Motivation and Job Satisfaction Levels of Sports Managers

Introduction The core function of managers in any organisation is to ensure that organisational goals are met through the effective utilisation of the organisations resources, the most important of these resources being the people within the organisation. As each individual is unique, it would be fair to assume that no two individuals would have the same dreams, hopes, needs and aspirations, and would thus be motivated by different things.

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To understand what motivates people, it would be prudent to define what motivation is, what effect it has on people and to look at ways of how organisations can use motivation to their benefit. Closely linked to motivation is job satisfaction. Kinicki & Kreitner (2009:159) stated that job satisfaction as a multidimensional concept which results in an affective or emotional response to various facets of one’s job.

An attempt will be made to establish the relationship, if any, between motivation and job satisfaction and to consider the factors that influence job satisfaction. Problem Statement Within the sports department of the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University there is a perceived lack of motivation amongst the various sports managers that translates to a lack of performance of the various sports clubs within the University over the past two years.

Although vast resources have been made available to the sport department, there seems to be no correlation between the investment made in the various sports and the results achieved by the various sporting codes, with a few exceptions. This report aims to study the correlation between the levels of motivation of the various sports managers and their perceived levels of job satisfaction. The relationship between motivation, job satisfaction and performance will also be scrutinised with reference to the above department.

Methodology A focus group consisting of the 7 sports managers at the university was asked to participate in an empirical study. Input from the focus group was obtained by the use of a self-report questionnaire utilising a five-point Lickert-scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The self-report questionnaire essentially consists of two parts: Section A which measures the level of motivation amongst the sports managers, and Section B which establishes their perceived level of job satisfaction.

The results obtained from the self-report questionnaires will be collated and subjected to statistical analysis. The results will be discussed later in the report and conclusions and recommendations drawn from them. The self-report questionnaire is attached as Appendix A. A literature study will also be conducted to incorporate contemporary motivation theory (older content theories and modern process theories) into the findings of the empirical study by consulting various sources, including journal articles and various texts.

These will be referenced using the Harvard referencing method. Literature Review Effort is the physical or mental energy that an individual exerts in an attempt to accomplish a specific goal. The level of effort exerted by various individuals to achieve similar tasks will invariably be an influencing factor when the outcomes of the individual’s performance are measured. If someone is motivated it is evident that they may try harder to achieve a more positive result than someone who is not motivated.

A crucial consideration that cannot be overlooked is that high exertion of effort does not automatically translate to favourable job performance (Coetsee 2003:50) The exerted effort only benefits the organisation if it is directed in a manner geared towards the achievement of organisational goals. The alignment between the personal goals of the staff and that of the organisation becomes paramount to the success of the organisation and shared values and goals, created by management in conjunction with the staff, will assist in this regard.

Organisational goals define the objectives that it aims to achieve by providing their particular product or service in the market place. These goals vary from one organisation to another. Some may see maximizing their income as their primary objective, while another may perceive providing the best quality product or service in their market as theirs. Setting organisational goals attempts to focus the effort of employees on the specific outcomes that the organisation may want to achieve. These goals may also be helpful in recognising and rewarding outstanding achievement of individuals within the organisation.

As discussed previously, individuals are unique and have certain needs that they would like to fulfil. Abraham Maslow defined a need based theory of motivation known as ‘Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory’. Maslow stated that there are five basic types of needs – “physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation needs” – that individuals aim to satisfy in a hierarchal order. Once a specific need is satisfied an individual would progress to the next level need. This leads one to believe that the satisfied need no longer cts as a motivator. Individuals may now exert their effort in a manner geared at achieving the next level need and this may, or may not, be in contrast to the achievement of the goals of the organisation. Maslow’s theory is one of a set of needs based theories known as the content theories, which includes McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y, Herzberg’s two-factor theory and Alderfer’s ERG theory. These theories, with the exception of Alderfer’s ERG theory, all propose lower and higher order needs and progression from lower to higher order needs.

Robbins & Decenzo (2004:284) maintains that these theories differ in regard to their areas of focus: Maslow’s theory focussed on individual needs (or the self); McGregor’s theory focussed on a manager’s perception of an individual; and Herzberg’s theory focussed on the effect of an organisation on the individual. In contemporary literature theories of motivation are known as the process theories and these include equity theory, expectancy theory and goal setting theory.

These process theories considers, as their primary focus, why people choose certain options of behaviour to satisfy certain needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have achieved their goals (Cronje et al 2003:228). The three expectancy theories will be defined, but not discussed in detail. Expectancy theory Equity theory Goal setting theory Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory has identified the two major categories of influence that impacts job satisfaction.

Herzberg found that there is a distinct difference between the group of factors that influences job satisfaction (motivators) and the group of factors that causes job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors). He maintains that factors influencing job satisfaction include responsibility, growth opportunities, achievement, recognition, advancement and factors influencing the work itself. Factors influencing job dissatisfaction is stated as including salary, work conditions, relationships with co-workers, supervision and the relationship with your boss.

Herzberg concluded that job satisfaction is not a direct opposite of job dissatisfaction as the hygiene factors, on their own, do not serve as motivators. It is thus concluded that even if these hygiene factors are sufficiently enhanced, it does not guarantee improved levels of motivation or productivity. Empirical Study A 5-point Lickert-scale questionnaire was used to determine the levels of satisfaction and motivation amongst the 7 sports managers at the University. The Lickert-scale comprised of ten questions and made provision for the collection of demographic data from the participants.

Rogers et al (1994) noted that the extent to which job satisfaction is experienced by a coach determines the level of performance and productivity. Creating an environment in which job satisfaction is encouraged is a crucial task of any manager since it leads to loyalty, creates confidance, improves quality and increased production. (Tietjens & Meyers 1998). The Lickert-scale questionnaire was circulated to the 7 sports managers at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth.

The response rate was 100% (n=7). The demographical information obtained from the respondents indicates that 43% of respondents were female and 57% were male. The same focus group also showed that 43% of respondents are under the age of 36. The mean overall job satisfaction level was 3. 26 with a variance of ±0. 66. 57% of respondents have satisfaction levels above the mean. The variance in satisfaction between males and females was almost negligible, with a measured variance of ±0. 01 from the mean.

The data indicates a more significant variation in the overall satisfaction levels of the focus group under the age of 36 in relation to the group over the age of 36. Respondents under the age of 36 have an overall satisfaction level of 3. 33 with a variable of ±0. 27, while those over 36 has a satisfaction level of 3. 20 with a variance of ±0. 80. Question S2 considers to which level respondents feel their job design and characteristics are aligned to their own skills and abilities.

It is interesting that 57% of respondents indicated that the feel very satisfied that their job design and characteristics are aligned to their skills and abilities. The satisfaction level of this motivator (with reference to Herzberg’s two-factor theory) was measured at 3. 29. Good alignment of job design and the incumbent’s abilities to perform to the job specifications are crucial. The respondents indicated that their jobs contain sufficient challenges to stimulate the abilities that they possess. The mean overall motivation level of the focus group was measure at 2. 4 with a variance of ±0. 74. The conclusion drawn is that the sports managers are lacking in motivation. Questions M1 and M2 scored the lowest on the satisfaction index and relates to the strategic alignment of the alignment of personal and organisational goals and values. Question M1 requested respondents to relay to which extent they understand how they contributed to the achievement of the universities goals and strategies. 57% of respondents indicated that they do not understand how their role as a sports manager contributed to the goals and strategies of the university.

The overall mean for question M1 was measured as 2. 57 with a variance of ±1. 43. Question M2 required the respondents to identify to what extent the goals and values of the university is aligned to their own. As with question M1, question M2 had a mean of 2. 57 with the exact same variance. Only 29% of respondents agreed that the alignment between their personal goals and values, and that of the university was acceptable. Of cognisance should be that 75% of the respondents over 36 years old indicated that they are not aware what the specific goals and values of the university are.

This would account as to why they did not how they contributed to the university achieving its goals and strategies. As stated earlier, goal-setting theory is based on the assumption that people will perform more effectively if they strive towards a specific goal. It maintains that if employees know what is to be done and how much effort is required to achieve the predetermined goal, it could be possible to motivate employee behaviour. Any person, or organisation, wishes to be successful and achieve the goals that he / she have set out for themselves.

If they are not, the best place to start making improvements would be to revisit the clarity of the goals. Conclusions and Recommendations The data indicates that the managers in the sports department are not motivated and that job satisfaction levels are neither high nor low. Misalignment of personal and organisational goals is the one of the primary reasons for the low level of motivation being experienced; the other being that the goals and strategies of the university is not understood. Coetsee (2003:20) maintains that one cannot motivate people directly, but can create a motivating environment.

Brown et al (2001) recounts that a meaningful work environment must be created for increase job satisfaction, greater motivation, increased productivity, and decreased employee turnover. The creation of a motivating climate in which employees can express themselves is thus placed on the employer (or manager-leader of the department). This motivating climate can be enhanced by ensuring aligned-commitment (Coetsee 2004:30) between the expectations of the employees and the goals of the organisation (university).

Aligned commitment can be created by: imparting knowledge by hosting forums with other sports managers throughout the country to discuss the latest advances in the various sports empowering employees through the establishment of various skill development initiatives, proving rewards and recognition for the achievement of predetermined goals creating new shared goals and values for the sports department in which the entire faculty has input Sports coaches derive satisfaction from performing the coaching task itself (Surujlal et al 2004).

It is recommended that consideration be given to the appointment of administration staff to assist the sports managers in this regard, so that the sports managers can provide more specific focus on the coaching of the various sports codes, which is their passion. List of References Kinicki, A. & Kreitner, R. 2009. Organizational Behaviour – Key concepts, skills & best practices. Fourth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. (p. 159) Roelen, C. A. M. , Koopmans, P. C. and Groothoff, J. W. 2008. Which work factors determine job satisfaction? Work 30: 433-439 Coetsee, L.

D. 2003. Peak performance and productivity – A practical guide for the creation of a motivating climate. n. p. (p. 50) Robbins, S. P. & Decenzo, D. A. 2003. Fundamentals of management – Essential concepts and applications. Fourth Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (p. 279) Ibid. , p. 284. Cronje, G. J. , du Toit, G. S. , Motlatla, M. D. C. & Marais, A de K. 2006. Introduction to Business Management. 6th edition. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. (p. 228) Weiss, H. M. 2002. Deconstructing job satisfaction: Separating evaluations, beliefs & affective behaviour.

Human Resources Management Review. 12: 173-194. Rogers, J. D. , Clow, K. E. & Kash, T. J. 1994. Increasing job satisfaction of service personnel. Journal of service marketing. 8(1): 14-26. Tietjen, M. A. & Meyers, R. M. 1998. Motivation and job satisfaction. Management Decision. 34(4): 226-231. Hart, J. L. & Cress, C. M. (2008). Are Women Faculty Just “Worrywarts? ” Accounting for Gender Differences in Self-Reported Stress. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 17(1): 175-193. Brown, A. , Kitchell, M. , O’Neill, T. Lockliear, J. , Vosler, A. , Kubek, D. , Dale, L. 2001. Identifying meaning and perceived level of satisfaction n the work context. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation. 16(3): 219-226. Surujlal, J. , Singh, C. & Hollander, W. 2004. Job satisfaction of professional sports coaches in South Africa. Paper presented at the _Athens 2004: Pre-olympic Congress. Sport Science Through the Ages: Challenges in the New Millennium Conference, 6-11 November 2004, Thessaloniki, Greece_. Addendums {text:list-item}

Please assist in the collation of data for a scientific paper on Motivation and Job satisfaction. Please complete both section A: Demographic information, and Section B: The Lickert-Scale questionnaire. Answer the questionnaire honestly and mark the below scale with your first response. Please note that all responses are confidential and the data will only be used for scientific study. Section A: Demographic Information Gender : _ Ethnicity : _ Section B: The Lickert-Scale Questionnaire *8. 2 Addendum B: *The* results of the Lickert-scale* questionnaire TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO TOPIC PAGE 8. 1* ANNEX*URE A – LICKERT-SCALE QUESTIONNAIRE 11 8. 2 ANNEXURE B – RESULTS OF THE LICKERT SCALE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The core function of managers in any organisation is to ensure that organisational goals are met through the effective utilisation of the organisations resources, the most important of these resources being the people within the organisation. As each individual is unique, it would be fair to assume that no two individuals would have the same dreams, hopes, needs and aspirations, and would thus be motivated by different things.

To understand what motivates people, it would be prudent to define what motivation is, what effect it has on people and to look at ways of how organisations can use motivation to their benefit. Within the sports department of the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University there is a perceived lack of motivation amongst the various sports managers that translates to a lack of performance of the various sports clubs within the University over the past two years. A focus group consisting of the 7 sports managers at the university was asked to participate in an empirical study to determine what their level of motivation and job satisfaction are.

A review of contemporary literature on motivation and job satisfaction was done and the results of the empirical study were compared to the literature. It was concluded that that a meaningful work environment must be created for increase job satisfaction, greater motivation, increased productivity, and decreased employee turnover. This can be done if the management-leaders of the department are willing to creating a motivating climate, starting with the formation of new new shared goals and values.

The motivating climate can be enhanced by encouraging aligned-commitment between the employees’ personal goals and that of the university. Sports coaches derive satisfaction from performing the coaching task itself, thus it recommended that consideration be given to the appointment of administration staff to assist the sports managers with their administration duties. Nel N. N. , Maqungo T. , De Villiers S. C. and Xaluva B. Group Assignment 1 30 March 2010 Organisational Behaviour BFR>>>>> Group 10. 7

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