Chapter I Introduction Rationale of the Study Every problem has a solution. In order to come up with a good solution, the root of the problem has to be determined. The scope of the problem must be established well before making the first few steps of the study. One has to get a hold of the basic theories and principles regarding the problem, justify the impact of the problem to the society, and consider the future customers of that “would-be “solution. Before designing solutions, related literature must be examined first. This may ease off confusion as to where and how to start. Lastly, a tandard and appropriate methodology must guide everything until the solution is achieved. Technology has gone a long way, improving the lives of people. These technological breakthroughs have lots to offer, making great things in the easiest, fastest and efficient possible ways you can think of. With the advent of computers, the world seems to have become smaller. People communicating instantly anywhere in the world is an advantage brought by high speed communication technology. The use of unbounded communication channel, makes communicating in remote areas possible. Access time is very important for people to ommunicate with each other, to perform daily activities, and to make use of it as scheduled. The discovery of high speed communication media brings the hotel reservation system closer to the client. Therefore, Sogo Hotel has introduced a highly complex yet much comprehensive prepaid hotel transaction management system, where you can have an easy access reserving a slice of heaven you’ve been craving, faster than in a blink of an eye. With this system, clients are guaranteed to have been given the best price possible. Sogo Hotel will be engaging into globalization, harnessing online reservation. This lets ore people to gain access to even more people and the ability to share ideas and experiences through the internet. Because of the information and communications technology making connections without physical elements, people are now able to communicate, share thoughts and happenings real-time. Information dissemination campaign has made a breakthrough in order to gain a well-informed community, hence, covering a large portion market. Thus, possible expansion may pave the way of the business to its summit. This has prompted the company to invest into a prepaid hotel transaction management system like this.
The system is believed to provide highly powered and highly reliable hotel reservation system through a portable ATM card-like medium. Project context The proponents want to know the reasons why hotels have difficulty of acquiring reservations. The proponents conduct a study towards the topic because they notice some hotels can’t keep up with the crisis that the country is facing. The study will emphasize the advantages of using a hotel issued prepaid cards that are reloadable to lure guest who are of tight budget and for faster transaction processing. Therefore, the proponents purported to find out the effects f using prepaid cards to increase the number of hotel customers. With the crisis affecting every individual in the country the need to adopt to the changing economy is the main concern of the Hoteliers to keep up with its competitors. One of the solutions or alternatives to the problems that a Hoteliers are facing, a system was being developed which can reserve, edit, delete, monitor and store and secured the records of the customers and also can regularly generate monthly sales income of the hotel. Purpose and description of the project Prepaid Hotel Transaction Management System is a transaction rocessing system that solves the problem encountered by hotels during this time of crisis. The Prepaid Hotel Transaction Management System aims to innovate the usual hotel offerings. Hotel Prepaid cards are issued to guest. Reloading area is available in the lobby. Guests can now access to the Web base reservation system. Card Readers are available in the front desk. The proponents make use of some tools and techniques to build the project. The system uses Graphical User Interface(GUI) to help the user give instruction to the computer. The system once implemented it will solve the most common problems hat the Hotels encounter. Features: – online reservation – add/edit/delete guest reservation information – prepaid card – reloadable – guest account numbers – generate monthly sales income(reports) Objectives of the project The goal of the study is to analyze, design, develop and implement a online reservation system for Sogo Hotel that will help improve the current system. This study aims to solve the problem with low guest occupancy of the hotel by offering affordable and accessible online reservation prepaid system. Specifically, this study aims to create a reservation system that offers the following: . to increase the number of hotel guests; 2. to lessen the time consumed during reservation. 3. to highly integrate data. 4. to spend less time in searching and retrieving of files. 5. to create monthly sales report; and 6. to keep up with competitors by cater wider markets. Scope and limitation of the project The study focuses only on the hotel reservation system area, both the server and the client. For the server, it tries to eliminate booking complexities through the use of an internet in doing a reservation request, since most of the people today have it.
For the client side, it makes the system accessible in which reservation requests and inquiries can be done anywhere. During the online reservation, hotel guest will be required to input their account no. which can be found in the prepaid card. The system also generates reports like: – Guest database with advance Search, Edit and Delete Facility – Cancel Reservation – Room and Rate Type Management – Total Number of Rooms Available for the Day/Month – Total Number of Rooms Reserved for the Day/Month – Total Sales for the Month Only front desk personnel are allowed to verify the reservation during guest check in.
Chapter II Review of Related Literature Related Literature In solving a problem, it is always based on the past problem with the same circumstances that was already solved. Two literatures presented below guided the developers on the proper analysis of the problem. Under Booking No-show arises because the customer has a change of plans for which the supplier of the services is not notified, or the strategy of “hedging” is used through the reservation of much more service space than is needed in order to guarantee a range of service options, wherein a very common occurrence in the hotel industry.
No-show can have significant impact on organizations profitability. The cost structure of many service firms is characterized by a fixed cost that is large relative to the variable component of individual service cost. It represents a loss of revenue against which only a small variable cost applies. Managing the no-show problem in a manner, therefore, should be a major objective of all organization that reserve service. One common approach is to dismiss no-shows as just another cost of doing business (Gray and Ligouri, 1994). Another is to charge consumer that do not show up for reserved rooms (Hazard, 1982).
The hotel industry, which experiences no show rates of up to 30 percent, uses a wide variety of techniques for discouraging no-shows. Methods include: requiring clients to prepay the room at the time of the reservation are made: providing a discount for advance reservation: pooling data among carriers to cross-check multiple bookings: requiring the confirmation of reservation: and overbooking to cover expected no-shows (Rutherford, 1990). Overbooking The overbooking approach, if done in scientific manner, provides an effective and efficient method to minimize both total service cost and verall impact on the consumer. It has a wide applicability throughout the hotel industry. Unfortunately, determining an optimal overbooking strategy can be extremely difficult task. There are two major cost associated with an overbooking policy: a long cost of having space available for which there are no consumer(service supply exceeding demand) and short cost of having too many consumer for the space available (demand for service supply). Cost associated with handling this situation can include: 1. Labor cost required to find or schedule alternate service for the consumer; 2.
Transportation cost to move the consumer to the alternate site of service; 3. Cost of alternate service itself; 4. Monetary penalties imposed on the server for booking; 5. Loss of future business by the consumer affected; 6. Loss of future business by others not directly affected but who have learned of the failure to honor the reserved service; 7. Cost of preparing goodwill letters of apology; 8. Cost of any premiums given to atone for inconvenience; and personnel training costs to ensure that employees know how to handle the delicate overbooking situation with minimum negative impact.
One method of overbooking is to use a rule of thumb that seems to give good results (example, reserve an extra 10 percent over the capacity and another from the assessment of past data on no-shows or through a subjective assessment procedure). Records of past no-show experience can provide frequency data that is easily converted to statement of probability. Subjective assessments are “educated guesses” that quantify the chances of the non-arrival of reserved demand (Huber, 1974). Overbooking provides the industry in overcoming no-shows and late cancellations, which indeed affects the rofitability of the business. However, when booking situation is tight because of overbooking and excessive stay overs, the hotel’s front office must not accept walk-ins in order to minimize the chances of an over sale (Toh, 1985) Theoretical Background An examination of several concepts, facts and theories were made of completely understand the problem and to establish foundation for the solution. These theories would help the study in interpreting and unifying established scientific laws and facts that would guide in discovering new generalizations for the emergence of possible solutions.
Apparent-Distance Theory This theory stated that a person from the horizon seen across the filled distance of the landscape(that is filled by hills, trees, buildings and others) seems farther away than it is seen across the empty space of a particular area(Kaufman, 1962). The distance does matter in terms of reservation and its sources must be available to minimize the time consumed in that activity. The accessibility of the reservation system depends on the communication media being used in reserving rooms. In bounded communication channel, it seems that the client is far away from the eservation system based on the physical connection of the communication media connected to reservation system as well as to the client. In unbounded communication channel, the client is somewhat nearer to the reservation system because there is no physical connection of the device to the reservation system. So, Apparent-Distance theory can be also stated that the scope of reservation system depends on the communication channel or media used for accessing the reservation system. Chapter III Technical Background Technicality of the project To be able to run the Prepaid Hotel Management System, the ecommended hardware requirements are 1 gigahertz (GHz) 32-bit (x86) processor, 512 gigabyte (GB) of system memory and 1 GB free hard disk space, existing Internet Connection, Internet Brower Internet Explorer 6 or Mozilla Firefox 7. 0 or later and with the operating system of Window 2000/ME/XP/Vista/7 or later. Details of the technologies to be used The technologies used in implementing the Prepaid Hotel Management System are the following: – MySql version 5. 5. 15 for Windows – Microsoft Visual Studio. Net 2010 C# and ASP. net – Slot Bar Code Card Reader – Bar Code Card – Windows XP Operating System Windows IE 7. 0 and Mozilla Firefox 7. 0 How the project will work The Prepaid Hotel Management System is an online reservation system that is accessible in the internet. Every hotel guest that wants to have a reservation online needs to be registered in the system and fill out the registration form at the hotel lobby. The guest will then and pay 300 pesos in exchange of a reloadable card with individual account number printed and an initial deposit of 200 pesos to its account is automatically added, which he/she can use to pay for the hotel stay and use in reserving a room online. Reloading money to the card is one in the hotel lobby or its affiliated company with a minimum of 100 pesos. To be able to reserve a room online the guest will access the hotel website click the online reservation link and choose a room, date and duration of its stay. After confirming the details the system will then evaluate if the date and the room are available in the database, if so, the guest is then requested to enter the account number which is located in distributed the card. Finally the guest is now reserved to the date he/she requested. Now system will email the reservation summary to the guest email address and also will generate printable reservation summary in the screen which the guest will present in the hotel lobby together with the card for final confirmation. The attendant in the lobby will then check the printed hotel reservation summary in the system and swipe the card to the barcode slot card reader to charge the guest for its reservation. The system also has the following features accessible by management: – Guest database with advance Search, Edit and Delete Facility – Cancel Reservation – Room and Rate Type Management – Total Number of Rooms Available for the Day/Month – Total Number of Rooms Reserved for the Day/Month Total Sales for the Month Chapter IV Methodology In solving a problem, steps must be properly followed. Making the processes simultaneous is the goal of designer to refrain from delay. Environment The research was conducted in #0197 Sanciangko St near Osmena Blvd. , Cebu City. By the hotel named Sogo Hotel Company with people selected by the proponents. Operational Feasibility The proposed system solves the inconvenience and takes gain of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfies the needs identified in the requirements phase of system development.
Operational Feasibility will follow based from the path of six elements are the process is the input and analysis from everyone the new plan will affect along with the ideas and suggestions from the original plans, evaluation is the determinations from the process suggestions, implementation is to identify resources both inside and out that will work on the design, resistance is the determinations of areas and individuals will be most resistant, strategies are the processes or structures need to be reviewed or implemented in order for the design to be effective and adapt and review is how the new system will it be reviewed and monitored.
Figure 1. Fishbone Diagram of Prepaid Hotel Transaction Management System The Fishbone Diagram in Figure 1 presents the operational feasibility of the main purpose of the study. As shown in the diagram, there are five key factors that contribute to the success in prepaid hotel transaction management system. These are the machinery, methods, management, materials and the manpower. Functional Decomposition Functional Decomposition is a fundamental requirements modeling technique that breaks a complex problem into successive layers of more manageable and comprehensive pieces, resulting in a hierarchically structured.
A function/process at a lower level cannot exist unless it is included within its parent function/process must aim to ensure that each function and process is conceptually and operationally independent. The purposes are to hierarchically decompose a system into its functional components, hierarchically decompose a monitoring and inventory process into sub-processes and to provide a definition of all the business functions and sub-functions identified as system requirements. Figure 2. Functional Decomposition Diagram Technical Feasibility The prepaid hotel transaction management system is created to speed up the eservation system from the guests in hotel. This will be developed using Microsoft Visual Studio. Net 2010 C# and ASP. net programming language. The prepaid hotel transaction management system maintains a database in order to store the necessary data. The memory of the database, however, is just limited. It may even get crashed at anytime due to virus or OS failure. Thus, it is being accompanied with a database backup. Only the system administrator and/or front desk personnel can control the server especially the related security issues, such as malicious files that are very much prohibited.
Schedule Feasibility A project will not pass if it takes extremely long to be completed before it is functional. In general this means estimating how long the system will take to develop, and if it can be completed in a given time phase using some methods. Schedule feasibility is an assessment of how rational the project schedule is whether the deadlines are fixed or desirable. Gantt chart Legend: Date Target: Date Finished: Economic Feasibility Requirements Modeling The proponents uses a combination of text and illustrative forms to depict needs for data, purpose, and behavior in a way that is relatively asy to recognize, and more important, simple to review for accuracy, unity and stability. The primary function of the requirements is to capture process is to analyze and manage informal requirement statements into a form that can be verified by a user and used as input to design. Data modeling Data modeling defines primary data objects, composition of each data object, and attributes of the object, relationships between each object and other objects and between objects and the processes. Object Modeling
Each object represents some entity of interest in the system being modeled, and is characterized by its class, its state (data elements), and its behavior. The behavior of the system results from the collaboration of those objects. Collaboration between objects involves those sending messages to each other. The result is a model of the solution domain, a detailed description of how the system is to be built. Use Case Diagram A use case diagram captures the functional aspects of a system. Figure 4. Use Case Diagram of Maintain Customer’s information/ Registration
Class Diagram Sequence Diagram Activity Diagram Design Software design is a process of defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and other characteristics of a system or component and planning for a software solution. After the purpose and specifications of software is determined, software developers will design or employ designers to develop a plan for a solution. A software design may be platform-independent or platform-specific, depending on the availability of the technology called for by the design. Output and User Interface Design
The goal of our user interface design is to make the user’s interaction as simple and efficient as possible, in terms of accomplishing user goals which is often called user-centre design. Good user interface design facilitates finishing the task at hand without drawing unnecessary attention to it. Graphic design may be utilized to support its usability. The design process must balance technical functionality and visual elements to create a system that is not only operational but also usable and adaptable to changing user needs.
As a result, designers tend to specialize in certain types of projects in software design. Forms and Reports Forms and reports create an effective communication medium between a human and a computer. Following a set of interface design principles, design identifies interface objects and actions and then creates a screen layout that forms the basis for an user interface prototype. REGISTRATION FORM Name: ________________________________________ Date: _____ Address: __________________________________________________ Date of Birth: ________________ Card No. ______________ (to be filled up by hotel personnel) Company: _____________________________SINGLE: MARRIED: Occupation: __________________________Sex: _______ Nationality: _________________________Religion: ___________ Phone No. : _________________ Fax No. : ____________ Email Address: _______________________ Signature: _____________________________ I here by acknowledge that the above information above is true to the best of our knowledge. [pic] Figure 5. Login Screen of Prepaid Hotel Transaction Management System Data Design
Data design is an activity that translates the data model developed during analysis into implemental data structures. The proponents came up with the general concepts useful in designing are the data identification that describes the process of discovering how the organization and your application will use the data, data definition that explains the general process of defining tables, rows, columns, data types, keys, and relationships and data integrity that discusses some important ways to provide data integrity, including normalization, business rules, referential integrity, and data validation.
Entity Relationship Diagram An Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) is a snapshot of data structures, show entities in a database and relationships between tables within that database. It is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. It is a model that identifies the concepts or entities that subsist in a structure and the relationships between those entities and often used as a way to envision a relational database. Data Dictionary In database management systems, a data dictionary is a file that defines the basic organization of the database.
A data dictionary consists of a list of all files in the database with the names of each field. Development This is the preeminent observe that has verified to diminish development times, lower costs, and improve feature. The proponents are focal point on supporting software development on full spectrum of activities, including requirements, methods and processes, design, testing and implementation. After analyzing the requirements the next proponent’s goal is to translate the design of the system into the source code in a given programming language. Software Specifications Hardware Specifications he prepaid hotel transaction management system recommended hardware requirements are 1 gigahertz (GHz) 32-bit (x86) processor, 512 gigabyte(GB) of system memory and 1GB free hard disk space. Front End Back End As for the back-end of this project, the database that the proponents will use to store information is an OPEN SOURCE DBMS (MySQL) for the reason that it is powerful, easy to use, can provide multi-user access to a number of databases, and has low rate of cost. MySQL can deploy at any Operating System (OS) such as Window 2000/ME/XP/Vista/7. Moreover, MySQL has a strong data protection here the proponents are ensured that only authorized users can access it and has also a powerful encryption and decryption functions. In general, the proponents’ preferred MySQL because of its high-performance query engine. Test Plan The Prepaid Hotel Transaction Management System, the proponents should test their system, software, application, database security, the speed of the network, and particularly the linked button. Testing Unit Testing To check the confirmation of registration and login form, the prepaid hotel transaction management system must save the configuration tester and confirm the tester’s registration.
Integration Testing The tester must be able to examine the work flow of the system seeing the compatibility, performance, stress and load. This test examines are discuss below: COMPATIBILTY/PEFORMANCE/STRESS/LOAD TESTING To come up with the integration test the system should undergo with the four tests examine. The system will only accept the data to be loaded to the database or to the system itself, if this data are compatible with the specified fields (e. g. data type and etc. ) of the database or system. The performance of the system depends on the stress of the system or on how does it work.
It can also be done by determining the responsiveness, speed scalability and speed characteristics of product under test and application. This type of testing determines the application robustness in terms of extreme load and helps the application to performs sufficiently if the current load gives well above the expected requirements. It identifies the applications weak point and shows behavior under the extreme load conditions. It is conducted to verify that the application is able to meet the desired performance objectives.
It also identifies the behavior of the system under normal and peak load conditions. System Testing Testing the whole system against user documentation and requirements specification after the integration testing has finished. It is required before and after system is put in place as refined while performing testing. This procedure tells the tester how the system should perform and where common mistakes may be found. The tester usually tries to break the system by entering the data that may cause the system to malfunction or return incorrect information.
Acceptance Testing Prepaid Hotel Transaction Management System will undergo and conduct several test operations, but the most important test to have will be the Acceptance Testing, this type of test is considered to be one of the most important examination by user before the system is finally delivered or handled over to the end user, and this type of test is carried out in order to verify if the system or product develop is well introduced its standards, come upon the specified criteria and meets all the requirements specified by users of the system that was developed.
This is useful for the future maintenance of the system that has the right to veto in the acceptance testing processes. The user confirms the system to be used and maintained. This may include checking of back up, facilities, training for the users, maintenance and security procedures. ———————– Online Hotel Management System Customer application Admin application View Registration Update Generate a report Verification Backup/Recovery Update the sales Customer info Information Files Customer info PROCESS OUTPUT INPUT Payment Log in Fill up form Reports Store data/information
Register Reservation process Add a customer Update the View Front Desk Personnel Verify the customer Customer Generate a report Update the sales record Booking Details Date: Date/Time Check- in: Date/Time Check – out: Date/Time Guests: integer Rooms: integer Booking Date: Date/Time Status: Integer Accept() calcTotal() Customer Name: String Address: String Contact No. : String Save() Update() 1 * 1 Payment getAmount() * Admin Admin ID: Integer Name: String Position: String addAdmin() deleteCustomer() deleteBooking() updateAdmin() Cash Credit Code: String BankName: String Verify()