Part Time Work And Job Satisfaction Management Essay

Part clip work

Definition of parttime work differs from state to state as a consequence of which there has been an effort to mensurate parttime work on the footing of a unvarying threshold of usual hours. As approved by the OECD Working party on Employment and Unemployment statistics at its 1996 meeting, parttime occupation is defined as work done for 30 hours or less than 30 hours a hebdomad hence a parttime worker is an employee working less than 30 hours or 30 hours a hebdomad ( OECD 1997, Lemaitre et Al )

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There has been considerable rise in parttime work in the recent old ages and grounds suggests that it is quickly lifting across the OECD, Netherlands ( 36 % of entire employment in 2008 ) , Australia ( 24 % ) , Switzerland ( 26 % ) , UK ( 23 % ) , Germany ( 22 % ) , lower in US ( 12 % ) and France ( 13.4 % ) , ( OECD 2009 ) . Harmonizing to grounds, there is difference in parttime rates across states which can be because of the fluctuations in the legal, societal and economic systems.

The grounds for the rise in parttime work can be attributed to the eroding of internal labor market and a displacement towards flexible house theoretical accounts ( Atkinsons 1984 ) and periphery workers to achieve numerical and fiscal flexibleness, nevertheless it is non merely the employer ‘s pick which determines parttime employment, but it besides depends on a figure of other factors like production systems necessitating non-standard or flexible hours, competitory conditions in the merchandise market, labour ordinances, Government and merchandise brotherhood activity and labour market conditions ( Fagan et al 1995 ) . A lag in economic activity where unemployment is high besides induces an addition in parttime employment as people are more eager to take any signifier of employment.

Cost considerations by employers besides give rise to parttime employment as the hourly rewards of parttime workers are lower than their comparable full clip workers in states like Europe, USA. ( Delsen, 1995 )

Part-time work tends to be more evident in the service sector in states like United Kingdom, Australia, Netherlands where the employment is about 80 per centum part-time ( OECD 1983 ; Delsen 1995 ) . Further it is more evident in low-skill and lower occupational degrees like cleansing, catering, gross revenues etc. ( Meulders et al 1993 ; OECD 1994 )

( Delsen 1998 ) concludes that female employees doing the supply side of labor is one of the most outstanding grounds in the addition of parttime employment. Men and adult females work parttime due to different grounds and different phases in their life rhythm. Womans tend to work parttime when they have kids, other grounds could include easier ways to get down their callings. Evidence from Europe and America suggests that passage rates are higher for adult females when it comes to switching from parttime to full clip than for switching from parttime to full clip. Young people are more likely to take on parttime employment as a manner to come in labour market and get down their callings where as for older workers it is a manner of issue from the labor market. Peoples are besides likely to take on parttime employment as a consequence of fiscal inducements ( O’Reilly 1996 ) .

Keeping in position the different grounds for working part-time, it can be accomplished that parttime employees are non a homogeneous group ; in fact they compromise different groups which voluntarily or involuntarily enter parttime employment ( Feldman 1990 ) . These include pupils who want to gain excess hard currency while analyzing, caretakers who want some excess clip to take attention of dependants, nonvoluntary part-time workers which enter parttime employment as a consequence of scarceness of available full clip occupations, as a manner of traveling into a full clip calling or as a consequence of being tied into a specific location. Another group can be identified as the voluntary parttime workers as a manner of easy traveling into retirement, researching a new field etc ( Thorsteinson 2005 )

As proposed part-time work is more of a positive experience as it is a manner of pull offing work and non-work activities ( Barnett and Gareis 2002 ) . Therefore it provides more discretion in footings of offering more flexibleness by supplying convenient hours and hence supplying less emphasis ( Hakim 1996 ) .

However, contradictory to how it is proposed, parttime work besides includes restraints in footings of control, flexibleness and benefits and to foreground this point, two watercourses of contrasting positions on parttime employment are taken into consideration. One trades with the optimum picks of employees and their employers which is supported by a huge bulk of workers taking up parttime work to provide for family duties etc. The other position concerns the labor market and its cleavage with parttime occupations belonging to the secondary sector in that many parttime workers are in parttime employment involuntarily and wish to switch to full clip employment. With regard to the 2nd position, grounds reveals that parttime work is more like a low quality occupation with parttime employees gaining less and having fewer benefits than their full clip opposite numbers while sing lower occupation security ( Houseman and Osawa 1998 ) .

Further to the 2nd position, the investing in parttime employees is limited as organisations are more focussed on puting and retaining their full clip employees as opposed to puting in the secondary labor market. The rewards of parttime workers besides tend to be lower than their full clip opposite numbers. There is a larger spread in UK than in Australia or Sweden ( OECD 1994 ) . Womans in parttime employment tend to gain 75 % of the rewards of their full clip opposite numbers ( Rubery 1989 ) . Part-time workers besides receive fewer non-wage benefits like they have limited entree to employer provided wellness insurance and other benefits like illness, disablement, pregnancy etc ( Callaghan and Hartman 1991 ) . Part-time workers besides tend to lose out on calling promotion chances ( Durivage 1986 ) .

In add-on to poorer rewards and working conditions of parttime employees as compared to full-time employees, other jobs include position divide and hierarchical tensenesss due to issues of flexibleness where part-time employees feel inferior to their full clip opposite numbers and are considered 2nd category. They are allocated unfavourable undertakings and are excluded from staff meetings as they are held outside their contracted hours ( Smith 1994 ) . Part-time workers were besides given less preparation and less merchandise cognition ( Walsh 2007 )

Therefore it can be argued that the presence of parttime work and flexibleness may non needfully alleviate the employee of the temporal force per unit areas. Further there is incidence of overtime working/ long hours in parttime workers. They experience clip based force per unit areas and struggles with non-work activities as a consequence of working overtime therefore rendering parttime work non in line with worker ‘s on the job clip penchants. ( Greenhaus and Beutell 1985 )

Part-time employees are besides sometimes compelled to work paid overtime at short notice ( Walsh 2007 ) . In the survey conducted by Walsh 2007, two-thirds of the parttime female employees stated that they frequently had to work unpaid overtime. They were besides under force per unit area to work overtime as a consequence of deficiency of alleviation and support staff and considerable sum of overtime could be expected of them. Part-time workers might see their parttime occupation as a suited option adjustment in good with their work and non-work activities and to protect that agreement, they would work overtime as a via media and being cognizant of this, employers may besides work parttime workers by demanding overtime ( Conway and Briner 2002 ) .

Face clip or presenteeism is another ground why parttime workers might work over clip. Part-time workers might worry that they are perceived to be less committed than full clip workers and hence put in extra/ long hours or over clip to demo their committedness ( Lawrence and Corwin 2003 ) .

As the rewards of parttime employees tend to be lower than full clip employees, employers may besides seek to maximise productiveness by demanding excess hours from parttime employees and yet pay those lower rewards ( Euwals and Hogerbrugge 2006 )

Hypothesis 1: Part-time workers will describe working overtime

Job-related attitudes:

Job satisfaction:

Job satisfaction has been defined in many ways. It can be considered as an affectional reaction to one ‘s occupation after the single compares the coveted and the existent results of the occupation ( Cranny, Smith, Stone 1992 ) . It can besides be defined as a consequence from the assessment of one ‘s occupation into a enjoyable emotional province ( Locke 1969 ) . There are of import grounds to be concerned about occupation satisfaction. The human-centered position suggests that people should be treated reasonably and occupation satisfaction is a mark of just intervention at work. The useful position suggests that if employees are satisfied, they behave in a certain manner which is of import for organisational operation ( Spector 1997 ) .

Job satisfaction is besides of import because of its possible effects on properties like public presentation, Organizational citizenship behaviour, burnout etc. Job satisfaction and public presentation have a higher correlativity where good public presentation is rewarded ( Jacobs and Solomon 2007 ) . Caldwell and O’Reilly 1990 besides reveal indirect grounds that occupation public presentation can take to occupation satisfaction. Similarly Job satisfaction intercorrelates with organisational citizenship behaviour ( Becker and Billings 1993 ) . It is besides related to absence where it plays a important function in finding employee ‘s absence ( Steers and Rhodes 1978 ) . Many Turnover theories suggest a nexus between occupation dissatisfaction and employee turnover ( Bluedorn 1982, Mobley, Griffith, Hand, Meglino 1979 ) . Job satisfaction besides has its effects on burnout, such that occupation dissatisfaction is related to higher burnout ( Bacharach, Bamberger and Conley 1991 ) . Job satisfaction is besides related to physical wellness, psychological wellbeing, counterproductive behaviour, life satisfaction etc ( Spector 1997 ) . It can be concluded that it is of import to research occupation satisfaction because of its possible impact.

Organizational committedness

Meyer and Allen 1997 have give a three constituent theoretical account of organisational committedness where one constituent ; affectional committedness refers to the emotional constituent and the fond regard the employee feels towards the organisation. Continuance committedness, the 2nd constituent, refers to the association of costs of go forthing the organisation and the 3rd constituent, normative committedness refers to the feelings of duties to remain with the organisation nevertheless the most sought-after signifier of committedness that organisations would advance in their employees is affectional committedness ( Meyer and Allen 1997 ) which is developed chiefly by personal fulfilment which they get by work experiences affecting supportiveness, justness and the importance the organisation topographic points in them.

Committedness has of import effects. Mathieu and Zajac, 1990 and Allen and Meyer 1996 have found negative correlativities between organisational committedness and employee ‘s purpose to go forth and existent turnover with the correlativity being strongest for affectional committedness. Affectional committedness is besides positively related to attending ( Mathieu and Zajac 1990 ) . When employees have high degrees of affectional committedness, they tend to work harder ( Bycio, Hackket and Allen 1995 ) . They besides tend to prosecute more in organisational citizenship behaviour ( Meyer et al 1993 ) . Affectional committedness was besides found to positively correlate with employee ‘s trueness and voice which is defined as employee ‘s acuteness to do suggestions, and it was found to negatively correlate with disregard ( Meyer et al 1993 ) . Reilly and Orsak 1991 and Jamal 1990 have found negative correlativity between affectional committedness and psychological, physical and work-related emphasis

Wellbeing:

Well-being is a construct which involves the satisfaction of an single including life satisfaction, job-related satisfaction, non-job related satisfaction, general wellness etc ( Danna and Griffin 1999 ) . Wellbeing is a broader construct than satisfaction as steps of occupation satisfaction merely step well-being along one aspect whereas wellbeing has been validated by Remington, Farbrigar, Visser 2000, Watson, Clark and Tellegen 1988 as a two dimensional construction.

In the context of this thesis, the focal point is on the psychological facets of well-being otherwise known as affectional wellbeing or occupation related well-being which involves feelings about the occupation, a construct given by Warr 1987, 1999b and farther developed by Spector, new wave Katwyk, Spector, Fox, & A ; Kelloway, 2000.

In footings of occupation features, Warr 1987, 1994 gave certain occupation features which differ in the manner they are configured in different occupations and therefore these fluctuations give rise to differences in wellbeing of those employees. These features include chance for personal control, chance for accomplishment usage, externally generated ends, assortment, environmental lucidity, handiness of money, physical security, supportive supervising, chance for interpersonal contact and valued societal place.

Purpose to discontinue:

Employee turnover is progressively going a job for many employers. Wilson ( 2000 ) reports the findings of a national study where 52 % of the companies indicate increasing rates of turnover. Accrued costs of turnover can hold a major impact on the bottom line of a company. The costs of turnover involve separation costs, replacing costs and preparation costs ( Griffeth and Hom 2001 ) . Therefore it is of import to pull off turnover and retain the valued employees.

Employee turnover can be predicted by purpose to discontinue ( Blau and Boal 1989, Mowday 1987, Koberg et al 1984 ) where purpose to discontinue can be defined as the purpose of an employee to go forth the organisation ( Rahim and Psencika 1996 )

Purpose to discontinue is indirectly related to withdrawal which is further related to lateness, absenteeism, low public presentation and turning away behaviour ( Rose and Hulin 1985 ) . The worker leaves the organisation after purpose to discontinue and other cognitive phases ( Jaros, Jermier, Koeler & A ; Sincich, 1993 ; Tett & A ; Meyer, 1993 )

Difference in job-related attitudes:

Part-time employment is increasing and there is relatively less research on parttime employees therefore small is known about their features, behaviours and attitudes ( Miller and Terborg 1979 )

It is acknowledged that they differ from full clip employees but the manner and the extent to which they differ has non been consistent as the empirical surveies sing the difference in occupation satisfaction between the two groups have yielded assorted consequences ( Conway and Briner 2002 ) .

Some surveies have concluded no differences in the consequences of occupation satisfaction between the two groups ( Logan, O’Reilly and Roberts 1973 ) . In a comparing of full clip and parttime Australian retail salesgirls, no difference was found on 10s out of 12 occupation satisfaction variables ( Still 1983 ) In decision, the surveies indicate that full-time may non be the preferable work agenda and part-time may non needfully be an inferior work agreement ( Krausz 2000 ) which is why there is no difference in the degree of occupation satisfaction of part-time and full clip employees.

Other surveies suggest that occupation satisfaction is higher in parttime workers. Ebhardt and Shani 1984 found parttime workers to be more satisfied than full clip workers where they were given comparable benefits. Jackofsky and Peters 1987 found occupation satisfaction higher than

full-time for regular parttime employees. The survey controlled for age, gender, matrimonial position and occupation term of office. Wotruba 1990 Compared parttime and full-time direct gross revenues people and concluded that occupation satisfaction was higher among parttime employees who merely had that occupation, but lower for those who had another full-time occupation.

Yet other surveies find occupation satisfaction to be lower in parttime workers compared to full clip workers. Hall and Gordon 1973 found out that full clip workers reported higher occupation satisfaction as compared to parttime workers because parttime workers had greater struggles. Miller and Terborg 1979 found that parttime employees had lower satisfaction with work, benefits, and the occupation overall than full-time employees and had no differences in satisfaction with supervising, wage, or promotion.

Incompatible consequences have emerged from the comparing of organisational committedness in parttime employees and full-time employees.. Martin and Peterson 1987, Wetzel et al 1990 conclude that organisational committedness is higher in parttime employees as compared to full clip employees. Krausz 2000 and McGinnis and Morrow 1990 study both parttime and full-time employees to be every bit committed. Other surveies conclude parttime workers to be less committed than full-time workers ( Lee and Johnson 1991, Morrow et al 1994, Martin and Hafer 1995 )

Part-time workers have been found to differ from full-time workers in footings of work-related features therefore they are besides required to be managed under different schemes ( Gannon 1975 ) . Part-time workers emphasize dealingss with colleagues more than full-time workers where as full-time employees are more concerned about promotional chances, wage, supervising and the nature of work itself ( Logan, O’Reilly and Roberts 1975 )

Eberhardt and Shani 1984 revealed that parttime workers had constructive attitudes towards organisational construction, policies, reward systems, degrees of trust among organisational members and distribution of power.

Krausz ( 2000 ) found wellbeing was lower for parttime employees who wanted to work less than they really did. Isaksson and Witte 2005 highlight the costs of flexibleness for fringe workers by giving mention to the consequences presented by the Dublin Institute for betterment in life and working conditions which highlight the elevated degrees of emphasis, burnout and wellness jobs due to work related issues.

Peters et Al ( 1981 ) suggest that turnover purposes and backdown determinations would be different for parttime and full-time employees hence separate human resource policies would be necessary for full-time and parttime employees ( Rotchford and Roberts 1982 ) . This position is farther substantiated by Hall and Gordon 1973 and Logan et al 1973 who suggest that parttime employees make backdown determinations on different standards as compared to full-time employees.

After set uping the difference in job-related attitudes between full-time and parttime employees, it is of import to understand the grounds behind the difference. These grounds are given by many positions give below.

Positions:

A possible account for the difference in the occupation related attitudes could be because of greater function struggles in parttime employee. These struggles could be related to the calling via media that certain employees have to do by taking up parttime employment. This via media is more like an internal struggle where the employees are invariably holding a head conflict to warrant the determination of working parttime and therefore losing on full-time calling chances. The determination to take up parttime employment for these employees is based around the outlook of lower work burden which later leads them to do less function decreases in other countries of their life, nevertheless as a consequence of this via media, employees may see function overloads, therefore go forthing them unprepared and with uneffective schemes in covering with such struggles. These struggles result in part-time employees holding more unfavorable attitudes as compared to full-time employees ( Hall and Gordon 1973 )

Another signifier of function struggle position is given by Werbel 1985 where the struggle is between work and household functions and one function interferes with another. Further, the struggle depends on the primary end for employees. Full clip employees who place more accent on household are more likely to hold high degrees unfavorable attitudes whereas those full-time workers who attach more importance to work are more likely to hold low degrees of unfavorable attitudes. Similarly for parttime workers, those who attach more importance to work are more likely to hold high degrees of unfavorable attitudes whereas those who attach more importance to household are likely to hold low degrees of unfavorable attitudes, therefore it can be concluded that job-related factors and primary ends affect attitudes of employees and since the occupation features and primary ends of parttime and full-time employees are different, their occupation attitudes are likely to differ every bit good.

Another ground for the difference in occupation attitudes could be explained by Partial inclusion theory ( Katz and Kahn 1978 ) which has been identified as an of import construct by many research workers ( Feldman, 1990, Martin & A ; Hafer 1995 ; Miller & A ; Terborg, 1979 ; Peters, Jackofsky, & A ; Salter, 1981 ; Tansky, Gallagher and Wetzel, 1997 ) . It suggests that employees are portion of multiple societal systems therefore they may hold multiple viing functions both physically and psychologically. Further parttime employees are included on a segmented footing because of them non working full-time and because they might hold other connexions outside work, therefore they are less included in the organisation and more included externally and the figure and importance of non-work may specify the degree of inclusion in the work function for parttime employee. In line with this statement, it is further proposed that parttime employees may hold different degrees of tolerance and credence to organisational demands.

The frame of mention theory ( Logan et al 1973 ) may besides be used to explicate the difference in the occupation attitudes of full-time and parttime employees harmonizing to which the occupation attitudes held by parttime employees would depend on the frame of mention they compare themselves with. If the mention group chosen is besides other parttime employees, so the degree of dissatisfaction might be lower or parttime employees might every bit good be every bit satisfied or more satisfied than full-time employees. However if they compare themselves to other full-time employees, their degree of occupation satisfaction might be lower than full-time employees. Some employees compare themselves with full-time employees while others compare themselves with parttime employees ( Eberhardt and Moser 1995 )

The frame of mention position can besides be paralleled with the societal comparing procedure ( Goodmanns 1977 ) to explicate the differences in the occupation attitudes which proposes that employees respond otherwise to organisational conditions depending on the peculiar mention group chosen therefore the frame of mention plants alongside the mention group chosen, such that if there is no difference in the degrees of a peculiar attitude like occupation satisfaction or organisational committedness, it could be because the societal comparing was made with the same group of employees and if there is a difference, the societal comparing is made with a different group of employees.

Thornsteinson 2003 gives another position to explicate the difference in the occupation attitudes related to the goodness of tantrum between the individual and the occupation i.e. person-job tantrum position which states the difference in occupation attitudes arise as a consequence of whether the employee prefers or does n’t prefer to be in parttime employment. If the employee is in parttime employment because of penchant for this work agreement, he/she will hold more favorable occupation attitudes like occupation satisfaction, organisational committedness and good being and lower degrees of purpose to discontinue. However if the employee prefers to be in full-time employment but ends up being in parttime employment because of several factors like inaccessibility of full-time occupation etc, so the employee would hold less favorable attitudes as compared to full-time employees. This position is in line with the survey conducted by Burke and Greenglass ( 2000 ) .

Conway and Briner 2002 propose the position of psychological contract to explicate the different occupation attitudes of parttime employees and full-time employees. Psychological contract refers to the single beliefs about the exchange conditions between themselves and the organisation ( Rousseau 1989 ) . The fulfilment or breach of psychological contract further explains the difference between full-time and parttime employees. Conway and Briner 2002 propose four ways in which psychological contract may take to a difference. At the organisational degree, parttime employees may be treated otherwise than full-time employees which farther affects the perceptual experience parttime employees hold. If they perceive themselves to be treated otherwise, it consequences in the difference in occupation related attitudes. At the single degree, parttime employees may hold lower outlooks than full-time employees because of which they will comprehend the fulfilment or breach of psychological contract otherwise and therefore consequence in different attitudes. At the interpersonal degree, parttime employees may be perceived otherwise by their supervisors, as a consequence of which, the supervisors tend to pull off parttime workers otherwise, as Darden et al 1993 found that parttime employees were being managed under theory X premises. Finally parttime employees spend less clip in the organisation as compared to full-time employees and hence they might comprehend fewer and ill-defined promises because of which the chance that they will comprehend a breach is reduced whereas full-time employees may comprehend greater promises with more item, therefore anticipate more from psychological contract which finally impacts their perceptual experiences of psychological contract fulfilment or breach and therefore consequences in difference in occupation attitudes.

The equity/balance position ( Adams 1963 ) can farther be added to the psychological contract position which suggests that when employees perceive there to be an unfairness in the output/input ratio, they try to reconstruct inequality, so when employers fail to carry through the psychological contract, employees perceive it to be a misdemeanor and to re-establish the balance, they regulate their ain parts as they can non alter the employer ‘s behaviour. This accommodation in employee ‘s ain parts might take the signifier of decreased occupation engagements which further consequence in unfavourable occupation attitudes. The same logical thinking as in the psychological contract perspective applies here in footings of difference in perceptual experience of breach or fulfilment of psychological contract for full-time and parttime employees which consequences in different occupation attitudes like occupation satisfaction, organisational committedness, wellbeing and purpose to discontinue.

The differences in parttime and full-time are evident and can be explained by the assorted positions given above, nevertheless the extent and the manner parttime workers differ from full-time workers still remains to be explored because of inconsistent consequences.

Sing the position of the cleavage of the labor market and parttime employment being more evident in the secondary sector, it can be argued that part-time occupations are by and large less desirable than full-time occupations ( Barling and Gallagher 1986, Lee and Johnson 1991, Wakefield, Curry, Mueller and Price 1987 ) and parttime employees would be holding more unfavorable attitudes compared to full-time employees as they are considered to hold a lower position than full-time employees, particularly if its nonvoluntary parttime employment and they would be gaining less, having fewer benefits, holding lower occupation security etc ( Houseman and Osawa 1998 ) . Further parttime occupations are deemed to be lower quality occupations as employers invest less in them and give them lower rewards ( Rubery 1989 ) . They are besides more likely to hold fewer calling promotion chances. ( Durivage 1986 )

Therefore from the grounds as presented above and the different positions and grounds for the difference between the two groups, the undermentioned hypotheses are formulated.

Hypothesis 2: Part-time employees are likely to describe lower occupation satisfaction than full-time employees

Hypothesis 3: Part-time employees are likely to describe lower organisational committedness than full-time employees

Hypothesis 4: Part-time employees are more likely to hold lower degrees of wellbeing than full-time employees

Hypothesis 5: Part-time employees are more likely to hold higher degrees of purpose to discontinue than full-time employees

Consequence of overtime on occupation related attitudes:

Employees are being asked to work more overtime because of several grounds like demand of the occupation to run into certain deadlines or due to increase in work loads after major alterations or Reconstructions or because of “ face clip ” i-e a manner to demo commitment because of heightened degrees of insecurity experienced by both the nucleus workers and fringe workers typically associated with lone fringe workers. ( Simpson 1998 ) . In other words employees may experience pressurized to work overtime because of fiscal grounds, occupation insecurity or even demands from the employers ( Emmerick and Sanders 2005 )

However working overtime is non without its effects on employees. Many surveies have focused on the consequence of overtime on wellness and good being as Brett and Stroh 2003 reveal possible hazards involved in working overtime like hapless psychological and physical wellness, hapless productiveness and distressed household and societal relationship ( Brett and Stroh 2003 ) . Other surveies which have focused on short-run effects reveal overtime being related to unwellnesss ( Savery and Luks 2000 ) , while others concentrating on long-run conclude that overtime is related to damage of metal and physical wellness ( Sparks et al 1997 ) . Overtime has besides been related to kip perturbations in employees ( Rau and Triemer 2004 ) . Similarly overtime has been found to non merely hold an impact on occupation satisfaction and workers motive but besides affect their productiveness ( Nanda and Browne 1977 ) . Gazioglu and Tansel 2002 tested the affect of long hours/ overtime on occupation satisfaction. They expected longer hours of work being associated with lower degrees of satisfaction and found the consequences to be in line with their outlooks. Weston Gray and Stanton 2004 found Overall satisfaction with the work hours decreases as the figure of hours worked additions

Reasons for the effects of overtime to the above mentioned occupation related properties could be explained with the psychological contract position ( Emmerick and Sanders 2005 ) . By working overtime, employees perceive there to be a mismatch between the preferable hours and existent long hours as a consequence of which there is a breach of psychological contract thereby taking to negative attitudes ( Robinson and Rousseau 1994 ) . These negative attitudes could be decreased occupation satisfaction, decreased organisational committedness, increased purpose to discontinue and decreased wellbeing. Further, the badness of employee ‘s perceptual experience of the psychological contract breach would be determined by how much importance the employee topographic points on the breached result ( Kickul et al 2004 ) , therefore if employees feel their penchants of working hours are non taken into history earnestly so they will comprehend a breach in the psychological contract and will non be committed towards the organisation ( Eisenberger et al 1986 ) .

The equity position ( Adams 1963 ) can besides be used to explicate the consequence of overtime ( Emmerick and Sanders 2005 ) which states that when employees perceive unfairness in the output/input ratio, they will seek to reconstruct the balance by seting their ain parts in the signifier of decreased occupation investings taking to dissatisfaction and turnover ( Robinson et al 1994 )

As overtime is likely to impact the job-related attitudes, it is further proposed that parttime employees will hold a different impact of overtime on the job-related attitudes as compared to full-time employees based on the assorted positions presented above. Further, Chrobot and Mason 2003 suggest breach of psychological contract may worsen stronger feelings in certain groups, so psychological contract breach may be taken otherwise for full clip employees and parttime employees as the penchants of parttime employees may be different from full clip employees ( Reynolds 2003 ) .

Emmerick and Sanders 2005 suggest that parttime employees attach more importance to work hours therefore they might be more affected by the mismatch between the existent and preferable hours as the chief ground for working part-time is to avoid work load.

Taking the equity position ( Adams 1963 ) into history, it can be proposed that it is likely that parttime employees do n’t prefer overtime and therefore they will comprehend it as a misdemeanor or breach of the psychological contract and farther seek to reconstruct the output/input ratio by cut downing their ain part, hence parttime employees will be more strongly affected by the unfairness caused by working overtime as they value work hours more.

Hypothesis 6a: Employment position moderates the relationship between overtime and occupation satisfaction.

Hypothesis 6b: Employment position moderates the relationship between overtime and organisational committedness

Hypothesis 6c: Employment position moderates the relationship between overtime and wellbeing

Hypothesis 6d: Employment position moderates the relationship between overtime and purpose to discontinue

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