A planimetric map presents merely the horizontal places for the characteristics represented. It is distinguished from a topographic map by the skip of alleviation. usually represented by contour lines. Sometimes. it is called a line map. Topographical Map. A topographic map portrays terrain characteristics in a mensurable manner. every bit good as the horizontal places of the characteristics represented. The perpendicular places. or alleviation. are usually represented by contour lines on military topographic maps. On maps demoing alleviation. the lifts and contours are measured from a specific perpendicular data point plane. normally mean sea degree. Photomap. A photomap is a reproduction of an aerial exposure upon which grid lines. fringy informations. topographic point names. path Numberss. of import lifts. boundaries. and approximative graduated table and way have been added. Joint Operations Graphics. Joint operations artworks are based on the format of standard 1:250. 000 medium-scale military topographic maps. but they contain extra information needed in joint air-ground operations.
Along the North and east borders of the in writing. item is extended beyond the standard map sheet to supply overlap with next sheets. These maps are produced both in land and air formats. Each version is identified in the lower border as either joint operations graphic ( air ) or joint operations in writing ( land ) . The topographic information is indistinguishable on both. but the land version shows lifts and contour in metres and the air version shows them in pess. Layer ( lift ) tinting and alleviation shading are added as an assistance to extrapolating alleviation. Both versions emphasize airlanding installations ( shown in purple ) . but the air version has extra symbols to place AIDSs and obstructors to air pilotage. Photomosaic. A arial mosaic is an assembly of aerial exposure that is normally called a mosaic in topographic use.
Mosaics are utile when clip does non allow the digest of a more accurate map. The truth of a Mosaic depends on the method employed in its readying and may change from merely a good pictural consequence of the land to that of a planimetric map. Terrain Model. A terrain theoretical account is a scale theoretical account of the terrain screening characteristics. and in large-scale theoretical accounts demoing industrial and cultural forms. It provides a agency for visualising the terrain for planning or indoctrination intents and for briefing on assault landings. Military City Map. A military metropolis map is a topographic map ( normally at 1:12. 550 graduated table. sometimes up to 1:5. 000 ) . demoing the inside informations of a metropolis.
It delineates streets and shows street names. of import edifices. and other elements of the urban landscape of import to pilotage and military operations in urban terrain. The graduated table of a military metropolis map depends on the importance and size of the metropolis. denseness of item. and available intelligence information. Particular Maps. Particular maps are for particular intents such as trafficability. communications. and assault maps. They are normally in the signifier of an surprint in the graduated tables smaller than 1:100. 000 but larger than 1:1. 000. 000. A particular intent map is one that has been designed or modified to give information non covered on a standard map. The broad scope of topics that could be covered under the header of particular purpose maps prohibits. within the range of this manual. more than a brief reference of a few of import 1s. Some of the topics covered are:
* Terrain characteristics.
* Drainage features.
* Seashores and set downing beaches.
* Roads and Bridgess.
* Urban countries.
* Electric power.
* Surface H2O resources.
* Ground H2O resources.
* Natural building stuffs.
* Cross-country motions.
* Suitability for airfield building.
* Airborne operations.
If military maps are non available. utilize utility maps. The replacement maps can run from foreign military or commercial maps to field studies. The NGA can supply black and white reproductions of many foreign maps and can bring forth its ain maps based upon intelligence. Foreign Maps. Foreign maps have been compiled by states other than our ain. When they must be used. the fringy information and grids are changed to conform to our criterions. if clip licenses. The graduated tables may differ from our maps. but they do show the ratio of map distance to land distance and can be used in the same manner. The fable must be used since the map symbols about ever differ from ours.
Because the truth of foreign maps varies well. they are normally evaluated in respect to established truth criterions before they are issued to our military personnels. Atlases. Atlases are aggregations of maps of parts. states. continents. or the universe. Such maps are accurate merely to a grade and can be used for general information merely. Geographic Maps. Geographic maps supply an overall thought of the mapped country in relation to climate. population. alleviation. flora. and hydrography. They besides show the general location of major urban countries.
Tourist Road Maps. Tourist route maps are maps of a part in which the chief agencies of transit and countries of involvement are shown. Some of these maps show secondary webs of roads. historic sites. museums. and beaches in item. They may incorporate route and clip distance between points. The graduated table should be carefully considered when utilizing these maps. City/Utility Maps. City/utility maps are maps of urban countries demoing streets. H2O canals. electricity and telephone lines. and cloacas. Field Sketches. Field studies are preliminary drawings of an country or piece of terrain. Aerial Photographs. Aerial exposure can be used as map addendums or replacements to assist you analyse the terrain. be after your path. or steer your motion.