Physiological Theories The Area Of Adolescent Development Criminology Essay

“ Adolescences is non merely a continuance of childhood, it marks the existent passage from dependance of childhood to the independency of maturity ” ( Carlson 2004 216 ) . Peter is at a ulterior phase of his stripling development and will hold already completed a batch of the physical alterations associated with pubescence. Harris and Butterworth discourse how adolescence is marked by new signifiers of believing particularly in footings of wisdom, moral and ethical ideals. They besides describe adolescence as a clip of preoccupation originating from the effect of systematic thought that is now possible with their new capacity for abstract idea.

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There are a figure of physiological theories in the country of stripling development including Paget ‘s Formal operational thought phase, Freud ‘s Genital phase and Erikson ‘s phase of Identity v function confusion. Erickson uses Freud ‘s theories of development and as described by Thompson Erickson has significantly built upon them to develop the eight phases of adult male. Peter would be at the phase 5 of this theory Identity v function confusion. As stated by Lipsitz ( no Date ) when discoursing Erickson adolescence have seven different phases of struggle to decide before this phase of development is complete.

“ Not until adolescence does an single see himself as holding a past and a hereafter which are entirely his ” ( Lipsitz: no date:4 )

Harmonizing to Freud ( 2001 ) we all have unconsciously repressed inclinations that are at odds with societies norms, for illustration impulses towards criminalism. Freud farther discussed how these inclinations are controlled by our upbringing and our societal norms given to us by our parents. Wrightsman ( 2004 ) confirmed these positions in his findings, reasoning that anti-social behavior and criminalism are more likely to develop in kids and immature grownups who are ill socialised and of low intelligence. While it is acceptable that our parents and upbringing drama a immense function in results for immature grownups such as Peter it is besides of import to see environmental factors. Stern ( 2005 ) discusses the external societal environment factors including where a immature individual grows up and the influences of this country including equals and instruction being every bit important as the influence of parenting.

One of the obvious manifestations of the adolescent phase is the importance they place on their equal group as they clearly align themselves with friends and put in relationships. The importance of equal group to immature grownups has been accepted in much literature related to behavioral and physiological influences. Wrightman 1994 & A ; Stets 2005 discuss how immature people gravitate towards being accepted into a group of likeminded equals and therefore the behavior of an person will be driven by the dominant group members.

Young person offense and anti societal behaviors have been widely publicised and described on juncture as a new phenomenon, as described by Cunningham 2008 menaces to society by a new coevals of anti-social, ill-affected immature people. There is no uncertainty this is a existent fright and many immature people are caught up in this behavior for the grounds outlined in this essay, it is nevertheless arguable that this is non a new phenomenon nor is it worse than in old old ages. Muncie 1999 argues that these frights are over declared and that the coverage of issues and media influences are doing the offense seem on the addition.

Peter has been caught shoplifting which would be classed as junior-grade offense there is no indicant from the instance survey that there are any old offenses so we will presume this is the first. Peter is 16 and the chief purpose of the condemnable justness system in this instance would be to avoid detention and depending on the badness of the larceny a effect may be decided upon without a tribunal visual aspect.

In Northern Ireland we saw the debut of the Youth Justice Agency in 2002 with new and advanced ways of covering with immature wrongdoers aged 10 – 18. One of which is the Youth Conference. Using a renewing justness theoretical account it gives the immature individual the chance to do recompense for the offense they have committed. Examples include run intoing the victim and speaking about the impact the offense has had on them or the immature individual may be given the chance to take part in a local community enterprise as discussed subsequently in this essay.

Cunningham when discoursing junior-grade offense in the context of moral underclass discourse, he explores the possibility that the cause of young person offending could be as a consequence of ‘liberal ‘ condemnable justness policies which he describes as

“ holding removed the menace of disincentive and efficaciously absolved immature felons of duty for their actions ” ( Cunningham:1799:2008 )

When sing Peter, it is clear these external influences are overruling the wants of his female parent and the manner in which she wants him to act. Peter no longer responds to his female parent and is reacting to environmental factors and norms that are laid down by his equal ‘s i.e. anti-social behavior.


The physical and economic conditions that exist within the local community are an illustration of sociological factors refering to Peters wellbeing. For illustration it is good known there is a inclination for lodging conditions to be less equal than private lodging particularly within a tower block composite. Housing estates are built and frequently owned by the governments they frequently consist of people on lower incomes who can non afford to populate in more flush topographic points of higher rent. Particularly in relation to loom blocks historically lack of attending to issues such as care and overcrowding has led to current diminution in equal life conditions. As stated in Housing Association 2005 until late, the degrees of capital investing in these estates has been much lower than in flush countries of local communities.

Populating in these conditions for Peter will hold a important physiological impact upon him and in footings of his physical environment is likely to raise a lower degree of regard from him and other immature people in the country taking to a rise in anti-social behavior. Turner ( 2006 ) discusses immature grownups holding deficiency of regard is driven by the negative emotions they feel about the conditions that they are populating in and their deficiency of value they believe they are in society. These groups signifier and as we have seen in the media young person gang civilization becomes evident. As outlined in studies produced by Home Office ( 2010 ) and ENCAMS ( 2007 ) within local communities groups such as these rise concerns about gang civilization and increasing anti-social behavior. Peter is surely exposing behavior that at his age needs an intercession to interrupt the rhythm of his behaviors such as truanting from school and recent condemnable activity.

Local community enterprises have been set up within deprived communities with the purpose of reconstructing community pride. The authorities pealing fenced money which was so allocated out to communities through different accountable organic structures. The Upper Shankill Area Project in Belfast was granted this money through the Peace and Reconciliation Fund 2006 and every bit outlined in their one-year study 2006 they usedthe money for a community undertaking to reconstruct immature people ‘s pride in the community. Young people similar to Peter were targeted graffito was removed by the immature people and seating designed and created by them erected giving the immature people pride and ownership of their community. This peculiar undertaking was a great success and was developed into undertakings including immature people and aged people. However, over the twelvemonth ‘s community support such as peace and rapprochement money has taken heavy cuts and with the authorities ‘s current budget programs immature people ‘s undertakings such as this will be farther cut, despite the grounds to propose these undertakings are preventive in footings of young person offending and cut downing anti-social behavior.

When analyzing this country is seems that a good manner to interrupt the rhythm for Peter would be through instruction. Education in Great Britain is mandatory until the completion of G.C.S.E tests, nevertheless research would demo us that immature people with Peters background do non achieve good within our instruction system. Cussen and Kingdon 2007 lineation in their study the correlativity between free school repasts and the strong association with low instruction accomplishment which is significantly true of white males. Besides outlined in the study is strong links between immature people from countries of high unemployment and lone parent households and their inclination for low educational accomplishment, all of such factors apply to Peter.

“ Adolescence do non suit neatly into these establishments, as we learn so distressingly every twenty-four hours ” ( Lipsitz: no day of the month: 7 )

Peter has been truanting from school and is withdrawing with instruction. The threshold for Education Welfare Services to go involved is one time a immature individual ‘s attending beads below 70 % . Make the Most of Education ( BELB ) states Education Welfare services purpose to supply a manner to reengage immature people in instruction foremost through back uping them with issues taking to non-school attending and as a last resort they besides hold powers of prosecution both for parents and immature people. However Peter, because of his age is really likely non to have this service at this phase, although Peter is non the legal age for go forthing school he is in his concluding twelvemonth and is likely to be let travel until he is the legal age for go forthing. This determination like so many others in relation to societal policy will be resource lead alternatively of demands lead and the fiscal deductions of seeking to reengage Peter at this phase will overrule that of what he needs.

On contemplation and as outlined in this essay Peter ‘s current place does non travel good for a bright hereafter. It would look Peter is at a hamlets with picks to do about his life. There has been no reference of services in Peters life and the world Is sing the presenting information and due to resources of bureaus being really small Peter would likely non be classed as a kid in demand. A offense nevertheless has been committed and this will see the services of the condemnable justness system who as outlined have had positive consequences from forestalling farther young person piquing.

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