Organizational Structure And Culture And Change Management Essay

An organisational construction is the formal system of undertaking and describing relationships that controls, co-ordinates, and motivates employees so that they cooperate to accomplish an organisation ‘s ends. The construction is normally indicated on the organisation chart along with stipulating who reports to whom. Example: A director is to make an organisational construction and civilization that:

Encourages employees to work hard and to develop supportive work attitudes

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Allows people and groups to collaborate and work together efficaciously.

An organisational civilization is the personality of the organisation. Culture is comprised of the premises, values, norms and touchable marks ( artefacts ) of organisation members and their behaviours. Members of an organisation shortly come to feel the peculiar civilization of an organisation. Culture is one of those footings that are hard to show clearly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. For illustration, the civilization of a big multi-national organisation is rather different than that of little organisation. You can state the civilization of an organisation by looking at the agreement of furniture, what they brag about, what members wear, etc. — similar to what you can utilize to acquire a feeling about person ‘s personality.

Compare and contrast the organisational construction and civilization of a little and big multi-national organisation


Small Organization

Multi-national Organization


Effective communicating

Slow line of communications


Limited geographical countries

Large geographical countries


Limited chances for publicity

Employees are extremely skilled. The organisations provide a stable environment in which employees can development and exercise their accomplishments.


No division of labour because of limited staff

Division of labour and specialisations allows an organisation to go more effectual


Strong Leadership

Flat hierarchy with less degrees

Tall hierarchy with many degrees

Strong leading affects success because even though some big organisations may be able to step H2O for a long period of clip, or even do good, if the civilization starts to gnaw, it ‘s merely a affair of clip until the larger construction collapses. The organisational civilization besides has to be functional in order to hold an efficient government organic structure. Great leading is needed for an organisation to hold strong civilization, but the reversal is besides true. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . Due to the big geographical countries and divisional constructions, there will be hapless communicating jobs can originate as assorted directors at assorted degrees in assorted divisions attempt to organize their activities. Besides due to the assorted degrees of direction, divisions may get down to vie for organisational resources and may get down to prosecute divisional ends and aims at the disbursal of organisational 1s. Communication and decision-making jobs start to happen. As the figure of direction degrees increases, the clip it takes to direct messages up and down the hierarchy additions and determination devising slows. Information passed from individual to individual can be distorted or filtered as messages become confused and directors of course interpret messages harmonizing to their ain involvements. These jobs further cut down the quality of determination devising. However with the little organisations, due to the limited figure of staff, there is no division of labour and limited staff with specialisations with makes staff less effectual. Employees in little organisations are non extremely skilled and do non supply a stable environment in which employees can develop and exert their accomplishments which besides can impact the success of the organisation. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // )

Undertaking Two: Approachs to Management and Leadership

2a )

Management is the basis of organisational effectivity, and is concerned with agreements for carry out organisational procedures and the executing of plants ( Mullins 1999 )

Human Relations Approach

Human dealingss attack is a direction attack based on the consideration of and attending to the societal factors at work and the behaviour of employees within an organisation. Particular importance is paid to the informal organisation and the satisfaction of person ‘s demands through groups at work. ( Mullins, 8th edition )

Fayol developed theory of direction. Harmonizing to him managerial excellence is a technically ability and can be acquired. He developed theories and rules of direction which are universally accepted and do him universalistic. He was innovator of the formal instruction in direction. Fayol ‘s rules of direction meet the demands of modern direction. ( )

2b )

An operational alteration that has taken topographic point which I am familiar with is the alteration in how undertakings are done and the increased accomplishments of undertakings. The leading manner most appropriate in this instance is the leading manner appraisal. First of all there is trust between the leader and subsidiary and I besides realized that the leader has so much assurance in her subsidiaries. The leader besides spelt out undertakings measure by measure harmonizing to elaborate set of standard operating processs. The leader besides has a great trade of authorization. Effectiveness was besides a key to this alteration, because we were focused of carry throughing the undertakings as to occupation satisfaction.

Undertaking 3: Motivation theories

3a )

Two motivational theories I identified are Maslow ‘s Theory and McGregor ‘s Theory X and Y.

From Maslow ‘s theory of motive, modern leaders and executive directors find agencies of employee motive for the intents of employee and work force direction.

The footing of Maslow ‘s theory of motive is that human existences are motivated by unsated demands, and that certain lower demands need to be satisfied before higher demands can be addressed. Per the instructions of Abraham Maslow, there are general demands ( physiological, safety, love, and regard ) which have to be fulfilled before a individual is able to move unselfishly. These demands were dubbed “ lack demands. ” While a individual is motivated to carry through these basal desires, they continue to travel toward growing, and finally self-actualization. The satisfaction of these demands is rather healthy. As a consequence, for equal workplaceA motive, it is of import thatA leading understands which demands are active for single employee motive. In this respect, Abraham Maslow ‘s theoretical account indicates that basic, low-level demands such as physiological demands and safety must be satisfied before higher-level demands such as self-realization are pursued. As depicted in this hierarchal diagram, sometimes called ‘Maslow ‘s Needs Pyramid ‘ or ‘Maslow ‘s Needs Triangle ‘ , when a demand is satisfied it no longer motivates and the following higher demand takes its topographic point. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” wwwHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” )

Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs Chart


Physiological demands: This is frequently described as the basic demands of every individual to last twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life and these include nutrient, clean H2O and shelter.

Safety/security needs: This includes personal safety from danger. It besides includes instruction, preparation and security in employment and security in old age.

Social demands: One of a individual ‘s major demands is love. Every individual ( adult male, adult female, immature and old ) needs love. Beyond that every individual wants to belong to a group such as a category, old misss or male childs association, church etc.

Esteem Needs: When we have love and we belong to a group, we want to be respected. We improve ourselves in assorted countries of life so as to be respected. Self-esteem affects the image we have of ourselves, the footing of our relationships with others.

Self Realization: This is the degree which the person feels the demand to lend to society and they may non mind even utilizing their resources to accomplish their aspirations. This degree points to the demand to go forth bequests wherever we live or work so we will be remembered.

The Maslow ‘s hierarchy could be observed in pattern by promoting a managerial manner opened to innovation, knowledge sharing and collaborative work ; and in furthering a civilization that is appreciative of the endowments and competencies that a professional systematically exhibits to stand out in put to deathing his/her occupation. Create an environment that met the demands of each employee every bit closely as possible. Besides have a high trust relationship with your staff. They have to experience sufficiently confident that they can talk openly and candidly about the worlds of their state of affairs in order for you to understand the obstructions they are confronting externally every bit good as internally that may be impacting their ability to accomplish the highest degrees of ego realization. What we see of people in the workplace is merely a part of what makes up that individual, yet all of the joys and emphasiss experienced by that individual will impact their public presentation at work. We should besides develop originative options that respect their passion and abilities, back up them to work within altering functions.

McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y are two opposing perceptual experiences about how people view human behaviour at work and organisational life. With Theory X premises, direction ‘s function is to hale and command employees.

Peoples have an built-in disfavor for work and will avoid it whenever possible.

Peoples must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with penalty in order to acquire them to accomplish the organisational aims

Peoples prefer to be directed, do non desire duty, and have small or no aspiration

Peoples seek security above all else.

With Theory Y premises, direction ‘s function is to develop the potency in employees and assist them to let go of that possible towards common ends.

Work is every bit natural as drama and remainder

Peoples will exert autonomy if they are committed to the aims ( they are NOT lazy )

Committedness to aims is a map of the wagess associated with their accomplishment

Peoples learn to accept and seek duty

Creativity, inventiveness, and imaginativeness are widely distributed among the population. Peoples are capable of utilizing these abilities to work out an organisational job

Peoples have possible. hypertext transfer protocol: //

The McGregor ‘s Theory could be observed in pattern by developing authorization for many determinations to take down degree workers ; trying to do workers ‘ occupation less everyday and deadening ; increasing the degree of duty for each worker ‘s occupation ; bettering the free flow of information and communicating within the organisation ; and acknowledging that people are motivated by a complex set of psychological demands, and non merely by money. ( Edward Marfo-Yiadom, Principles of Management )

Undertaking 4: Working with Other, Teamwork, Groups and Group Dynamics

4a )

The difference between a squad and a group is that a squad is a little group of people with complementary accomplishments and abilities who are committed to a common end and attack for which they hold each other accountable. Team members have accomplishments and abilities that complement the squad ‘s intent. On squads, members portion functions and duties and are invariably developing new accomplishments to better the squad ‘s public presentation. Teams identify and reach consensus on their common end and attack, instead than looking to a leader to specify the end and attack. Most significantly, squads hold their members accountable. What does this mean in practical footings? When they experience struggle with a member, they speak to that member straight instead than to a supervisor. When a member is n’t executing to the degree required, the squad addresses the public presentation job. Smaller squads frequently have troubles run intoing when members are absent. Not all members have the same accomplishments, but together they are greater than the amount of their parts. A squad can be much more hard to organize. Members of a squad may be selected for their complementary accomplishments, non a individual commonalty. For illustration, a concern squad may dwell of an comptroller, a salesman, a company executive and a secretary, for illustration. Each member of the squad has a intent and a map within that squad, so the overall success depends on a functional interpersonal moral force. There is normally non as much room for struggle when working as a squad. ( http: // ) The best size for squads is 7 to 12 persons and a group can be defined as a little group of people with complementary accomplishments and abilities who are committed to a leader ‘s end and attack and are willing to be held accountable by the leader. A group supports the leader ‘s ends and the leader-dominated attack to goal- attainment. A group drives single answerability instead than shared answerability. Leadership is preponderantly held by one individual instead than the shared, unstable leading on a squad. In a group, the dominant point of view is represented ; in a squad, multiple, diverse point of views are represented. Decisions in a group are made by voting or implied understanding ; determinations on a squad are typically made by consensus. Larger squads require more construction and support. Within the group, there are the formal and informal groups. The formal groups are created and maintained to carry through specific demands or execute undertakings, which are related to the entire organisational aims. Formal groups can be either lasting or impermanent harmonizing to the organisation ‘s demand for the group. The lasting formal group is a organic structure such as the Board of Directors. The impermanent formal groups are commissions or undertakings forces used to execute a peculiar occupation or map which are dissolved when the map of demand no longer be. The informal groups are based on personal relationships than on defined function relationships. The rank of informal groups can cut across the formal construction. They comprise of single from different parts of the organisations and/or from different degrees of the organisation, both vertically and diagonally, every bit good as from the same horizontal degree. ( Edward Marfo-Yiadom, Principles of Management )

The differences in function of squads in big and little organisations are that little squads are more productive due to the size of the organisation. Team/project size affect squad kineticss, squad productiveness in many ways than big squads, but some best patterns and experience from big squads can assist little groups go even more productive. Communication flows more easy on little squads than big squads. If you ‘re the lone individual on a undertaking, communicating is simple. The lone communicating way is between you and the client. As the figure of people on a undertaking increases, nevertheless, so does the figure of communicating waies. It does n’t increase additively, as the figure of people additions ; it increases multiplicatively, relative to the square of the figure of people. See illustration below:

Figure 1 illustrates how a two-person undertaking has merely one way of communicating. A five-person undertaking has 10 waies. A 10-person undertaking has 45 waies, presuming that every individual negotiations to every other individual. The 2 % of undertakings that have 50 or more coders have at least 1,200 possible waies. The more communicating waies you have, the more clip you spend pass oning, and the more chances for communicating errors are created. Therefore, larger-size undertakings demand organisational techniques that streamline communicating or bound it in reasonable ways.

Figure 1. Communication paths addition multiplicatively as squad size additions linearly.

The typical attack taken to streamline communicating on big undertakings is to formalise communicating with written paperss. Alternatively of 50 people speaking to each other in every imaginable combination, 50 people read and write paperss. Small undertakings can avoid paperss that are created entirely for the interest of streamlining communicating.

There are some ways certification can work to a little squad ‘s benefit, nevertheless ; certification serves as an assistance to developers ‘ fallible memories. People ‘s memories are n’t any better on little undertakings than they are on big undertakings, and it ‘s of import to retain lasting records on any undertaking that lasts longer than a few hebdomads. The little undertaking size means that records can be less formal. Design on a little undertaking might dwell of a set of diagrams captured on somersault charts instead than a formal architecture papers. A project-wide e-mail archive can be an efficient replacement for a big undertaking ‘s massive paperss. Small undertakings can accomplish some economic systems based on little squad size, but they will ever profit from lasting addendums to human memory. hypertext transfer protocol: //

4c )

Communication is the procedure of go throughing information and apprehension from one individual to another. Communication is really of import in squad public presentation. The standard method of communicating are talking or composing by a transmitter and hearing or reading the receiving system. Most communicating is unwritten, with one party speech production and others listening. However, some signifiers of communicating do non straight affect spoken or written linguistic communication. Gestural communicating consists of actions, gestures, and other facets of physical visual aspect that, combined with facial looks ( such as smiling or glowering ) , can be powerful agencies of conveying messages. A assorted message occurs when a individual ‘s words communicate one message, while non-verbally ; he or she is pass oning something else.

The effects of squad public presentation through communicating are:

The care of a thorough and up to twenty-four hours cognition of the assorted activities at the subdivision offices,

Keeps the subdivision offices good acquainted with the activities of the Centre,

Effective and efficient web communicating

Although engineering such as electronic mail has lessened the importance of gestural communicating, the bulk of organisational communicating still takes topographic point through face-to-face interaction. Every verbal message comes with a gestural constituent. Receivers interpret messages by taking in intending from everything available. When gestural cues are consistent with verbal messages, they act to reenforce the messages. But when these verbal and gestural messages are inconsistent, they create confusion for the receiving system.

The actions of direction are particularly important because subordinates topographic point more assurance in what directors do than what they say. Unless actions are consistent with communicating, a feeling of misgiving will sabotage the effectivity of any future societal exchange.

Oral communicating accomplishments

Because a big portion of a director ‘s twenty-four hours is spent discoursing with other directors and employees, the abilities to talk and listen are critical to success. For illustration, unwritten communicating accomplishments are used when a director must do gross revenues presentations, behavior interviews, execute employee ratings, and keep imperativeness conferences.

In general, directors prefer to trust on unwritten communicating because communicating tends to be more complete and thorough when speaking in individual. Face-to-face communicating permits non merely the exchange of words, but besides the chance to see the gestural communicating.

However, verbal communication has its drawbacks. It can be inconsistent, unless all parties hear the same message. And although unwritten communicating is utile for conveying the point of views of others and furthering an openness that encourages people to pass on, it is a weak tool for implementing a policy or publishing directives where many particulars are involved.

Here are two of the most of import abilities for effectual unwritten communicating:

Active hearing. Listening is doing sense of what is heard and requires paying attending, interpretation, and retrieving sound stimulations. Effective hearing is active, necessitating the listener to “ acquire inside the caput ” of the talker so that he or she can understand the communicating from the talker ‘s point of position.

Constructive feedback. Directors frequently do hapless occupations of supplying employees with public presentation feedback.

Written communicating accomplishments

Written communicating has several advantages. First, it provides a record for referral and follow-up. Second, written communicating is an cheap agencies of supplying indistinguishable messages to a big figure of people.

The major restriction of written communicating is that the transmitter does non cognize how or if the communicating is received unless a answer is required.

Unfortunately, composing accomplishments are frequently hard to develop, and many persons have jobs composing simple, clear, and direct paperss. And believe it or non, ill written paperss be money. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // )


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