Nokias Expansion Into South Africa Economics Essay

Harmonizing to Ball et. Al ( 2009 ) civilization consists of aesthetics, attitudes and beliefs, faith, linguistic communication and social organisation. These facets are explained below and information about South Africa on these facets is given following to it. After this, the five cultural dimensions of Hofstede are explained in relation to South Africa.

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Sociocultural forces have to make with cognizing the client or state you ‘re making concern with. This is of import, because every civilization has its logic and within this logic there are reasonable grounds for the manner aliens handle things. If one can calculate out these facets of a civilization, he will be more effectual interacting with foreign clients and co-workers. So, it ‘s of import to be prepared before going abroad, to decelerate down ( particularly western states can be in a haste and other states can see this as unfriendly, chesty or untrusty. Besides it is of import to set up some trust and understand the importance of linguistic communication ( cognizing a ( spot ) of a foreign linguistic communication is truly appreciated ) .

Aestheticss is about the civilization ‘s sense to beauty and gustatory sensation and it is expressed in the state ‘s art, music, folklore, dances and play. South Africa has much to offer on this, particularly since the apartheid has come to an terminal.

Attitudes and beliefs are about straightness, deadlines, attitudes towards clip, accomplishment & A ; work, occupation prestigiousness. South Africa is a controlled-time civilization, and attachment to agendas is of import and expected. Missing a deadline is a mark of hapless direction and inefficiency. Therefore it ‘s non unusual that directors inquire their people to work tardily or give up weekends to run into a deadline. On the contrary meeting agendas are non so rigorous ; the docket is more a guideline for the treatment. There is besides clip for some non-business treatments, because relationships are really of import. Time is non more of import than finishing a meeting satisfactorily.

Religion does act upon the manner people do concern and can act upon the work environment. In South Africa about 73,5 % of the population are Christians, 15 % has a traditional African faith and about 8 % is non spiritual. Other faiths ( Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, Hinduism ) make out a really little portion of the population.

Material civilization are all human-made objects ; how people make things, who makes what and why ( engineering and economic system ) . Peoples from Johannesburg are for illustration frequently interested in what you own, alternatively of who you are, they have mercenary values.

Language: is the key to civilization. In South Africa many linguistic communications are spoken, the official linguistic communications are: Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa and isiZulu. These are a batch of different linguistic communications, but the chief linguistic communication of commercialism and political relations is English. Peoples in South Africa like to utilize their ain linguistic communications for any intent, if it ‘s possible.

To compare the civilizations of states the five cultural dimensions of Hofstede can be utile. These dimensions are ( Hofstede, 1991 ) :

Individualism versus Bolshevism

Large versus little power distance

Strong versus weak uncertainness turning away

Masculinity versus feminity

Long term orientation

Individualism ( IDV ) is the first cultural dimension which is the antonym of Bolshevism ; the grade to which persons are integrated into groups. When individuality is high in a society, the ties between persons are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself and his household. When Bolshevism is high, people ( from birth on ) are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, frequently drawn-out households ( with uncles, aunts and grandparents ) . This group protects them in exchange for unquestioning trueness.

If you ‘re working in/with a state with a higher IDV you need to be cognizant of the followers:

You ca n’t depend on the group for replies, you ‘re expected to work on your ain and utilize your enterprise.

Business and personal life are most of the clip kept separate.

Employees will anticipate the opportunity to work on undertakings independently. Bing excessively intrusive into their work can be interpreted negatively.

Peoples frequently want to stand out from the remainder.

If you ‘re working in an opposite civilization:

Peoples have a strong sense of duty for their household which can take precedency over concern.

It is of import to honor a whole squad, alternatively of an person.

Promotions depend upon senior status and experience, alternatively of accomplishment and public presentation.

Decision-making can be a slow procedure.

The 2nd cultural dimension is power distance index ( PDI ) looks at how much a civilization does or does n’t value hierarchal relationships and regard for authorization. It is besides the extent to which less powerful members of society accept and expect that power is distributed unevenly ( De Mooij, 2005 )

If you ‘re working in/with a state with a higher PDI than your state so there are some things you need to make:

Give clear waies to those working with you. Deadlines should be stressed.

Do non anticipate subordinates to take enterprise.

Be more autocratic in direction. Relationships with staff can be more distant.

Show regard and respect to people who are higher than you. This is reflected through linguistic communication, behaviour and protocol.

Expect to meet more bureaucratism in organisations and authorities bureaus.

When working in/with a state with a lower PDI:

Do non anticipate to be treated with the usual regard you may be used to.

Peoples will desire to acquire to cognize you in an informal manner.

Be more inclusive in your leading manner as being directing will be ill interpreted.

Involve others in determination devising.

Do n’t do judgements of people on visual aspect, privileges or position symbols.

The dimension uncertainness turning away index ( UAI ) is about the society ‘s tolerance for uncertainness and ambiguity and about the extent a civilization plans its members to experience either uncomfortable or comfy in unstructured ( unknown or new ) state of affairss. These civilizations try to minimise the possibility of unsure state of affairss by rigorous Torahs and regulations, safety and security steps, and by a belief in absolute ‘truth ‘ . Peoples in uncertainness avoiding states are besides more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy.

The uncertainness accepting civilizations, on the contrary, are more tolerant of other sentiments and they try to hold few regulations and they are more relativistic. Peoples in an uncertainness accepting civilization are more phlegmatic and brooding, and non expected by their environment to show emotions.

Working in a state with a higher uncertainness turning away mark than your state, means:

You ca n’t anticipate that new thoughts or methods are readily embraced.

Involving local opposite numbers in undertakings to let them a sense of apprehension.

Peoples may non experience to the full in control and can hence be less willing to do determinations with some component of the unknown.

Proposals and presentations are examined in item, with everything backed up with facts and statistics.

In a state with a lower uncertainness turning away mark:

Try to be more flexible in your attack to new thoughts.

Push through agreed programs really promptly as they would anticipate to be realized every bit shortly as possible.

Allow employees autonomy and infinite to put to death their undertakings on their ain.

Nationals in the state may hold a different attack to life and see their fate in their ain custodies.

The dimension maleness ( MAS ) refers to the distribution of functions between the genders. Surveies revealed that adult females ‘s values differ less among societies than work forces ‘s values, and work forces ‘s values from one state to another contain a dimension from really self-asserting and competitory and maximally different from adult females ‘s values on the one side, to modest and lovingness and similar to adult females ‘s values on the other. The self-asserting pole has been called ‘masculine ‘ and the modest, caring pole ‘feminine ‘ .

If you ‘re working in a society with higher maleness so:

You will be expected to do forfeits ; longer work hours, shorter vacations.

Peoples will discourse concern al the clip, even at a societal assemblage.

Asking personal inquiries is non done in most state of affairss, people are largely non interested in developing a friendly relationship.

Effective communicationstyle is direct, concise and unemotional.

Self-promotion is acceptable in a competitory environment.

In a society with a lower maleness mark, the followers are common:

Peoples find personal clip of import. Working overtime is non the norm.

More clip for little talk on personal life and involvements.

In concern trades trust is more of import than net income borders.

Nepotism is seen as positive and people openly show favouritism to shut dealingss.

Long-run orientation, the last dimension, was found in a survey among pupils in 23 states around the universe. It deals with virtue regardless of truth. Valuess associated with long term orientation are thrift and doggedness and values associated with short term orientation are: regard for tradition, carry throughing societal duties, and protecting one ‘s ‘face ‘ . Traits of long term and short term are described in the tabular array below:

High Long Term

Short Term

Emphasis on continuity

Emphasis on speedy consequences

Relationships ordered by position

Status non a major issue in relationships

Personal adaptability importantA

Personal staunchness and stableness of import

Face considerations common but seen as a failing

Protection of one ‘s face is of import

Leisure clip non excessively of import

Leisure clip of import

Save, be thrifty


Invest in existent estate

Invest in common financess

Relationships and market place of import

Bottom line of import

Good or evil depends on fortunes

Belief in absolutes about good and evil

Table 1: Hofstede ( 1991 )

For South-Africa Hofstede came to the undermentioned decisions about these cultural dimensions ( see figure 1 ) , compared to the universe norm ( see figure 2 ) .

Figure 1: tonss of South Africa PDI: 49, IDV 65, MAS 63 and UAI 49.

Figure 2: universe norm tonss.

In the last graph the tonss of South Africa and Finland are compared, as Nokia is a Finnish company.

The two states differ chiefly on PDI and on MAS, a small on UAI and really small on IDV. Merely on UAI Finland has a higher mark than South Africa. Which mean that South Africa has a higher power distance, a small spot higher individuality rate and a batch higher maleness mark. The maleness is something you need to believe about earlier making concern, but if you prepared to this, and the other cultural differences, making concern will likely be successful.

Is this force a menace or an chance for Nokia?

Figure 3: Finland vs. South Africa

Natural resources and environmental sustainability

Ball et Al. ( 2009 ) states that this force consists of the factors location, topography, clime and natural resources and underscore the inputs that companies draw on. Local disadvantages can be recognized as advantages and go a force for invention. Adverse factors such as local terrain and clime or scarce natural stuffs, force houses to develop new methods. Surface characteristics besides cause economic, cultural, political and societal differences among states or parts of a state. For illustration, mountains can split states into smaller markets that have different civilizations, industries and climes. Desertss and tropical woods can work as a barrier to people or goods. Climate differences can intend that a merchandise needs protection from cold in one state, but needs to be kept cold in another ( warm state ) .

The undermentioned information is retrieved from CIA factbook ( 2009 ) and consists of some basic information about South Africa in relation to this force.

South Africa has a surface of 1,219,090 km2 is surrounded by the states Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Its administrative capital metropolis is Pretoria, but it has besides a legislative capital, Cape Town, and a judicial capital ( Bloemfontein ) .

The clime in South Africa is a steppe clime ( between a semitropical and desert clime ) , so it is cheery during the twenty-four hours and cool by dark. In South Africa there is chiefly plateau and at the boundary lines of the state there are many hills and a little coastal field.

South Africa has many natural resources. There resources are: Sb, Cr, coal, Cu, treasure diamonds, gold, Fe ore, Mn, natural gas, Ni, phosphates, Pt, salt, Sn, U and V.

There are some environmental issues that are presently of import:

A deficiency of of import arterial rivers or lakes requires extended H2O preservation and control steps.

Growth in H2O use outpacing supply.

Pollution of rivers from agricultural overflow and urban discharge.

Air pollution which consequences in acerb rain.

Soil eroding.


Environmental sustainability is the economic province in which the demands placed upon environment by people can be met without cut downing the capacity of the environment to supply for future coevalss ( Ball et. Al, 2009 ) .

South Africa ‘s authorities manages the state ‘s rich and varied natural resources in a responsible and sustainable manner. Many South African non-governmental organisations have emerged as a powerful force in the public policy argument on the environment. In international environmental organisations, South Africa is seen as a cardinal leader among developing states on issues like biodiversity, clime alteration and preservation ( US section of State, 2009 ) .

Is this force a menace or an chance for Nokia?

Economic and socioeconomic forces

South-Africa is an emerging market with a rich supply of natural resources, well-developed fiscal, legal, communications, energy and conveyance sectors. It besides has a modern substructure back uping an efficient distribution of goods throughout the state. Between 2004 and 2008 there was much growing, but this got less subsequently that twelvemonth because of impact of the planetary fiscal crisis on trade good monetary values and demand.

High unemployment is nevertheless still a job and other economic jobs still remain of the apartheid clip. Problems such as poorness, deficiency of authorization among deprived groups and the deficit of public transit.

The economic policy in South Africa is in fiscal matters conservative, but matter-of-fact and it focuses on commanding rising prices and it uses state-owned endeavors to present footing services to low-income countries to increase occupation growing and household income ( CIA Factbook, 2009 ) .

In Ball et. Al. ( 2009 ) some economic dimensions are named. These are among the most unmanageable factors for managers.To keep abreast of the latest economic developments and besides program for the hereafter, houses regularly buttocks and calculate economic conditions at the local, province and national degrees. A state ‘s degree of economic development affects all facets of concern and are characterized by ‘developed ‘ , ‘developing ‘ , ‘newly industrialising ‘ , and freshly industrialised states ‘ . South Africa is a freshly industrializing state with a middle-income economic system.

The dimensions of import for depicting a state ‘s economic system are: GNI/capita ( GNI stands for gross national index ) , distribution of income, private ingestion outgos ( the mode in which consumers allocate their disposable income between indispensable and incidental goods ) , personal ownership of goods, private investing, unit labour costs ( entire labour costs divided by units produced ) , exchange rates, rising prices rates & A ; involvement rates, balance of payments.

Some economical facts about South Africa retrieved from the web site of CIA the World Factbook:

GDP ( per capita ) : 10,000.

GDP ( official exchange rate ) : $ 276,8 billion

GDP ( buying power para ) : $ 492,2 billion

Labor force: 17,79 million economically active.

Labor force by business: agribusiness: 9 % , industry: 26 % and services: 65 % .

Rate of unemployment: 24.5 % ( 3rd Quarter 2009 )

Inflation rates ( on consumer monetary values ) : 11,3 %

Exports: $ 86.12 billion.

Exports – spouses: Japan 11.1 % , US 11.1 % , Germany 8 % , UK 6.8 % , China 6 % , Netherlands 5.2 % .

Imports: $ 90.57 billion.

Imports – spouses: Germany 11.2 % , China 11.1 % , US 7.9 % , Saudi Arabia 6.2 % , Japan 5.5 % , UK 4 % .

Militias of foreign exchange and gold: $ 34.07 billion.

Debt – external: $ 71.81 billion.

Stock of direct foreign investing – at place: $ 120 billion.

Stock of direct foreign investing – abroad: $ 63.57 billion.

Exchange rates: rand per US dollar – 7.9576.

South Africa ‘s transit substructure is developed good, back uping both domestic and regional demands. Johannesburg ‘s International Airport is a hub for flights to other southern African states. International airdromes and national roads have been upgraded the last old ages for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Bus-rapid-transit systems have been developed, but face strong resistance from minibus and cab operators who are afraid that the new systems would severely impact their concern.

The domestic telecommunications substructure provides modern and efficient service to urban countries, but at relatively high costs and with limited coverage in rural countries. South Africa has made some stairss towards liberalising its telecommunication market ; nevertheless, many complications exist for more betterment. The passing of the Electronic Communications Act ( ECA ) marked a new regulative model for liberalising the telecommunication market in South Africa. Companies like Telkom and Multi-choice secured market-share under anterior monopoly governments, which make it hard for new campaigners to offer competitory telecommunications services. The SEACOM undertaking is the first of a series of under-sea overseas telegram undertakings to go ready and will supply entree to broadband connectivity for states on Africa ‘s Eastern seaside. These states are presently dependent on Telkom ‘s dearly-won satellite-based engineering.

Annually GDP growing between 2004 and 2007 was 5.0 per centum on norm, but fell to a rate of 3.1 per centum in 2008 because of higher involvement rates, power deficits, and weakening trade goods monetary values. GDP contracted by 6.4 per centum and 3 per centum, in the first and 2nd one-fourth of 2009. Inflation started to worsen in 2009 and accounted for 6.4 per centum in August 2009 and is still diminishing. The SARB ( South African Reserve Bank ) has been cut downing involvement rates on a regular basis.

South Africa is a member of the Southern African Customs Union ( SACU ) and the Southern African Development Community ( SADC ) . In August 1996, South Africa signed a regional trade protocol understanding with its SADC spouses. The understanding provided duty-free intervention for 85 % of trade in 2008 and aims for 100 % by 2012.

Socioeconomic dimensions are the physical properties to a population, like: entire population, age distribution, population denseness & A ; distribution, addition of the figure of working adult females and divorce rates.

South Africa has a population of about 49 million people.

The age distribution within the population is: 0-14 old ages: 28,9 % . 15-64 old ages: 65,8 % and 65+ : 5,4 % .

The population growing rate is 0,281 % .

Urbanization: 61 % of the people live in the urban countries.

Population denseness ( the figure of people per country unit ) in South Africa is about 40.392 km2 and in the image beneath you can see how this population is distributed.

( hypertext transfer protocol: // )

The other socioeconomic dimensions: working adult females and divorce rates can besides supply utile information for a director. The addition of the figure of working adult females may ensue in larger household incomes, a greater market for convenience goods and a demand to change the promotional mix ( all sorts of promotional methods of a house to sell its merchandises ) .

Datas on divorce rates might besides be interesting because the demands and purchasing wonts of single-parent families differ from two-parent families

Is this force a menace or an chance for Nokia?

Where GNI is increasing faster than the population, there is likely an emerging market.

Political forces

The political clime of a state in which a concern operates is really of import. Government stableness and policy continuity is of import to concern, because otherwise a concern can seldom win.

There are several ideological forces which affect concern, these are: communism, capitalist economy and socialism.

South Africa is a multiparty parliamentary democracy and the constitutional power is shared between the president and the Parliament.

South Africa ‘s authoritiess have made major development, after the apartheid, in consolidating the state ‘s alteration to democracy. To better the bringing of societal services to most people, there are plans in advancement. Besides, entree to better chances in concern and instruction is going more common. However, altering South Africa ‘s society to take the heritage of the apartheid will be a long procedure which involves changeless committedness of the leaders and people of the unequal groups in South Africa.

The 1997 fundamental law ‘s measure of rights provides extended warrants, including equality before the jurisprudence and prohibitions against favoritism ; the right to life, privateness, belongings, and freedom and security of the individual ; prohibition against bondage and forced labour ; and freedom of address, faith, assembly, and association. The legal rights of condemnable suspects besides are enumerated, as are citizens ‘ entitlements to a safe environment, lodging, instruction, and wellness attention. The fundamental law provides for an independent and impartial bench, and, in pattern, these commissariats are respected.

Since the stoping of apartheid, degrees of political force in South Africa have dropped dramatically. Violent offense and organized condemnable activity are at high degrees and are a sedate concern. Partially as a consequence, vigilante action and rabble justness sometimes occur. ( hypertext transfer protocol: // # political )

The African National Congress ( ANC ) is since 1994 the party that governs South-Africa, and was set up to increase the rights of the black population. The party is supported by the South African Communist Party ( SACP ) and the Congress of South African Trade Unions ( COSATU ) .

The ANC considers itself as a force of national release in the post-apartheid period. It besides sets forth the redressing of socioeconomic differences that stem from colonial- and apartheid-period policies. These policies discriminated against non-whites, such as land, lodging and occupation distributions, as a cardinal focal point of ANC policy.

The ANC was frequently criticized by western authoritiess who shared the South African authorities ‘s word picture of the group as a terrorist organisation. The ANC ‘s willingness to ally with Communists was besides criticized.

Is this force a menace or an chance for Nokia?

Intellectual belongings and other legal forces

Rule of jurisprudence is of import because it is wanted that a state base its maps on this. It makes it much easier to see after the protection of human rights and of foreign investing.

Intellectual belongings: patents, hallmarks, trade names, right of first publications, and trade secrets.

Specific national legal forces: revenue enhancement, antimonopoly Torahs ( Torahs to forestall monetary value repairing, market sharing and concern monopolies ) .

Duties, quotas and other trade obstructions are besides legal forces.

South Africa is a member of the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) . South Africa is an appropriate state for the benefits under the African Growth and Opportunity Act ( AGOA ) . It has done off with most import licenses except on used merchandises and merchandises regulated by international understandings. It besides remains committed to the simplification and continued decrease of duties within the WTO model and maintains active treatments with the WTO and its major trading spouses

( hypertext transfer protocol: // # political ) .

The legal system of South Africa is based on Roman-Dutch jurisprudence and English common jurisprudence ; has non accepted mandatory ICJjurisdiction.

Judicial subdivision: Constitutional Court ; Supreme Court of Appeals ; High Courts ; Magistrate Courts.

Is this force a menace or an chance for Nokia?

Fiscal forces

There are certain fiscal forces that affect international concern: fluctuating currency values, currency exchange controls, revenue enhancement, rising prices and involvement rates. Fluctuating currency values affect costs and rating and are hence an of import factor in determination devising. Changes in currency exchange rates have increased and are a hazard for the company. Factors that influence exchange rates include basic supply and demand of the currency, involvement rates, rising prices rates, outlooks of the hereafter and pecuniary and financial policies of the authorities. Fiscal forces ca n’t be controlled by the house. Taxes increase the house ‘s costs, rising prices causes higher monetary values and is accompanied by higher involvement rates. A company will desire to restrict exposure in inflation-prone economic systems and do determinations about debt in a strategic manner ( Ball et. all. , 2009 ) .

In South Africa has the Consumer Price Index ( CPI ) increased to 6.3 % ( December 2009 ) .

Inflation rate ( on consumer monetary values ) : 11,3 % .

Fiscal Policy

South Africa has a complicated fiscal construction with a big and active stock exchange that is on the 17th place in the universe in footings of entire market capitalisation. The South African Reserve Bank ( SARB ) performs all cardinal banking maps, is independent, and maps in about the same manner as Western cardinal Bankss. Quantitative recognition controls and administrative control of sedimentation and loaning rates have mostly disappeared.

The South African Government has taken stairss to bit by bit cut down staying foreign exchange controls, which apply merely to South African dwellers. Private citizens are now allowed a erstwhile investing of up to 2,000,000 rand ( R ) in offshore histories. During 2007, the shareholding threshold ( the per centum of shareholding that must be South African ) for foreign direct investing outside Africa was lowered from 50 per centum to 25 per centum to enable South African companies to prosecute in strategic international partnerships. In add-on, South African companies involved in international trade were permitted to run a individual Customer Foreign Currency ( CFC ) history for all international minutess. Permission was besides granted to the Johannesburg Securities Exchange ( JSE ) to set up a rand currency hereafters market, in order to intensify South Africa ‘s fiscal markets and increase liquidness in the local foreign exchange market.

( hypertext transfer protocol: // # political )

Is this force a menace or an chance for Nokia?

Labor forces

The quality, measure and composing of the available labour force within states are of import to an employer because he must be efficient, competitory and profitable. Labor quality consists of the attitudes, instruction, accomplishments of available employees and labour measure is the figure of available employees with the needed accomplishments to run into the concern ‘ demands.

What are the forces that affect the labour quality and measure?

Birth rate: 19,93 births/1000 population.

Birthrate rate: 2,38 kids per adult female.

Death rate: 16,99 deaths/1000 population.

Infant mortality rate: 44,42 deaths/1000 unrecorded births.

Life anticipation at birth: 48,98 ( entire population ) , 49,81 ( males ) , 48,12 ( females ) .

Median age: 24,4 old ages ( entire ) , 24,1 ( males ) , 24,8 ( females ) .

Net migration rate: -0,13 migrators per 1000 population

Urbanization: urban population: 61 % of the population, rate of urbanisation: 1,4 % one-year rate of alteration.


Migration: for the period 2006-2011 it is estimated that about 390 000 people will migrate from the Eastern Cape ; Limpopo is estimated to see a net outmigration of about 200 000 people. During the same period, Gauteng and Western Cape are estimated to see a net influx of migrators of about 450 000 and 140 000 severally.

Child labour: kids, peculiarly in the deep rural countries, between 5 and 17 old ages old are supposed to assist the household and school by take parting in undertakings. In rural countries there are few occupation chances for grownups, and electricity and piped H2O are rare. But it does n’t take much clip for the kids. More than 6 million kids ( 45 % of all South African kids ) were engaged in work-related activities.

Forced labour:

Brain drain ( knowing people leave the state, losing cognition ) : The loss of high educated people to other states through out-migration has been a ground for concern in South Africa for many old ages. The encephalon drain in South Africa started long before the start of the new authorities in 1994, and the figures suggest that the flow of professionals from the state continues to increase quickly. Meanwhile, the figure of knowing immigrants into South Africa, which is a beginning for the replacing of accomplishments, is worsening ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

Guest workers:

Minorities in traditional societies:

Labor brotherhoods:

Multinational labour activities:

Is this force a menace or an chance for Nokia?

Comparison of the consequences of the analysis

Whether to travel in front or non, and why? Besides here, explain and usage statements to back up your decision ( make non merely sum up ) .

Contemplation on assignment, its executing and its consequences

How appropriate are the environmental forces ( as a whole ; all forces described in inquiry 1 ) as an analysing method for the investing determination? Is it sufficient? Please explicate briefly.

How dependable are your consequences and why?


Ball, D. , Geringer, J. , Minor, M. , & A ; McNett, J. ( 2009 ) . International concern. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

De Mooij, M. ( 2005 ) . Global selling and advertisement: understanding cultural paradoxes. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Losskarn, E. & A ; Losskarn, D. ( 2008 ) . Zuid-Afrika. Den Haag: ANWB.

Web sites:

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