In this globalized universe, instruction has been seen as a really of import function for sustainable development and economic growing of each state. In add-on, both developed and developing states have invested and increased their national budget for instruction from twelvemonth to twelvemonth. However, some disputing issues for instruction still go on, and it varies from one state to another. Developed states have advanced and worldwide acknowledged instruction systems which produce human resources to the highest possible degree, whereas developing states are still fighting to make proper instruction systems for their coevalss. In developing state, there are many issues and challenges of Lower Secondary Education which need to be desperately addressed.
Cambodia is besides a underdeveloped state among the other state members in ASEAN. So far, even there are some positive betterments of lower secondary instruction in Cambodia. For illustration: The publicity rate was 78.40 % , 78.50 % of which was female, the repeat rate was 2 % ( ESP 2 % ) , 1.3 % of which was female ( ESP 1.4 % ) , the dropout rate was 19.60 % ( ESP 17 % ) and 20.2 % of which was female ( ESP 18 % ) . Besides, the Numberss of lower secondary school edifice have been increasing from twelvemonth to twelvemonth ( MoEYS, 2011 ) .
Besides, there were some challenges for lower secondary school such as the registration rate was still low and dropout school rate remained high. Recent statistics has shown that pupils ‘ registration in lower secondary instruction has non increased ( 2009-2010 ) ; it was merely 56 % ( Female 56.1 % ) of overarching registration rate in lower secondary instruction countrywide and dropout rate was 19.60 % ( Female, 20.2 % ) . Furthermore, there were many deficits of nucleus text editions, particularly textbooks for new course of study, secondary instruction inspectors, schoolrooms, libraries, research lab installations and clean H2O, poorness ( particularly in deprived countries ) , and the registration rate was still low and the rate of dropout remained high, administrative direction every bit good as physical and emotional school environment which lead pupils to drop out and happen occupations.
Harmonizing to UNICEF ( 2006 ) , to accomplish Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) requires non merely acquiring all kids into school, but doing certain that all schools work in the best involvement of the kids entrusted to them. This means supplying safe and protective schools that are adequately staffed with trained instructors, equipped with equal resources and graced with appropriate conditions for acquisition ( UNICEF, 2006 ) .
In 2003, the planetary MDGs have been localized in Cambodia and these are called Cambodia Millennium Development Goals ( CMDGs ) which covered by 09 ends ( The Ministry of Planning, 2007 ) . Cambodia has achieved some of those ends and the other still need to better such as the limited advancement in accomplishing the ends of cosmopolitan nine-year basic instruction peculiarly those beyond primary instruction.
Ministry of Education has already done Child Friendly School policy, the aim of dimension 3 emphasized about wellness, safety and protection of kids. To accomplish this nonsubjective nucleus activities have been taking into actions such as making safe nutrient, safe H2O, and hygienic conditions in school, wellness attention for kids, school environment and kid protection ( MoEYS, 2007 ) .
However, the pattern of this policy is really limited. This research will merely concentrate on the strength and failing of physical and emotional school environment and it will research how jobs in physical and emotional school environment can be addressed.
Missing of better school environment, it may do many jobs, peculiarly high dropout rate, low registration rate and high repeat rate which will go a negative impact to pupils ‘ acquisition and the barriers for a whole state development due to the restriction of human resources may be caused. In contrast, whenever it has better school environment, it will supply just measuring to take down secondary schools. In add-on, pupils will acquire the quality of instruction and they will accomplish their end and go productive human resources to develop our society. Besides, when the good consequence of pupils will be shown, school principals and instructors will be satisfied with their occupations and maintain committedness and part for long permanent instruction development.
This research is tend to be an sentiment for sing, and the accidentally misidentify will be occurred. Reacting to this, I am freely looking frontward to seeing other reviews and recommendations.
This research will research and reply to the undermentioned inquiries:
What do rate nice pupils, instructors and school chief identify as being the strength and failing in the school environment for class 9 pupils?
What are grade nice pupils, instructors and school principal ‘ beliefs about how jobs in the school environment can be addressed?
Meaning of Study
This research will supply the benefit to rate 9 pupils and pedagogues, school principal to deeply understand about the strength and failing of their school environment. And it will be attempted to demo how jobs of physical and emotional school environment can be addressed in order to increase enrolment rate and cut down dropout school rate by puting up better school environment applied with the bing Child Friendly School policy of Ministry of Education. Furthermore, this survey will be necessary for other research workers to carry on their research related to lower secondary instruction.
I will reexamine and concentrate merely physical and emotional school environment in literature reappraisal for this paper. The utile resources used for the literature reappraisal were found in: The Hun Sen Library of the Royal University of Phnom Penh and I besides used books, article and studies about school environment from web site of the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport, the Ministry of Planning, Unesco, Unicef, World Bank and Google Scholar.
The physical school environment which includes schoolroom installations, the library, resort area, text edition, category size, and, course of study. Finally, emotional environment includes intimidation, sexual torment, teacher behaviour, school policies, quality of learning. A treatment of the literature written in contexts outside of Cambodia is followed by a reappraisal of stuff that focused on the Kampuchean state of affairs.
The physical School Environment
Acoording to Pulizzi ( 2007 ) , the physical environment includes all countries of the learning establishment ‘s edifices and schoolrooms, pedagogues ‘ suites and houses, residence hall installations, toilets, and resort areas, schoolroom installations, the library, resort area, text edition, category size, and, course of study, substructure, furniture, air, H2O, and stuffs with which kids may link and entree. It besides includes paths to and from the larning establishment, coach Michigans and cab bases, and forests or shrubs near the learning establishment. Policies sing arms, drugs, and gender based force are besides included in physical school environment.
Benveniste, Marshall & A ; Araujo ( 2008 ) wrote their research aimed to supply Cambodia educational state of affairs including the statistic of school substructure for old ages 2003 and 2004. The statistic of the research showed that the chief edifice stuff used in the building of schoolrooms in 2003 and 2004, the first were concrete ; particularly in the urban, the second was wooden and the 3rd was bamboo ; largely was used in the distant country. Besides, the above statistic concluded that both rural country and urban, primary and secondary, the school installations were better equipped and established to make the safe for pupils and hence, they satisfied and enjoyed their acquisition with this substructure. Similarly, Herbert ( 2000 ) reference about the measure and quality of learning services. Class sizes in Kampuchean schools are high about 40 to 50 pupils in each category, doing it hard for instructors to pull off and actuate in the whole category and to guarantee positive acquisition environment. Student aptitude and psychological environments are besides permeant influences on acquisition.
By the same item, we need to take attention of school edifice, land, school stuffs, school equipment such as school latrines, school H2O and sanitation, clean and tidy that attract pupil to larn and they will experience fresh and comfy at any clip when they go to school. The instructors and staffs will besides experience energy which leads to better work wonts in them every bit good ( Curcio & A ; First, 1993 ) . On the other manus, allow pupils portion their thought and input every bit good as part to adorn and pull off their schoolrooms. Then, pupils will experience ownership and they will take attention of their accomplishment to maintain welcoming environment school for their acquisition. Likewise, in order to guarantee just chance, new school edifices have been constructed for all degrees in Cambodia, peculiarly in rural and distant countries and to increase scholarships for hapless pupils. Besides, to better physical school environment, do certain that pupils can easy measure better school environment, together the hygienic wonts of and kids have safe H2O ( MoEYS, 2010 ) .
However, the school environment refers to how to better school wellness publicity ( The World Health Organization, 2002 ) . In this context, schools need to supply t orientation to pupils and all relevant stakeholders to advance healthy feeding and nutrient safety. Therefore, all stakeholders such as school forces, households and community members need to work together in partnership to better school wellness services to cover with wellness jobs and to forestall, cut down and supervise them.
Emotional School Environment
The emotional environment is something which affects pupils ‘ feeling positively and negatively, ‘the country focuses on the activities and assignments that make pupils embarrassed or fright ( Price, 2007 ) . On the other manus, Blum ( 2005 ) added that school environment was influenced by some factors such as disciplinary policies, pupils and instructors ‘ morality. It was non merely considered about school installations such as edifices, lavatories, libraries, ICTs and so on, but schools should included school wellness services and supply sufficient orientation about safe nutrient every bit good as nutrition plans.
Harmonizing to Plan International ( 2008 ) , Children have a right to a safe school and larning without fright every bit good as menaces of force environment. To better emotional school environment school need to cut down bodily penalty every bit much as possible. It occurs when physical force is used by person in a place of authorization against person in his or her attention with the purpose of doing some grade of hurting or uncomfortableness. This can take the signifier of hitting kids with a manus, or with a cane, strap or other object ; kicking, agitating or throwing kids ; rubing, squeezing, seize with teething or drawing hair ; coercing them to remain in uncomfortable places. Vulnerable kids such as disablement, poorness, caste, category, ethnicity or gender is more likely to endure bodily penalty than their equals.
Ministry of Education Youth and Sport ( 2007 ) made Child Friendly School policy which aimed to supply equity, balance, freedom, solidarity, non-violence and concern for physical, mental wellness to pupils. These lead to the development of cognition, accomplishment, values, ethical motives so that kids can populate together in a harmonious manner. Child friendly School plants with all committedness holder, parents, and defenders of pupil and value the many sorts of parts they can do in seeking all the kids to travel to school in development of a acquisition environment for kids and effectual acquisition quality harmonizing to the kids ‘s current and future demand. Therefore, schools should be followed to Child Friendly School policy in order to advance instruction right of kids, and put better school environment for them to successfully accomplish their ends in the hereafter.
A portion of this, Mayer ( 2004 ) stated that school need to orientate pupils and parents on the ways they can do better school environment for pupils. Make this early in the school twelvemonth and repetition it throughout the twelvemonth. It is really of import that a school instructs the parents and the pupils at the beginning of each school twelvemonth on how they can assist do the school a safe and welcoming topographic point.
To carry through the instruction of pupils non merely requires all kids into school, but doing certain that all schools work in the best involvement of the kids entrusted to them. This means supplying safe environment and protective schools that are adequately staffed with trained instructors, equipped with equal resources and graced with appropriate conditions for acquisition ( UNICEF, 2006 ) .
Students, instructors and school principal
School entirely can non make the safe topographic point for pupil ‘learning, it required good cooperation from many parties such as school commission, parent engagement, pupils, instructors, school board member, jurisprudence hatchet mans, authorities officer, pedagogues who take active functions and novice and local occupants. Unless, all the people committed to work together otherwise, school can non be the safe and better environment for pupils ( The Center for Mental Health in Schools, 2007 ) . Besides, there are many schemes to make welcoming school environment such as puting school safety on the instruction docket, school decision makers should ease and organize community attempts which promote safe schools. In add-on, it needs the qualify instructor and the capacity of chief school to work on this for making a safe and welcoming environment school for the pupils. Conversely, to make better school environment, peer struggle direction demand to work out and some utile preparation such as in problem- resolution and preventative scheme, communicating accomplishments and so on should be provided to instructors and school direction to school principal. This will besides turn to some issues related to emotional environment.
As pedagogues, we have a duty to our pupils to do them swear experience confident in their schooling ( UNESCO, 1995 ) . Hence, the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport needs to go on to develop qualified instructors in equal Numberss and efficaciously implement its teacher deployment policy. It will supply them with the chance to analyze at unmarried man every bit good as post-graduate degrees and will therefore increase their basic wages. Then instructors will fulfill in their callings and the will perpetrate to make warmly school environment for pupils ( MoEYS, 2010 ) .
For this ground, Kathleen ( 2003, p. 8 ) besides contributed to make emotional school environment by sharing the undermentioned statement:
“ From the earliest research to the present twenty-four hours, school environment has been identified as the most cardinal component of effectivity. Effective principals bring about this sort of environment by exhibiting personal heat and handiness, guaranting that there is broad-based understanding about criterions for pupil behaviour, pass oning high behavioural criterions to pupils, seeking input from pupils about behavior policies, using regulations systematically from twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours and from pupil to pupil, deputing disciplinary authorization to instructors, and supplying in-school suspension accompanied by support for earnestly riotous pupils. ”