This paper will chronicle how Lucy Snowe manipulates assorted signifiers of mental arrested development in an effort to happen her auctorial voice through Polly. Polly subdues her possession by progressing a less fixed thought, a stasis that keeps her ideas within the construction of compulsion. In so making, Polly becomes a figure of survey ; altering her compulsion from anguish to mandate. This dealing is facilitated by Lucy ‘s handling of compulsion ‘s sadism, which offers her the mandate that goes beyond the mind. Specifically, this sadism is an facet in her relationship with her auctorial voice and Polly.
In the beginning, the storyteller ‘s name or beginning remains unknown. The lone reading that is presented is that she, being the lone kid in the house, likes to be taken notice of by her godmother. Her sensitivity presented is that respects of “ an overheated and dianoetic imaginativeness ” as a “ expletive. ” ( 13 ) She prefers to: “ watching calmly from the window, ” ( 13 ) which, after Polly has joined the Brettons, Lucy disapproves of Polly running out of the house to give her male parent a “ vehement, unrestrained ” salutation ( 14 ) . Yet, when Polly and her male parent show modesty, decorousness on come ining the room, the storyteller would love for the other kid to shout out, so that she herself can acquire inward alleviation from the uproar of her ain emotions: “ I wished she would express some hysterical call, so that I might acquire alleviation and be at easiness. ” ( 14 ) The storyteller herself is non peaceable at all in the mind, but violent, even sadistic on wishing for the kid to shout to alleviate her ain emotions. She is non truly detached at all, but entirely identifies herself with the state of affairs in which Polly is involved. The storyteller can non bear in Polly the grace she professes herself to O.K. because Polly ‘s restraint permits no empathic emotional release. It is she herself who is cursed with an overheated and dianoetic imaginativeness.
Polly ‘s compulsion takes the signifier of a compulsive spruceness: “ I have dressed myself, but I do non experience near. Make me orderly! ” ( 10 ) As Harriet complies, Polly ne’er finds satisfaction, saying the mistake for each accommodation:
“ Tie my sash sound ; do my hair smooth, please. ”
“ Your sash is consecutive plenty. What a peculiar small organic structure you are! ”
“ It must be tied once more. Please to bind it. ”
“ There, so. When I am gone you must acquire that immature lady to dress you. ”
“ On no history. ”
“ Why? She is a really nice immature lady. I hope you mean to act prettily to her, girl, and non demo your poses. ”
“ Amusing small thing! ”
“ You are non go throughing the comb straight through my hair, Harriet: the line will be crooked. ”
“ Ay, you are sick to delight. Does that suit? ”
“ Reasonably good [ aˆ¦ ] ” ( 10 )
What the conversation suggests is that it is difficult for Polly to be pleased about her visual aspect in peculiar. For all Polly ‘s single-mindedness sing her visual aspect, it does non gain her Lucy ‘s appellation of monomaniac ; Polly becomes monomaniacal one time her compulsion of compulsive spruceness attaches to her depression over her male parent ‘s absence. Merely after Polly ‘s unhappiness remains excessively intense for excessively long does Lucy place this homesickness as “ a one-idead nature ; bewraying that monomaniac inclination I have of all time thought the most unfortunate with which adult male or adult female can be cursed. ” ( 12 ) Compulsion of spruceness is regarded as peculiar, but compulsion on her male parent ‘s absence assures the monomaniacal. The two compulsion is basically a synthesis of Polly ‘s monomaniacal fright of loss ; the same monomaniacal fright that Lucy confronts.
After naming Polly with possession, Lucy attempts to happen a remedy. Both Lucy and Mrs. Bretton have a different stance of what might represent as a remedy. Lucy “ express [ Es ] [ her ] assurance in the effects of clip and kindness. ” ( 11 ) Mrs. Bretton, on the other manus, states that “ if she were to take a illusion to anybody in the house, she would shortly settle ; but non till so. ” ( 11 ) Both stances will be taken into consequence once the godmother ‘s boy, Graham, returns place. However, Mrs. Bretton ‘s suggestion is that of which ties the subject of compulsion, viz. , altering the object of her compulsion into something else. Mrs. Bretton ‘s remedy is predicated on reassigning Polly ‘s possession. Visualizing Graham does non halt Polly ‘s possession ; it simply shifts her compulsion of her male parent to Graham, leting her to alter her experience of the upset from one of maniacal depression to maniacal felicity.
The narrative reaching of Polly and Polly ‘s behaviour seems sadistic, hostile, obsessional, intense, and about rapacious in the storyteller ‘s examination, as she watches Polly sew and “ pricking herself of all time and anon, taging the cambric with a path of minute ruddy points. ” ( 15 ) This sadism, as it is compulsively expressed throughout Villette, is the melancholy pleasance that structures the novel ‘s narrative. Both Polly and Lucy come to pull off their melancholy compulsion non by asseverating felicity in resistance to it, but by asseverating compulsion itself. By leting the storyteller to work through the contradictions that arise from the dilemma necessity of her melancholia, she is able to craft her narrative in footings of instead perverse pleasance.
The scene of ill will is transmitted from one lonely individual to another. Both have relied on the favour of others, but the scene of reunion is reenacted when the godmother ‘s ain kid, Graham, comes place. The anon. “ I ” comments:
This 2nd “ comfort ” came on the phase in the class of the eventide. I knew this twenty-four hours had been fixed for his return, and was cognizant that Mrs. Bretton had been anticipating him through all its hours. We were seated round the fire, after tea, when Graham joined our circle: I should instead state, broke it up-for, of class, his reaching made a hustle ; and so, as Mr. Graham was fasting, there was refreshment to be provided. He and Mr. Home met as old familiarity ; of the small miss he took no notice for a clip. ( 15 )
This transition fixates on the equivocal “ he ” : “ of the small miss he took no notice for a clip. ” Both the former and the latter of Polly ‘s compulsion are present, yet the two male figures seem to take no notice of the small miss. The transition ‘s sadism is hinging on “ [ taking ] no notice ” ; a narration of a state of affairs in which Polly is forgotten. As Polly is staged and restaged into the melancholy forgotten, Lucy compulsively presents Polly as the kid: “ When I say kid I use an inappropriate and undescriptive term- a term proposing any image instead than that of the demure small individual in a bereavement frock and white chemisette [ aˆ¦ ] ” ( 15 ) Lucy derives pleasance from doing aliens of her familiarities: “ inappropriate and undescriptive footings, ” and it is something she feels compelled to reiterate. This expectancy relies on sadism ; she non merely has control over the reader, denying them cognition of who characters are, but besides efficaciously places other characters in the place that she herself fears most ; that of being unrecognized.
It should be noted that between her male parent ‘s going and her compulsion of Graham, Polly takes an active function in her efforts at a remedy: “ The small animal, therefore left unharassed, did for herself what none other could do- contended with an unbearable feeling ; and, erelong, in some grade, repressed it. ” ( 22 ) Although quashing her possession merely amplifies her melancholia, it is still an effort initiated by Polly to stop her sorrow.
Both Lucy and Mrs. Bretton suggest that Graham serve as the agent of kindness and, accordingly, the object of Polly ‘s transference of compulsion. Following through the alteration of emotion, Polly “ grew more inactive ” with no terminal in sight to her depression until, at the stopping point of the 3rd twenty-four hours:
On the 3rd eventide, as she sat on the floor, worn and quiet, Graham, coming, in, took her up gently, without a word. She did non defy: she instead nestled in his weaponries, as if weary. When he sat down, she laid her caput against him ; in a few proceedingss she slept ; he carried her upstairs to bed. I was non surprised that the following forenoon, the first thing she demanded was, “ Where is Mr. Graham? ” ( 22 )
Graham provides Polly with the “ clip and kindness ” as Lucy suggests. Polly does non defy Graham ; alternatively, she displays series of fondness to Graham. The minute in which Polly demands to cognize, “ [ tungsten ] here is Mr. Graham? ” is the minute in which her compulsion of her male parent alterations to that of compulsion of Graham. Transference completed, Polly ‘s compulsion becomes that over Graham.
Subsequently, when Lucy drives Polly into believing about the possibility of going with her male parent, Polly replies:
“ Where is the good of speaking in that cockamamie manner? ” said she. “ Why do you advert papa? What is papa to you? I was merely get downing to be happy, and non believing about him so much – and there- it will be all to make over once more! ” ( 31 )
It is the minute in which her former compulsion returns. Lucy drives Polly with an thought of going with her male parent, which reinforces Polly ‘s former possession. Here, nevertheless, it is non from the impression of sadism in which Lucy drives the thought ; it is more out of suggestion that come about from the thought of abandoned male parent. Staying to the monomaniacal desire for repeat, Polly ‘s effort to believing about her male parent forces her to travel back to her old compulsion “ all to make over once more, ” assisting to face her monomaniacal fright of loss later in the novel.
It should be accounted for that the storyteller ‘s peace of head is “ broken up ” by Graham when he joins the circle ( 15 ) . The covetous “ I ” notes that those in this house Graham is the 1 Polly will wish best, a sentiment Graham himself articulates to his female parent: “ she amuses me a great trade more than you or Lucy Snowe ” ( 27 ) . It is merely when Polly is hurt by Graham, when she is ignored by him on his birthday in favour of his older, male friends, or when Polly is to be deprived of Graham by her ain going, that Lucy feels a sympathetic desire towards her: to offer her advice, and subsequently, in a genuinely warm gesture, to take the younger kid into her bed at dark. The minute in which a sympathetic thrust is shown is merely in relation to the sadism displayed. Sadism itself was necessary for the contemplation of Lucy through the monomaniacal agony of Polly. In her examination of the relationship between Polly and Graham, Lucy ‘s kindlier urge is instigated when Polly becomes another victim to the monomaniacal depression with herself, another individual excluded or separated from the one she loved. It is so that she can admit her ain demand for mutual response or fondness: “ ‘Come to me, ‘ I said, wishing, yet barely trusting, that she would follow. ” ( 34 )
Polly ‘s narrative serves as an debut for the remainder of the narrative, presenting the subjects of desire and loss that are concerned with. That is to state, Poly ‘s hurting is, or will be, Lucy ‘s hurting. Lucy confronts her melancholy compulsion when she, like Polly, experiences a feeling of forsaking. In these cases so, Lucy ‘s perceptual experience of fond familial relationship of Polly-Mr. Home for which she has no letter writer and in her perceptual experience of Polly-Graham relationship, in which Polly is preferred to herself- the novel has characterized Lucy Snowe ‘s whole history as it is represented. Some of her manners of response to the sense of personal possession: Lucy ‘s rebarbative external mode in neglecting and admiting certain characters ; the academic rule that she invoke to prolong her in the face of the contradictory grounds of experience ; and the gesture of voluntary fondness and raising toward Polly shows that side of Lucy suppressed in response to her ain possession. It barely seems necessary for Charlotte Bronte to document how Lucy comes to be turned in upon herself because in these happenings at Bretton she has characterized that experience in representative scenes in which Lucy is narrating Polly ‘s possession.