This survey aims to look into the niceness and the related schemes used by Malayan yaks in the conversations of on-line scene. Chat room messages are self-generated and immediately seeable, doing it similar to the day-to-day natural-occurring discourse. For this survey, Yahoo confab suites have been chosen to measure the form of niceness schemes used by most Malaysians. This survey examines 20 written conversations or messages in Yahoo confab suites. The informations were collected by logging in into Yahoo Messenger, and into one of the many confab suites that has been featured. The conversation or messages written by the Malayan yaks in the confab suites were so copied and saved. The informations were so analyzed by mentioning to Brown and Levinson ‘s theory of niceness scheme ( 1987 ) . Based on Brown and Levinson ‘s theoretical account of niceness scheme ( 1987 ) , the niceness schemes used in day-to-day conversations to cut down Face Threatening Acts ( FTAs ) are grouped into four chief schemes which are Bald on Record, Positive Politeness, Negative Politeness, and Off-the-Record. The consequences of the analysis show that positive niceness scheme is most widely used by Malayan yaks in the Yahoo confab suites. It may go on because the conversation is in the signifier of sharing where yaks reveal narratives about themselves or province their sentiment about something. Most chatter interacts with each other to portion their experiences or narratives among themselves. In this instance, S satisfies H ‘s positive face by giving gift, non merely in the signifier of thing, but human-relation that wants to be liked, admired, attention about, understood, listened to, etc. Therefore, it is proved that even in this ‘faceless ‘ community, people still want to be liked and admired. They besides want to portion and be able to understand each other ‘s feelings and ideas even when they are non pass oning face-to-face.
A A A A A A A A A A A A confab room is portion of a Web site, or portion of the online services such as the Yahoo confab suites, that provides a locale for communities of users around the universe with a common involvement to pass on in existent clip. It is so a common fact that each homo has the demand to pass on with others. Communication is defined as a procedure by which we assign and convey significances in an effort to make shared understanding, sing that both the talker and listener should keep to general regulations or rules and thereby utilize certain schemes. An frequently used scheme to accomplish this is known as niceness ( Renkema, 1993 ) .
A A A A A A A A A A A Leech ( 1983 ) defines niceness as “ a signifier of behaviour that establishes and maintains comity ” , that is, “ the ability of participants in a societal interaction to prosecute in interaction in an ambiance of comparative harmoniousness ” . Brown and Levinson ( 1987 ) suggest niceness as a compensation action taken to counter-balance the riotous consequence of face-threatening Acts of the Apostless ( FTAs ) . In add-on, they besides describe Face Threatening Acts as “ Acts of the Apostless that infringe on the listener ‘s demand to keep his/her self-pride and be respected ” ( Brown and Levinson, 1987 ) .
A A A A A A A A A A A Harmonizing to Brown and Levinson, niceness schemes are developed in order to salvage the listener ‘s “ face ” . Face refers to a talker ‘s sense of lingual and societal individuality, which is defined as “ the public self-image that every member ( of the society ) wants to claim for himself ” ( Brown and Levinson, 1987 ) .
A A A A A A A A A A A A However, this lingual facet occurs in the verbal communicating of the existent conversation non merely in the existent universe but besides in the cyber universe. Nowadays, since engineering has developed quickly, people can pass on with others utilizing many sorts of media. One of the engineerings used widely by the society of the universe is the cyberspace. The cyberspace is a system that has revolutionized ocular, unwritten, written communications and methods of commercialism by leting assorted computing machine webs around the universe to complect. Therefore, it is now possible for people to pass on visually, orally, and in written signifier by utilizing their Personal Computer and Internet modem.
A A A A A A A A A A A To pass on in the written signifier via the cyberspace, people can utilize the installations which are called e-mail and confab. Chat or chew the fating via the cyberspace is a real-time communicating between two or more users via computing machine and the users are popularly-known as “ yaks ” . Most webs and online services offer a chat characteristic. One of the common and popular cyberspace installations for chatting is the Yahoo Messenger chat room.
Yahoo Messenger is one of the cyberspace free installations which can be accessed by many cyberspace users that have a Yahoo history. On-line chat-channels or suites in Yahoo Messenger have become a popular environment for run intoing new people and for general conversations. These chat-channels are comparable to “ real-life ” state of affairss where participants interact at the same clip spontaneously and frequently in the same spacial environment. The same colloquial regulations are adhered to both in chat-channel conversations and in face-to-face interaction. However, some specific characteristics of chat-channel conversation, such as the niceness schemes, might be different from those we meet outside the internet, where a face-to-face interaction would happen.
Therefore, this survey aims to explicate the niceness schemes used by Malayan yaks in Yahoo Messenger confab suites through observation and analysis.
2.0. Literature Review.
At the same clip as back uping renewed involvement in Grice ‘s Concerted Principles ( 1975 ) , the issue of niceness has become one of the most active countries of research in linguistic communication usage ( Chen, 2001 ) . Surveies from Brown & A ; Levinson ( 1978, 1987 ) and Scollon and Scollon ( 1995 ) have aroused increased attending in the survey of niceness. The face theory proposed by Brown and Levinson ( 1978, 1987 ) serves as the most influential theory on niceness. It plays a prima function in the survey of address Acts of the Apostless ( Ji, 2000 ; Hobbs, 2003 ) . Brown & A ; Levinson ‘s face theory contains three basic impressions: face, face endangering Acts of the Apostless ( FTAs ) and politeness schemes.
Politeness is an facet of pragmatics in that its usage in linguistic communication is determined by an external context. This external context is the context of communicating, which is determined by the societal position of the participants. Politeness is a system used by the talker in order to maintain up to the addressee ‘s outlooks. Harmonizing to Grundy ( 1995: 135 ) the clinchers of the demand to utilize politeness schemes are distance, power and infliction. Imposition covers every action ( including address Acts of the Apostless ) which threatens the addressee ‘s liberty and freedom of action and normally is conveyed in the signifier of an order. On the other manus, power is evaluated in footings of legion factors such as place in society and age whereas distance implies the rating of the other ‘s topographic point in the universe, grade of acquaintance and/or solidarity towards the addressee. The politeness systems theory advocated by Scollon and Scollon ( 1995 ) is besides notable in this field. They observe three niceness systems which are the respect niceness system, the solidarity niceness system and the hierarchal niceness system. The differentiation of the three systems is chiefly based on whether there exists power difference ( +P or -P ) and on the societal distance between the middlemans ( +D or -D ) . The respect niceness system is one in which participants are considered to be peers or close peers but treat each other at a distance ( e.g. schoolmates ) . In a solidarity niceness system, the talkers may experience neither power difference ( -P ) nor societal distance ( -D ) between them ( e.g. friends ) . The hierarchal niceness system may be widely recognized among companies, authorities and educational organisations, in which the talkers resort to different niceness schemes.
2.3. Face Endangering Acts ( FTAs )
Every vocalization is potentially a face endangering act ( FTA ) , either to the negative face or to the positive face. Therefore, people need to use niceness schemes to right the FTA. Harmonizing to Brown and Levinson, Face Threatening Acts ( FTA ‘s ) are acts that infringe on the listeners ‘ demand to keep his/her ego regard. If we do or are about to endanger person ‘s positive or negative face, but do non intend it, we need to minimise it by using niceness schemes. There are four polite schemes ; Bald on Record, Positive Politeness, Negative Politeness, and Off-the-Record ( as suggested by Brown and Levinson, 1987 ) .
2.4. Politeness Scheme
Harmonizing to Brown and Levinson ( 1987 ) , politeness schemes are developed to salvage the listener ‘s face. Face refers to the regard that an person has for him or herself, and keeping that “ self-esteem ” in public or in private state of affairss. Their impressions of ‘face is derived from that of Goffman ( 1967, as cited in Brown and Levinson 1987 ) and from the English common people term, which is related to impressions of being embarrassed or humiliated, or ‘losing face ‘ . Brown and Levinson stated that there are two types of face in an interaction which are positive and negative face. A individual ‘s positive face is the demand to be accepted, even liked, by others, to be treated by members of the same group, and to cognize that his or her wants are shared by others. Whereas a individual ‘s negative face is the demand to be independent, to hold freedom of action and non to be imposed on by others ( Christmas, 1996 ) .A A
In the bald on record scheme, the talker provides no attempt to minimise menaces to the other individual ‘s “ face. ” The premier ground for its use is that whenever a talker ( S ) wants to make the FTA with maximal efficiency more than he wants to fulfill the listener ‘s ( H ‘s ) face, even to any grade, he will take bald on record scheme ( Brown and Levinson, 1987: 95 ) . There are, nevertheless, different sorts of bald on record use in different fortunes, because S can hold different motivations for his or her wanting to make the FTA with maximal efficiency. It is divided into two categories which are instances of non-minimization of FTA and instances of FTA-oriented bald on record use.
On the other manus, in instances of FTA-oriented bald on record, the usage of this scheme is more orientated to the face. In other words, it is used where face involves common orientation, so that each participant attempts to foretell what the other participant is trying to anticipate. For in certain fortunes it is sensible for S to presume that H will be particularly disquieted with H ‘s possible misdemeanor or S ‘s maintaining. There are three functional classs or countries where we expect the preemptive invitations to happen in all linguistic communications ( which are possible to FTA ) :
The positive niceness scheme is normally seen in groups of friends, or where people in the given societal state of affairs know each other reasonably good. It normally tries to minimise the distance between them by showing friendliness and solid involvement in the listener ‘s demand to be respected. The lone characteristic that distinguishes positive niceness compensation from normal mundane intimate linguistic communication behaviour is an component of hyperbole. There are 15 sub-strategies that are used in positive niceness schemes:
Negative niceness is defined as “ a redressive action addressed to the addressee ‘s negative face: his privation to hold his freedom of action unobstructed and his attending unrestricted ” ( Brown and Levinson, 1987 ) . Negative niceness scheme recognizes the listener ‘s face, but it besides recognizes that the talker is in some manner coercing on them. Some of the sub-strategies of negative niceness are:
Harmonizing to Brown and Levinson ( 1987 ) , a communicative act is done off-record if it is done in such a manner that it is non possible to impute merely one clear communicative purpose to the act. Therefore, if a talker wants to make an FTA, but wants to avoid the duty for making it, he can make it off-record and go forth it up the addressee to make up one’s mind how to construe it. Some sub-strategies of off-record:
The research design of this survey was descriptive qualitative. The information or the information were reported and described as the manner they were, hence any content of the information were non changed for the interest of the originality of the information required. The technique used, as in most descriptive research, was the observation technique, since it could precisely depict how the yaks responded straight to other yaks in the confab room. After being connected to the cyberspace, a yokel courier window was opened. After about two hours of chew the fating with friends and aliens, all the written conversations were so copied and saved. Following, the informations were printed out and analyzed.
A papers analysis was used because the informations were in the signifier of written or ocular stuff. While roll uping the information, interpretation and analysing them besides took topographic point. The informations were classified harmonizing to the FTA contained in it. In this instance, it was about what sort of niceness scheme used by the yaks, whether they were bald on record, positive niceness, negative niceness, or off-record based on Brown and Levinson ‘s theory. After that, the informations were described more specifically harmonizing to the chosen scheme.
From table 2, it can be seen that in the chatting conversation, Malayan yaks used many fluctuations of Positive Politeness scheme. Based on the consequences of this survey, it is clear that Give gifts to H is often used by the yaks ( 23.6 % ) . It may go on because the conversation is in the signifier of sharing where yaks reveal narratives about themselves or province their sentiment about something. Most chatter interacts with each other to portion their experiences or narratives among themselves. In this instance, S satisfies H ‘s positive face by giving gift, non merely in the signifier of thing, but human-relation that wants to be liked, admired, attention about, understood, listened to, etc. Therefore, it is proved that even in this ‘faceless ‘ community, people still want to be liked and admired. They besides want to portion and be able to understand each other ‘s feelings and ideas even when they are non pass oning face-to-face.
As shown in Table 1, Bald on Record niceness scheme is the 2nd most applied scheme by Malayan yaks in Yahoo confab room. Malayan yaks used this scheme largely by giving sympathetic advice or warning ( 48.3 % ) ( Table 3 ) . In line with Positive Politeness scheme, it may go on due to the signifier of the conversation that is sharing jobs and thoughts. It is common fact that yaks logged into the cyberworld to let go of their tense whilst sharing what they felt about certain things with others. Bald on record scheme besides is normally used among talkers that have close/intimate relation with each other ( i.e. siblings, friends ) . Apart from this consequence, the current survey besides has found that among two group of people ( aliens and friends ) , friends tend to utilize more bald on record when pass oning among themselves ( among all 40 chatters,26 friends used bald on record compared to merely 3 aliens utilizing bald on record ) . This is because they do non experience the demand to minimise the menace to the H ‘s face believing that both S and H understand that they do non intend to abash each other intentionally.
Harmonizing to the consequence by the current survey, it is clear that the negative niceness scheme is non much used by the Malayan yaks in their interaction with each other. The negative niceness scheme is merely been used for a entire 13 times by the yaks. The negative scheme largely used by Malayan yaks is by impersonalizing S and H ( 38.4 % ) . It is instead common to impersonalize when the societal distance between S and H is huge. In Malayan it is considered ‘polite ‘ when we use the negative niceness scheme, which explains why we apologize a twelve times to our lector before inquiring them a inquiry. We Malayan tend to turn to our superior with their rubric ( i.e. dame, Dr, Professor, etc ) . In the confab room context, when we are pass oning with a alien or person who is at a higher degree in the societal hierarchy ( or a higher degree position, linguistic communication proficiency ) we will largely fall back to this scheme in order to be ‘polite ‘ because it is the norm in Malaysia.
A talker uses off-record scheme when he/she wants to avoid the duty of making an FTA. When a talker uses off-record scheme, he/she leaves the FTA up to the addressee to make up one’s mind how to construe it since here the talker must state something in general ( less information ) or different from what he means ( Brown and Levinson ‘ 1987: 211 )
Off the Record
Percentage ( % )
Give Association Clues
Table 5: distribution of the fluctuation of Off the Record Strategy
Yaks and duologues
YT: I ‘m about to detonate. All this whle I tot shes comin! ! ! ! Wtff? ?
Hafnium: ooooooaˆ¦ . Person ‘s truly huffy.
KP: I noeeee, , , Y did she canceled her concert? = (
Off the Record
( be vague )
Examples of Off the record scheme in a conversation
As shown in Table 5, off-record scheme is really seldom used by Malayan yaks. Based on the consequences of the current survey, Malayan yaks merely used off the record scheme for a sum of 2 times merely. Malayan used this scheme by giving association hints and being obscure towards the subject of conversation.
From the findings, it is discovered that niceness schemes are besides applied in computer-mediated communicating, as presented by Malayan yaks in Yahoo confab room. Politeness is used to keep the societal value of the community, including in virtual-community. The yaks used the scheme of niceness when they communicate in the computer-mediated communicating ( CMC ) to cut down the FTA in ‘saying ‘ something. The findings show that positive niceness scheme is the most often used scheme by Malayan yaks in Yahoo confab room. Most yaks use this scheme while sing other yaks ‘ feeling or face. It is besides used to derive and demo respect towards each other. It may go on due to the scene of the conversation and the societal distance between the yaks which clearly is really near. Therefore, this consequence is parallel with if the yaks were to hold a face-to-face conversation with each other. Because of their intimacy with each other, they tend to utilize polite scheme in order to be liked, understand and accepted among themselves. Therefore, this consequence supports Brown and Levinson ‘s theory which says that polite scheme contains statements of friendly relationship, regards and etc.
A A A A A A A A A A A Bald on record is besides rather widely used by Malayan yaks in the CMC because most of the yaks know each other reciprocally ; hence they have a really close relation with each other. Harmonizing to Brown and Levinson ‘s theory, people that used this scheme are likely to be friends or holding any intimate relation with one another. This explains the phenomena where common friends interact through confab suites in order to portion their ideas and feelings when they are non able to run into each other in individual ( due to clip and other restraints ) . It besides the belief that people sound less polite in CMC can be attributed to production costs: It takes more clip to type hedges and indirect petitions in fast-paced CMC, and so people use Balder, shorter signifiers ( Brennan and Ohaeri, 1999 ) .
A A A A A A A A A A A Negative niceness scheme is by and large used by Malayan yaks when they want to inquire other yaks to make something and to demo that the middleman recognizes the addressee ‘s privation to hold his freedom of action unobstructed. A instead different phenomenon from what go on in the ‘real ‘ universe is that sometimes Malayan yaks minimize the infliction of the FTA by composing smiley mark ( e.g. : ) or = ) , ; ) etc. ) or grinning look ( e.g. ‘hehehe ‘ ) . It happens since the yaks in the CMC can non see each other ‘s face.
A A A A A A A A A A A Off-the-record scheme of niceness is the least used by Malayan yaks in Yahoo confab room. This might go on sing the societal distance between the yaks. As explained earlier, Malaysians tend to vague when pass oning with aliens or those who are of a higher ranking in societal hierarchy. This is because the talker wants to take the possible to be enforcing.
5.1. Restrictions of survey
This survey shows its restrictions in several ways. First, the survey merely investigates the confab room discourse between middlemans of college-going ages. Thus the linguistic communication used by yaks might be influenced by their age. Therefore, this determination may non use to state of affairss where middlemans are of different ( older ) age and unequal societal position ( lectors, parents, etc ) .
Furthermore, the topics are limited to a comparatively little group of college pupils ( the confab room was joined by merely 40 people ) . So the consequence can merely reflect the address of a little group of people in a limited part. More research can be conducted on more topics to prove and complement the findings of this present survey.
5.2. Future survey
It may be really interesting to look into the niceness phenomenon of the topics holding different ages, unequal societal position and different societal relationships A future research can be done to analyse the niceness scheme used by people in e-mails. Furthermore, a survey of the niceness scheme used by work forces and adult females can be compared in footings of the authorship manners for both work forces and adult females and associate it with the consequence of the scheme used. This is possible since gender difference is besides one of the factors in the niceness applied.
A A A A A A A A A A A Future research can besides be done by carry oning a similar research analyzing the private messages in Yahoo confab suites. Here, the niceness schemes used by the yaks can be observed when they communicate in private ( e.g. what sort of niceness scheme will they take to reply a personal inquiry ) . A cross-cultural survey which compares the niceness scheme used by Malaysian and English yaks in the private messages may besides be done in the hereafter. It is since in each civilization, people have different values in pass oning ; therefore it will act upon the niceness employed in the same context.