertakings are carried out as teamwork. Rollinson et Al. ( 1999 ) affirm that employees working in squads obtain more occupation satisfaction compared to workers in non-cohesive group. Non-cohesive groups are those who do non like working in each other ‘s company despite holding same aims. Organisations benefits a batch from high degree occupation satisfaction when there are several cohesive groups working together. Professional relationship among co-workers depends on how they communicate among themselves. Without good communicating, they would non be efficient, work good together and be satisfied with their occupations.
When making a survey on occupation satisfaction, working status becomes an of import factor to see. Every employee wants for working conditions which give highest comfort. Harmonizing to McKenna ( 2000 ) when working conditions are of good quality, impressive, secured and comfy, it creates occupation satisfaction, although non basically high occupation satisfaction. However, the deficiency of such on the job conditions causes a bad impact on employees ‘ physical wellbeing, which prevents him to give his best at work ( Baron and Greenberg, 2003 ) . Working conditions will positively act upon occupation satisfaction when employees are provided with a comfy working atmosphere. Arnold and Feldman ( 1996 ) explains that elements like illuming, cleanliness, noise, working hours, temperature, airing and resources form portion of working conditions. When occupations are physical difficult and mentally ambitious and upon it the on the job conditions are hapless, this finally leads to low on the job public presentation. On the other manus, Arnold and Feldman ( 1996 ) reported that if on the job conditions are excessively O.K.ing, so this could do the employees take their work for granted. Furthermore, employees use hapless on the job conditions as a justification to discourse with direction, as the workers may believe that the company does non acknowledge their difficult work. For this ground, Arnold and Feldman ( 1996 ) deem indispensable to analyze how on the job conditions influence employees ‘ satisfaction. If all equipment and installations are up-to-date, it is obvious this will actuate employees to work and therefore taking to occupation satisfaction.
PERSONAL CORRELATES AND JOB SATISFACTION
Personal correlatives are classified into age, gender, old ages of service, educational degree and station occupied.
Age and occupation satisfaction
Several surveies have shown a relationship between age and occupation satisfaction. Drafke and Kossen ( 2002 ) claimed that older workers are normally better-off with their occupation than the younger employees, while experienced worker are more extremely satisfied than less experient 1s. Job satisfaction rises with age, as older workers possess more on the job experience, therefore they have more sensible vision of work and life compared to the younger workers.
Mottaz ( 1987 ) states that there are 4 of import factors explicating the nexus between age and occupation satisfaction.
Cohort differences may hold an influence on age and occupation satisfaction relationship. Younger workers give more importance to intrinsic wagess such as disputing undertakings, whereas older workers are more affiliated to extrinsic wagess like salary and fringe benefits.
Sing that older workers hold more senior status and working experience, therefore they move towards fulfilling occupations really effortlessly.
Older workers consider wagess such as interesting occupation and publicity as secondary seeing that they are hard to obtain. Thus they are less demanding and are more satisfied than the immature workers.
Theory of adjustment
Harmonizing to the theory of adjustment, after working in an administration for some clip, the workers adjust themselves to the conditions of the workplace, they stay as satisfied staffs.
However, Luthans and Thomas ( 1989 ) cited in Oshagbemi ( 2003 ) found that the relationship between age and occupation satisfaction was curvilineal instead than linear. Kalleberg and Lascocco ( 1983 ) agree with the above statement and affirm that occupation satisfaction rises till the age of 40, and so it drops down. They have 3 accounts for hapless occupation satisfaction for worker above 40 old ages.
Theory of adjustment
Luthans and Thomas ( 1989 ) contradicts Mottaz ( 1987 ) on the above theory, and harmonizing to them, during the procedure of adjustment, older worker bend to be more and more disgruntled with their occupations as their degree of outlook lessening with clip.
Earlier retirement may be the cause of occupation dissatisfaction and in order to warrant early retirement, the worker may experience that his occupation is non fulfilling.
Increased force per unit area
Factors like new engineerings, work overload and productiveness aims make older workers experience increased force per unit area taking to occupation dissatisfaction.
However, Siassi et al. , ( 1975 ) are non of same sentiment with Luthans and Thomas and describe high grade of occupation satisfaction in employees above 40 compared to workers less than 40, despite their old ages of service. They explain this fact by an addition in get bying capacity with age.
Gender and occupation satisfaction
Many research workers ( Mason, 1995 and Mottaz, 1986 ) have studied association between gender and occupation satisfaction. But about all surveies between gender and occupation satisfaction have yielded contradictory ( Chiu, 1998 ) . Murray and Atkinson ( 1981 ) studied the relationship between gender and occupation satisfaction and found that adult females give more importance on the societal facet of a occupation, while work forces value factors like wage, calling growing and other extrinsic facets. Tang and Talpade ( 1999 ) maintain this sentiment of other research workers and their survey stated that work forces are extremely satisfied with wagess compared to adult females, while the latter are more satisfied with colleagues ( socialisation ) than males.
Contrary to the above statement, Robbins et Al. ( 2003 ) stated that there is no cogent evidence that gender influences occupation satisfaction. They are of positive sentiment that gender has an influence on the association of occupation dimension and occupation satisfaction ; nevertheless it does non hold direct influence on occupation satisfaction.
Furthermore, DeSantis and Durst ( 1996 ) agree with Robbins et Al. and reported that gender and occupation satisfaction are non related due to several factors. For adult females, a occupation extremely based on societal satisfaction but short on skill use and calling chances may outcome as high occupation satisfaction. Whereas, in occupations low in socialisation and high in calling oriented are more for work forces. When these factors are considered, there is small grounds to province that there is relationship between gender and occupation satisfaction. There is no such convincing motivation, to believe that equal instruction, occupation and publicities, chances to do usage of one ‘s accomplishments to confront work challenge, adult females would be less satisfied than work forces at work.
During the recent old ages, adult females ‘s part in the labor market has finally shattered the perceptual experience that adult females are the fringy section of the whole labor force. Women wish for superior stations, high wages and equal associate in professional treatments. Social function theoreticians affirm that as sex stereotypes originated from the long established labour division, sex turn out to be a set of function outlooks which persons generalize throughout different social fortunes. These state of affairss are names as ‘sex-role spillover ‘ . When a female worker moves higher to a managerial station, her calling differs from the male workers which reflect the sex-role spillover. This may negatively act upon adult females ‘s public presentation and occupation satisfaction ( Grobelny and Wasiak, 2010 ) .
Old ages of service ( term of office ) and occupation satisfaction
Old ages of service refers to the figure of old ages an employee has spent at his work. Ronen ( 1978 ) cited in Oshagbemi ( 2003 ) studied the relationship between old ages of service and occupation satisfaction. Harmonizing to Ronen, his hypothesis confirms that alteration in occupation satisfaction degree with old ages of service expressions like a U-shaped curve. During initial old ages at workplace, employee satisfaction lessenings and corsets low for several old ages, after which it rises. As adulthood additions in an person, the preliminary outlooks decreases to a realistic phase, therefore the employees ‘ outlooks become more accomplishable and taking to more occupation satisfaction. Intrinsic satisfaction with a occupation contributes mostly to overall satisfaction of plants as clip goes on. Hence, old ages of service are associated to both occupation satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Oshagbemi ( 2000 ) affirmed that the lifting in occupation satisfaction over old ages of service is due to factors like occupation security and stableness and chances like publicity and wagess. On the other manus, Sarker et Al. ( 2003 ) opposed the above statement and states that longer old ages of service at a work may do ennui to the worker and lead to low degree of occupation satisfaction.
Educational degree and occupation satisfaction
Harmonizing to Kh Metle ( 2003 ) , there is no consistent form on the relationship between degree of educational and occupation satisfaction. Study conducted by Glenn and Weaver ( 1982 ) reported a positive relationship between degree of instruction and occupation satisfaction. Nevertheless, Gruneberg ( 1980 ) found a negative association between instruction degree and occupation satisfaction. Kh Metle ( 2003 ) as good states that the degree of occupation satisfaction decreases as when the educational degree additions, as the workers ‘ outlooks are non met by the employers.
Post occupied ( Rank ) and occupation satisfaction
Post occupied refers to occupation position an single holds at his work. It defines the senior status of the worker. Miles et Al. ( 1996 ) stated that station occupied ( rank ) is an of import determiner of a worker ‘s occupation satisfaction degree. By and large, literature provinces that rank is a reliable forecaster of occupation satisfaction, as employees at higher stations are more satisfied with their occupations than employees at lower ranks.