Middle East Supply Interruptions Economics Essay

Dollar against rising prices. i.e. 50 cents addition at historic monetary value leads to 1 USD increase in current footings of USD.

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Crude oil one of the most volatile trade goods of all clip had experienced immense swing in its monetary value pertaining to different factors. In this survey we will pull visible radiations on different factors set uping rough oil monetary value supplying major attending to geopolitical events, supply demand, universe economic system, Nymex trading and stock markets.

Before trade stoppages:

1948 to 1960s was the period of lag where petroleum oil monetary value was about 2.50 USD to 3 USD.

Constitution of OPEC 1960: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela. The survey of Texas railway committee method of commanding rough oil monetary value was done. Six more members joined in 1971 Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria. OPEC Countries experienced diminution in the buying power of a barrel of oil.

Although in 1971 demand of rough oil remain increased but still avails a 30 % diminution in the buying power of rough oil chiefly because of the shifting of balance of power. Texas railway committee set proration at 100 % for the first clip, which once more meant that Texas manufacturers will no longer be get limited from the volume of oil that they should be bring forthing from oil Wellss. This shifts the power towards OPEC from US. Further no more production capacity was available with US in order to set upper bound on monetary value.

A little more than two old ages subsequently, OPEC through the unintended effect of war obtained a glance of its power to influence monetary values. It took over a decennary from its formation for OPEC to recognize the extent of its ability to act upon the universe market.

Middle East Supply Interruptions

Yom Kippur War – Arab Oil Embargo

In 1972, the monetary value of rough oil was below $ 3.50 per barrel. The Yom Kippur War started with an onslaught on Israel by Syria and Egypt on October 5, 1973. The United States and many states in the western universe showed support for Israel. In reaction to the support of Israel, several Arab exporting states joined by Iran imposed an trade stoppage on the states back uping Israel. While these states curtailed production by five million barrels per twenty-four hours, other states were able to increase production by a million barrels. The net loss of four million barrels per twenty-four hours extended through March of 1974. It represented 7 per centum of the free universe production. By the terminal of 1974, the nominal monetary value of oil had quadrupled to more than $ 12.00.

Any uncertainty that the ability to influence and in some instances control rough oil monetary values had passed from the United States to OPEC was removed as a effect of the Oil Embargo. The utmost sensitiveness of monetary values to provide deficits became all excessively evident when monetary values increased 400 per centum in six short months.

From 1974 to 1978, the universe petroleum oil monetary value was comparatively level runing from $ 12.52 per barrel to $ 14.57 per barrel. When adjusted for rising prices universe oil monetary values were in a period of moderate diminution. during that period OPEC capacity and production was comparatively level near 30 million barrels per twenty-four hours.

In contrast, non-OPEC production increased from 25 million barrels per twenty-four hours to 31 million barrels per twenty-four hours.

* While normally called the Arab Oil Embargo or the OPEC Oil Embargo, neither is technically right. Arab states were joined by Persian Iran and establishing OPEC member Venezuela did non fall in in the trade stoppage.

Crisiss in Iran and Iraq

In 1979 and 1980, events in Iran and Iraq led to another unit of ammunition of rough oil monetary value additions. The Persian revolution resulted in the loss of 2.0-2.5 million barrels per twenty-four hours of oil production between November 1978 and June 1979. At one point production about halted.

The Persian revolution was the proximate cause of the highest monetary value in post-WWII history. However, revolution ‘s impact on monetary values would hold been limited and of comparatively short continuance had it non been for subsequent events. In fact, shortly after the revolution, Persian production was up to four million barrels per twenty-four hours.

In September 1980, Iran already weakened by the revolution was invaded by Iraq. By November, the combined production of both states was merely a million barrels per twenty-four hours. It was down 6.5 million barrels per twenty-four hours from a twelvemonth earlier. As a effect, world-wide petroleum oil production was 10 per centum lower than in 1979.

The loss of production from the combined effects of the Persian revolution and the Iraq-Iran War caused rough oil monetary values to more than double. The nominal monetary value went from $ 14 in 1978 to $ 35 per barrel in 1981.

Over three decennaries later Iran ‘s production is merely two-thirds of the degree reached under the authorities of Reza Pahlavi, the former Shah of Iran.

Iraq ‘s production is now increasing, but remains a million barrels below its extremum before the Iraq-Iran War.

US Oil Price Controls – Bad Policy?

The rapid addition in rough monetary values from 1973 to 1981 would hold been less was it non for United States energy policy during the station Embargo period. The U.S. imposed monetary value controls on domestically produced oil. The obvious consequence of the monetary value controls was that U.S. consumers of rough oil paid about 50 per centum more for imports than domestic production and U.S. manufacturers received less than universe market monetary value. In consequence, the domestic crude oil industry was subsidising the U.S. consumer.

Did the policy achieve its end? In the short-run, the recession induced by the 1973-1974 petroleum oil monetary value spike was slightly less terrible because U.S. consumers faced lower monetary values than the remainder of the universe. However, it had other effects as good.

In the absence of monetary value controls, U.S. geographic expedition and production would surely hold been significantly greater. Higher crude oil monetary values faced by consumers would hold resulted in lower rates of ingestion: cars would hold achieved higher stat mis per gallon Oklahoman, places and commercial edifices would hold been better insulated and betterments in industrial energy efficiency would hold been greater than they were during this period. Fuel permutation off from crude oil to natural gas for electric power coevals would hold occurred earlier.

Consequently, the United States would hold been less dependent on imports in 1979-1980 and the monetary value addition in response to Iranian and Iraqi supply breaks would hold been significantly less.

OPEC Fails to Control Crude Oil Monetary values

OPEC has rarely been effectual at commanding monetary values. Frequently described as a trust, OPEC does non to the full fulfill the definition. One of the primary demands of a trust is a mechanism to implement member quotas. An aged Texas oil adult male posed a rhetorical inquiry: What is the difference between OPEC and the Texas Railroad Commission? His reply: OPEC does n’t hold any Texas Rangers!

The Texas Railroad Commission could command monetary values because the province could implement cutbacks on manufacturers. The lone enforcement mechanism that of all time existed in OPEC is Saudi trim capacity and that power resides with a individual member non the organisation as a whole.

With adequate trim capacity to be able to increase production sufficiently to countervail the impact of lower monetary values on its ain gross, Saudi Arabia could implement subject by endangering to increase production plenty to crash monetary values. In world even this was non an OPEC enforcement mechanism unless OPEC ‘s ends coincided with those of Saudi Arabia.

During the 1979-1980 period of quickly increasing monetary values, Saudi Arabia ‘s oil curate Ahmed Yamani repeatedly warned other members of OPEC that high monetary values would take to a decrease in demand. His warnings fell on deaf ears. Billowing monetary values caused several reactions among consumers: better insularity in new places, increased insularity in many older places, more energy efficiency in industrial procedures, and cars with higher efficiency. These factors along with a planetary recession caused a decrease in demand which led to take down petroleum monetary values.

Unfortunately for OPEC merely the planetary recession was impermanent. Cipher rushed to take insularity from their places or to replace energy efficient equipment and mills — much of the reaction to the oil monetary value addition of the terminal of the decennary was lasting and would ne’er react to take down monetary values with increased ingestion of oil.

Higher monetary values in the late seventiess besides resulted in increased geographic expedition and production outside of OPEC. From 1980 to 1986 non-OPEC production increased 6 million barrels per twenty-four hours. Despite lower oil monetary values during that period new finds made in the 1970s continued to come online.

OPEC was faced with lower demand and higher supply from outside the organisation. From 1982 to 1985, OPEC attempted to put production quotas low plenty to stabilise monetary values. These efforts resulted in perennial failure, as assorted members of OPEC produced beyond their quotas. During most of this period Saudi Arabia acted as the swing manufacturer cutting its production in an effort to stem the free autumn in monetary values. In August 1985, the Saudis tired of this function. They linked their oil monetary value to the topographic point market for petroleum and by early 1986 increased production from two million barrels per twenty-four hours to five million. Crude oil monetary values plummeted falling below $ 10 per barrel by mid-1986. Despite the autumn in monetary values Saudi gross remained about the same with higher volumes counterbalancing for lower monetary values.

A December 1986 OPEC monetary value agreement set to aim $ 18 per barrel, but it was already interrupting down by January of 1987 and monetary values remained weak.

The monetary value of rough oil spiked in 1990 with the lower production, uncertainness associated with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the resulting Gulf War. The universe and peculiarly the Middle East had a much harsher position of Saddam Hussein occupying Arab Kuwait than they did Persian Iran. The propinquity to the universe ‘s largest oil manufacturer helped to determine the reaction.

Following what became known as the Gulf War to emancipate Kuwait, rough oil monetary values entered a period of steady diminution. In 1994, the rising prices adjusted oil monetary value reached the lowest degree since 1973.

The monetary value rhythm so turned up. The United States economic system was strong and the Asian Pacific part was dining. From 1990 to 1997, universe oil ingestion increased 6.2 million barrels per twenty-four hours. Asiatic ingestion accounted for all but 300,000 barrels per twenty-four hours of that addition and contributed to a monetary value recovery that extended into 1997. Worsening Russian production contributed to the monetary value recovery. Between 1990 and 1996 Russian production declined more than five million barrels per twenty-four hours.

OPEC continued to hold assorted success in commanding monetary values. There were errors in timing of quota alterations every bit good as the usual jobs in keeping production subject among member states.

The monetary value additions came to a rapid terminal in 1997 and 1998 when the impact of the economic crisis in Asia was either ignored or underestimated by OPEC. In December 1997, OPEC increased its quota by 2.5 million barrels per twenty-four hours ( 10 per centum ) to 27.5 million barrels per twenty-four hours effectual January 1, 1998. The rapid growing in Asiatic economic systems came to a arrest. In 1998, Asian Pacific oil ingestion declined for the first clip since 1982. The combination of lower ingestion and higher OPEC production sent monetary values into a downward spiral. In response, OPEC cut quotas by 1.25 million barrels per twenty-four hours in April and another 1.335 million in July. The monetary value continued down through December 1998.

Monetary values began to retrieve in early 1999. In April, OPEC reduced production by another 1.719 million barrels. As usual non all of the quotas were observed, but between early 1998 and the center of 1999 OPEC production dropped by about three million barrels per twenty-four hours. The cuts were sufficient to travel monetary values above $ 25 per barrel.

With minimum Y2K jobs and turning U.S. and universe economic systems, the monetary value continued to lift throughout 2000 to a station 1981 high. In 2000 between April and October, three consecutive OPEC quota additions numbering 3.2 million barrels per twenty-four hours were non able to stem the monetary value addition. Monetary values eventually started down following another quota addition of 500,000 effectual November 1, 2000.

Russian production additions dominated non-OPEC production growing from 2000 to 2007 and was responsible for most of the non-OPEC addition since the bend of the century.

Once once more it appeared that OPEC overshot the grade. In 2001, a diminished US economic system and increases in non-OPEC production put downward force per unit area on monetary values. In response OPEC one time once more entered into a series of decreases in member quotas cutting 3.5 million barrels by September 1, 2001. In the absence of the September 11, 2001 terrorist onslaughts, this would hold been sufficient to chair or even change by reversal the downward tendency.

In the aftermath of the onslaught, rough oil monetary values plummeted. Topographic point monetary values for the U.S. benchmark West Texas Intermediate were down 35 per centum by the center of November. Under normal fortunes a bead in monetary value of this magnitude would hold resulted in another unit of ammunition of quota decreases. Give the political clime OPEC delayed extra cuts until January 2002. It so reduced its quota by 1.5 million barrels per twenty-four hours and was joined by several non-OPEC manufacturers including Russia which promised combined production cuts of an extra 462,500 barrels. This had the coveted consequence with oil monetary values traveling into the $ 25 scope by March 2002. By midyear the non-OPEC members were reconstructing their production cuts but monetary values continued to lift as U.S. stock lists reached a 20-year low subsequently in the twelvemonth.

By twelvemonth terminal glut was non a job. Problems in Venezuela led to a work stoppage at PDVSA doing Venezuelan production to plump. In the aftermath of the work stoppage Venezuela was ne’er able to reconstruct capacity to its old degree and is still about 900,000 barrels per twenty-four hours below its peak capacity of 3.5 million barrels per twenty-four hours. OPEC increased quotas by 2.8 million barrels per twenty-four hours in January and February 2003.

On March 19, 2003, merely as some Venezuelan production was get downing to return, military action commenced in Iraq. Meanwhile, stock lists remained low in the U.S. and other OECD states. With an bettering economic system U.S. demand was increasing and Asiatic demand for rough oil was turning at a rapid gait.

The loss of production capacity in Iraq and Venezuela combined with increased OPEC production to run into turning international demand led to the eroding of extra oil production capacity. In mid 2002, there were more than six million barrels per twenty-four hours of extra production capacity and by mid-2003 the surplus was below two million. During much of 2004 and 2005 the trim capacity to bring forth oil was less than a million barrels per twenty-four hours. A million barrels per twenty-four hours is non adequate trim capacity to cover an break of supply from most OPEC manufacturers.

In a universe that consumes more than 80 million barrels per twenty-four hours of crude oil merchandises that added a important hazard premium to crude oil monetary value and was mostly responsible for monetary values in surplus of $ 40- $ 50 per barrel.

Other major factors lending to higher monetary values included a weak dollar and the rapid growing in Asiatic economic systems and their crude oil ingestion. The 2005 hurricanes and U.S. refinery jobs associated with the transition from MTBE to ethanol as a gasolene additive besides contributed to higher monetary values.

One of the most of import factors finding monetary value is the degree of crude oil stock lists in the U.S. and other devouring states. Until trim capacity became an issue stock list degrees provided an first-class tool for short-run monetary value prognosiss. Although non good publicized OPEC has for several old ages depended on a policy that amounts to universe stock list direction. Its primary ground for cutting back on production in November 2006 and once more in February 2007 was concern about turning OECD stock lists. Their focal point is on entire crude oil stock lists including rough oil and crude oil merchandises, which is a better index of monetary values that oil stock lists entirely.

In 2008, after the beginning of the longest U.S. recession since the Great Depression the oil monetary value continued to surge. Spare capacity dipped below a million barrels per twenty-four hours and guess in the petroleum oil hereafters market was exceptionally strong. Trading on NYMEX closed at a record $ 145.29 on July 3, 2008. In the face of recession and falling crude oil demand the monetary value fell throughout the balance of the twelvemonth to the below $ 40 in December.

Libyan Oil Production

Following an OPEC cut of 4.2 million b/d in January 2009 monetary values rose steadily in the supported by lifting demand in Asia. In late February 2011, monetary values jumped as a effect of the loss of Libyan exports in the face of the Libyan civil war. Refer about extra breaks from unrest in other Middle East and North African manufacturers continues to back up the monetary value while as of Mid-October 400,000 barrels per twenty-four hours of Libyan production was restored.

Futures Market and Brent / NYMEX Divergence

While guess in the hereafters market was surely a constituent of monetary value additions over the last decennary, research has yet to supply irrefutable grounds that it was a major driver of monetary values. Over the last decennary the figure of hereafters contracts on NYMEX increased at over 10 times the rate of addition of universe crude oil ingestion. In recent old ages, the ICE Brent contracts grew at a higher rate than NYMEX.

A NYMEX hereafters contract is a contract to present 1,000 barrels of light sweet rough oil in a certain month to the purchaser at Cushing, Oklahoma. There is a direct nexus between hereafters monetary values and the hard currency monetary value at Cushing. We will exemplify with an illustration. A manufacturer of rough oil is offered $ 80 per barrel for 1,000 barrel of oil today. The same manufacturer sees that the hereafters contract for bringing following month is merchandising at $ 85 dollars. Alternatively of selling at $ 80 to the refiner the manufacturer could sell a hereafters contract for bringing following month at $ 85, store the 1,000 barrels for a month and be $ 5 better off less the cost of a month ‘s storage. The refiner necessitating the 1,000 barrels of petroleum today is so in the place that he must offer the manufacturer something closer to the $ 85 NYMEX monetary value to obtain the petroleum.

Historically, the monetary value of NYMEX petroleum typically traded near the Brent monetary value with a little premium. Since late 2010, Brent and NYMEX monetary values have diverged with West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma selling frequently selling more than $ 20 below Brent and other comparable rough oil. While continually quoted in the U.S. media as the oil monetary value, oil at Cushing is non presently representative of universe oil monetary values. The ground for the price reduction is high stocks of oil at Cushing with a limited figure of refiners that can be served by grapevines out of Cushing.

Extra oil from Canada and the Bakken formation in North Dakota caused the local supply to transcend demand of the refiners served by grapevines out of Cushing. This resulted in oil stocks to constructing to 1.5 – 2.0 times the normal degree. High stocks at Cushing depressed the local monetary value, but non the monetary value internationally. A return to the normal monetary value relationship with WTI at a modest premium to Brent awaits improved grapevine entree between Cushing and the refineries on the gulf of Mexico.

Recessions and Oil Monetary values

It is deserving observing that the three longest U.S. recessions since the Great Depression coincided with exceptionally high oil monetary values. The first two lasted 16 months. The first followed the 1973 Embargo started in November 1973 and the 2nd in July 1981. The latest began in December 2007 and lasted 18 months. Charts similar to the 1 at the right have been used to reason that monetary value spikes and high oil monetary values cause recessions. There is small uncertainty that monetary value is a major factor.

Relationship between petroleum oil and natural gas:

The historical footing for a nexus between rough oil and natural gas monetary values was examined to find whether one has existed in the past and exists in the present. Physical bases for a monetary value relationship are examined. An econometric mold exercising seeks to set up whether a stable monetary value relationship exists and to specify it through the usage of correlativity. The theoretical account identifies strong grounds of correlativity between the petroleum oil and natural gas topographic point monetary value series in the United States. It conditions the predicted natural gas monetary value volatility through exogenic variables related to provide. The theoretical account is so utilised to imitate the effects of assorted demand and supply factors on the correlativity relationship between petroleum oil and natural gas. Finally, an analysis is conducted to prove whether the relationship shifts over clip to new equilibrium. The consequences of the series of exercisings suggest that rough oil and natural gas monetary values have moved together historically and statistical analysis supports the premise that the two monetary value series continued to be correlativity through the terminal. The analysis presents grounds that the relationship shifts over clip to new equilibrium, and the information suggest that these new equilibrium are similarly stable.

From the context of this survey it has been seen that there is a proper and established correlativity between rough oil and natural gas.


R Square = .75128

Adjusted R Square


Standard Error




Analysis of variance


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Significance F

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75.10 % of rough oil monetary value variable is explained by natural gas variable, which is rather stable.


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