Mergers And Acquisitions In Restructuring Business Organizations Finance Essay

Amalgamations and Acquisitions have gained significant importance in today ‘s corporate universe. This procedure is extensively used for reconstituting the concern organisations. Some good known fiscal organisations besides took the necessary enterprises to reconstitute the corporate sector of India by following the amalgamations and acquisitions policies. TheA Indian economic reform since 1991 has opened up a whole batch of challenges both in the domestic and international domains. The increased competition in the planetary market has prompted the Indian companies to travel for amalgamations and acquisitions as an of import strategic pick. The tendencies of amalgamations and acquisitions in India have changed over the old ages. The immediate effects of the amalgamations and acquisitions have besides been diverse across the assorted sectors of the Indian economic system.

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The Indian Economy has been turning at the fast rate and emerging as the most promising economic system in the universe. Be it in IT, R & A ; D, pharmaceutical, substructure, energy, consumer retail, telecom, fiscal services, media, and cordial reception etc, there has been a mark of assuring roar in the Indian economic system. It is the 2nd fastest turning economic system in the universe with GDP touching 8.9 % in 2010. Investors, large companies, industrial houses view Indian market in a growth and proliferating stage, whereby returns on capital and the stockholder returns are high. Both the inbound and outbound amalgamations and acquisitions have increased dramatically. Harmonizing to Investment bankers, Merger & A ; Acquisition ( M & A ; A ) trades in India will traverse $ 100 billion this twelvemonth, which is dual last twelvemonth ‘s degree and quartet of 2005.

India ‘s amalgamation and acquisitions deal value in twelvemonth 2010 reached about US $ 50 billion which is three times of the trade value last twelvemonth 2009. There were M & A ; A trades deserving about $ 16 billion in 2009, down from close to US $ 40 billion in 2008.



Amalgamations or merger is combination of two or more companies to organize as a individual new company. In this procedure no fresh investing is made, nevertheless an exchange of portions takes topographic point between the entities. In simple footings, a amalgamation involves the common determination of two companies to unite and go one entity. Generally, amalgamation is done between the two entities holding similar size.

Assortments of MergersA

Amalgamations can be of assorted types. But there are 5 chief amalgamations assortments which are valued most in the corporate world.A

Horizontal mergerA – Two companies that are in direct competition and shareA the same merchandise lines and markets.A

Vertical mergerA – Two companies which are in the Value Chain.

Market-extension mergerA -A Two companies holding same merchandise but different mark market.

Product-extension mergerA -A Two companies selling different but related merchandises in the same market.A

ConglomerationA – Two companies with unrelated business/ industry.A


Acquisition means purchasing the ownership of one company by another company, frequently as the portion of the growing scheme. Unlike in amalgamation, acquisition is by and large done by a big company to a little one. Acquisitions can be either friendly or hostile. Like amalgamations, acquisitions are actions through which companies seek economic systems of graduated table, efficiencies and enhanced market visibleness. Acquisition is done either in hard currency or geting the stock of the mark company or both.

Differentiation between Amalgamations and AcquisitionsA

Amalgamations and Acquisitions are frequently expressed as one and the same and considered to hold the same significance. But the footings amalgamation and acquisition are two different term meaning.A

When one company takes over another independent company and clearly established itself asA the new proprietor, the purchase is called an acquisition. From a legal point of position, theA mark companyA ceases to be and the purchaser or the acquirer possesses the full control of the concern and the buyer’sA stock continues to be traded, so it is acquisition.A

Regardless of the type of the strategic confederation they all have one intent in common. They are all meant to make synergism that makes the value of the combined companies greater than the amount of the two parts.


SynergyA is the force that is obtained when two or more constituents run into together to bring forth an exceeding consequence which when done entirely can non be achieved. In a concern synergism takes the signifier of enhanced public presentation, increased profitableness and exceeding cost decrease. By unifying, the companies hope to profit from the followers: A

Staff decreases

Economies of scaleA

Geting new engineering

Improved market range and industry visibleness

Importance of the survey

When a company wants to spread out, there are assorted ways its can make. They can accomplish the growing either by capturing the market portion or by turning through strategic confederations. The chief aim of the amalgamation or acquisition is to accomplish growing and synergism, economic systems of graduated table and gaining control or spread out the market portion.

Buzz of amalgamation and acquisition frequently creates ballyhoo in the fiscal market about the acquirer ‘s stock monetary value. While most empirical research on amalgamation focal point on day-to-day stock return environing proclamation day of the month, a few surveies besides look at long term public presentation of term public presentation of geting house after amalgamation.[ 1 ]Not merely that, the public presentation of the company as a whole is besides a affair of inquiry grade. Will the company be able to execute better than it is making or non?

Problem Statement

Many house prior to amalgamation and acquisition have an outlook to make a synergism from amalgamation and acquisition. The chief motivation behind M & A ; A is to make efficiencies in the concern and enlargement of the concern. But they most of the clip disregard the fact that the consequence of amalgamation and acquisition has direct correlativity with the value of the acquirers company and the stock monetary value. The other job that is to be considered is the fiscal hazard associated with the M & A ; A.

Research Objective

The aim of this survey is to derive the deeper and clear cognition of the amalgamation and acquisition on the geting house. It besides aims at the fiscal hazard that a company may confront station merger/ acquisition asa good as the long term public presentation of the acquirer. The aims are as follows:

To analyze the consequence of EPS nearsightedness on the return of geting houses in amalgamations.

Measure the consequence on the stock monetary value of the geting company station amalgamation and acquisition.

Critically measuring if the stockholders of the geting companies experience wealth consequence as a consequence of M & A ; A.

The expected long term public presentation of the geting house.

Survey of the fiscal hazard pertaining to the amalgamation and acquisition.

Research Question

What is the motivation behind Merger and Acquisition?

What is the consequence on the stock monetary value of the acquirer pre and station M & A ; A?

Does the bombilation create the bubble consequence on the market or is it long lasting?

What is the wealth consequence of the acquirer house station and pre M & A ; A?

What is the tendency of M & A ; A in Indian market?

Drivers of M & A ; A in India

What are the effects of M & A ; A to the rivals?

Consequence of the revenue enhancement to the authorities station amalgamation and acquisition.

Restrictions of the Study

No proper information on the companies is found except for their Balance Sheet and Income Statement.

This survey is based on secondary database, so mistakes in the informations could impact the consequences of the survey.

External factors such as economic conditions, regulative alterations etc are non taken into consideration.

An overview of the Study

This thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter trades with the background information, job statement, aim of the survey, importance of survey, research inquiry & A ; restriction of the survey.

The 2nd chapter trades with literature reappraisal. This chapter indicates the theoretical model of the rating method of Merger and Acquisition. It shows the item description of the past research that has been done on the subject and discusses the result of the survey.

The 3rd chapter trades with the research methodological analysis of the thesis. It deals with the Research method used for the informations and information aggregation. It includes sample selection/design process, informations aggregation and informations analysis tools used in the thesis. In this portion premises had been made where there is deficiency of appropriate informations and information.

The 4th chapter trades with analysis and reading of the fiscal informations that are used to accomplish the aims of the thesis. This subdivision chiefly deals with the findings from the survey and besides focuses on the analysis and its consequences.

The fifth and the last chapter of this thesis present the findings of the survey, recommendation of the survey to the investors, fiscal directors & A ; regulators. It besides concludes the suggestions for future research.

Chapter II

Reappraisal of the Literature

2. Literature Reappraisal

Many writers and authors have written batch about amalgamation and acquisition and its impact on the public presentation of the company every bit good as on the economic system. A great trade of research has been carried out on the public presentation of the corporations involved in the amalgamation and acquisition. When a company wants to leap get down a long term growing or hike up the corporate public presentation, M & A ; A may look to be the best option. Yet survey after survey puts the success rate of M & A ; A lies merely between 20 % and 30 % . A batch of research worker had tried to explicate the abysmal statistics, normally by analysing the properties of the trades that worked and those that did n’t. What is missing is the robust theory that identifies the causes of those success and failures.[ 2 ]

2.1 Merger and Acquisition: Conceptual Review

Farlex Financial Dictionary[ 3 ]has defined “ A determination by two companies to unite all operations, officers, construction, and other maps of concern. Amalgamations are meant to be reciprocally good for the parties involved. In the instance of two publicly-traded companies, a amalgamation normally involves one company giving stockholders in the other its stock in exchange for give uping the stock of the first company ”

Pratap G. Subramanyam ( 2005 ) has stated amalgamation as in the term associated with the integrating of one company into another. The unifying company should be thereafter and all its assets and liabilities get lawfully vested in the merged company. This means that the amalgamation means merger of the assets of the two or more companies to organize a new company functioning the similar or different intent.

2.1.1 Recognition of merger ( amalgamation ) by Indian Statutory Bodies

The Company Act of India does non specify an merger or a amalgamation. Therefore, the term are being interpreted as being included in the term ‘arrangement ‘ as defined in Section 390 ( B ) . This is vindicated by the fact that Section 394 negotiations about agreement that are in nature of merger of two or more companies. It is possible under Companies Act for two or more companies to mix utilizing the stockholder blessing path under Section 293 ( 1 ) ( a ) though such path is ne’er adopted. The more appropriate path is to acquire tribunal order under Section 394 of the Act, which has been specifically enacted to enable mergers.

Section 390 This subdivision provides that “ The look ‘arrangement ‘ includes a reorganisation of the portion capital of the company by the consolidation of portions of different categories, or by the division of portions into portions of different categories, or by both these methods ”

Section 394 This subdivision contains the powers while approving strategy of Reconstruction or merger.

Under the Income Tax ( IT ) Act, 1961 Section 2 ( 1B ) the word merger in relation to companies means the amalgamation of one or more companies to another company or the amalgamation of two or more companies to organize one company so that:

All the belongings of the mixing company or companies before the merger becomes the belongings of mixing company by virtuousness of the merger.

All liabilities of the mixing company or companies instantly before the merger go the liabilities of mixing company by the virtuousness of merger.

Accounting Standard AS-14 defines mergers as those pursuant to the commissariats of the companies Act or any other legislative act, which may be applicable to the companies. Therefore, it applies to all minutess that come under the horizon of Section 391-394 of the Companies Act that relate to integrating of two or more companies. AS-14 categorizes merger into two classs: ( a ) merger in nature of amalgamation ( B ) merger in nature of purchase.

An merger autumn into former class if:

All assets and liabilities of transferor company become after merger, the assets and liabilities of the transferee company.

Stockholders keeping non less than 90 % of the face value of the equity portion of transferor company ( excepting the portions held by the transferee company ) , become the equity stockholder of the transferee company by virtuousness of the merger.

The consideration for the merger, receivable by those equity stockholders of the transferor company who agree to go the equity stockholder in the transferee company, is discharged entirely by issue of portions ( except for fractional portions that may be settled in hard currency ) .

The concern of the transferor company is intended to be carried on by the transferee company.

Acquisition is the mechanism by which companies change custodies and through transportation of ownership of portion or transportation of control. Acquisition means the purchase of or acquiring entree to important bets in a company, frequently doing such acquirer a major stockholder or force in the company.

Harmonizing to Dictionary of Financial Term[ 4 ]‘If a company buys another company outright, or accumulates adequate portions to take a controlling involvement, the trade is described as an acquisition. ‘ For illustration, if Corporation A buys 51 % or more of Corporation B, so Corporation B becomes a subordinate of Corporation A, and the activity is called an acquisition. A individual investor may purchase out a publicly-traded company ; one calls this “ traveling private. ” Acquisitions occur in exchange for hard currency, stock, or both.

Acquisitions may be friendly or hostile ; a friendly acquisition occurs when the board of managers supports the acquisition and a hostile acquisition occurs when it does non.

2.1.2 The Acquisition and Takeover Code in India

After the coming of the SEBI, introduced in 1994, there was a conjunct effort at preparation of a comprehensive model under which acquisition and coup d’etat could be made in bing listed companies. However the coup d’etat codification does non use to unlisted companies and go on to be regulated by the proviso of the Company Act. Listed companies are presently governed by the proviso of Takeover Code, clause 40A and 40B of the Listing Agreement of the stock exchange and Section 108B and 108D of the Companies Act as respects acquisition and coup d’etats.

Under the proviso of Section 108B, corporate under the same direction keeping whether singly or in aggrete.10 % or more of the nominal value of the subscribed equity portion capital of the any other company shall, before reassigning one or more such portions, give to the cardinal authorities an hint of its proposal to make with the prescribed inside informations. Section 108D provides the similar proviso wherein the Cardinal Government can move suo moto of any transportation of a block portion in a company. All the Sections under 108 are backed by Section 108G.

Section 108G Applicability of the commissariats of subdivisions 108A to 108F.-The commissariats of subdivisions 108A to 108F ( both inclusive ) shall use to the acquisition or transportation of portions or portion capital by or to, an single house, group, component of a group, organic structure corporate or organic structures corporate under the same direction, who or which-

( a ) is, in instance of acquisition of portions or portion capital, the proprietor in relation to a dominant project and there would be, as a consequence of such acquisition, any increase-A

( I ) in the production, supply, distribution or control of any goods that are produced, supplied, distributed or controlled in India or any significant portion thereof by that dominant project, orA

( two ) in the proviso or control of any services that are rendered in India or any significant portion thereof by that dominant project ; orA

( B ) would be, as a consequence of such acquisition or transportation of portions or portion capital, the proprietor of a dominant project ; orA

( degree Celsius ) is, in instance of transportation of portions or portion capital, the proprietor in relation to a dominant project.

The SEBI Takeover Code brought in several new characteristics into acquisition jurisprudence which were non present in Clause 40A and 40B. The basic subject of the codification is to supply for just drama and transparence in acquisition and coup d’etat but at the same clip to guarantee that they are non stifled into extinction.

2.2 Differentiation of Merger and Acquisition

In general Mergers and Acquisitions are used interchangeably, but they have a elusive distinction in at that place intending. Weston and Copeland ( 1992 ) distinguished amalgamation and acquisition: amalgamation as a dealing between more or less equal spouses, while acquisitions are used to denote a dealing where a well bigger house takes over a smaller house. Their footing of distinguish was the size. But there are other factors apart from size that denotes the differences between amalgamation and acquisition.

Asquith & A ; Mullins ( 1986 ) define amalgamations and acquisitions on footing of portion distribution. When two houses merge, portions of both are surrendered and new portions in name of the new house will be issued. Unlike in amalgamation, portions of the geting house are non surrendered but traded in the market prior to the acquisition and go on to be traded by the populace after the acquisition. The portions of the mark house cease to be publically.

Motivations behind Merger and Acquisition

There are three major motivations for the amalgamations and coup d’etats: Synergy, Agency, Hubris

Synergy motivation means that the amount entire return/value from the integrating of two or more companies should be greater than that from the single company. Elazar Berkovitch ( 1993 ) suggests that the coup d’etats occur because of economic additions that consequences by unifying the resources of the two houses. They even concluded that entire additions from M & A ; A are ever positive and therefore can state that synergy appears.

The bureau motor suggests that coup d’etats occur because they enhance the acquirer direction ‘s public assistance at the disbursal of acquirer stockholders.

Elazar Berkovitch and M. P. Narayanan ( 1993 ) suggested three major motivations for amalgamations and acquisitions: synergism, bureau and hubris. The synergy motor suggests that the coup d’etats occur because of economic additions that consequences by unifying the resources of the two houses. The bureau motor suggests that coup d’etats occur because they enhance the acquirer direction ‘s public assistance at the disbursal of acquirer stockholders. The hubris hypothesis suggests that directors make errors in measuring mark houses, and engaged in acquisitions even when there is no synergism.

Khemani ( 1991 ) states that there are multiple grounds, motivations, economic forces and institutional factors that can be taken together or in isolation, which influence corporate determinations to prosecute in M & A ; As. It can be assumed that these grounds and motives have enhanced corporate profitableness as the ultimate, long-run aim. It seems sensible to presume that, even if this is non ever the instance, the ultimate concern of corporate directors who make acquisitions, irrespective of their motivations at the beginning, is increasing long-run net income. However, this is affected by so many other factors that it can go really hard to do stray statistical measurings of the consequence of M & A ; A ‘s on net income.

The “ free hard currency flow ” theory developed by Jensen ( 1988 ) provides a good illustration of intermediate aims that can take to greater profitableness in the long tally. This theory assumes that corporate stockholders do non needfully portion the same aims as the directors. The struggles between these differing aims may good escalate when corporations are profitable plenty to bring forth “ free hard currency flow, ” i.e. , net income that can non be productively re-invested in the corporations. Under these fortunes, the corporations may make up one’s mind to do acquisitions in order to utilize these liquidnesss. It is hence higher debt degrees that induce directors to take new steps to increase the efficiency of corporate operations. Harmonizing to Jensen, long-run net income comes from the re-organization and restructuring made necessary by coup d’etats.


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