Marks and Spencer Analysing extract from annual report

Statement 1

“ Administration helps us do the right thing, the right manner – for our stockholders and our clients, employees, providers, local communities and the environment. Our administration is focused on how to acquire it right, non merely in the board room but besides across the businessaˆ¦ ” ( Page 46 )

Statement 2

“ Our purpose is to construct a sustainable concern through consistent, profitable growing and to do certain that our clients and wider stakeholders can ever swear us to make the right thing. We recognise that making stockholder value is the wages for taking acceptable hazards. ” ( page 54 )

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From a finance position the chief aim of a house is to maximize stockholder wealth. However from the two statements above it appears that in world companies do n’t merely concentrate on stockholders.

To what extent do you hold that stockholder wealth maximization should be a superior aim over stakeholder involvement? Discuss your reply with relevant back uping literature. You may besides endorse up your treatment with relevant existent life illustrations from anyplace in the universe.



I do believe that a company should care about stakeholder involvement ; stockholder wealth maximization is non superior aim over stakeholder involvement.


What are difference between stockholder and stakeholder? Inside a corporation, stockholders can see as stakeholder, but widen a corporation, stakeholders are non stockholders ever.

A stockholder merely takes a portion of the company by acquiring stock ownership ; while a stakeholder is performed in the whole operation of the company, non merely merely stock consideration. Lepineux ( 2003 ) classified stakeholder into 4 classs:


Internal stakeholder ( employees, labour brotherhood… )

Operational spouse ( clients, providers, Bankss, insurance companies… )

Social community ( province governments, non-governmental organisations, civil society… )

Stockholders may be the biggest class of stakeholders.

Value maximization says that directors should do all determinations so as to increase the entire long-term market value of the house ( Jensen, 2001 )

The inquiry raised two statements, which were extracted from 2010 study of Marks and Spencer.

Statement 1

“ Administration helps us do the right thing, the right manner – for our stockholders and our clients, employees, providers, local communities and the environment. Our administration is focused on how to acquire it right, non merely in the board room but besides across the businessaˆ¦ ” ( Page 46 )

Statement 2

“ Our purpose is to construct a sustainable concern through consistent, profitable growing and to do certain that our clients and wider stakeholders can ever swear us to make the right thing. We recognize that making stockholder value is the wages for taking acceptable hazards. ” ( page 54 )

Two statements extremely concerned the stakeholder involvement, as the lone one and right way for the company to follow. The corporate administration seek their best to make right thing and travel right manner, that is raising benefit to all stakeholders – including stockholders, clients, employees, providers, local communities and environmental. That is their concern purpose, and they want their stakeholder trust it. In making so, they can derive stable growing for their concern.


There were 2 argumentative theories sing value creative activity and maximization, one is stockholder theory, one is stakeholder theory.

Shareholder theory

Shareholder theory follows Friedman, stated that stockholders involvement in the addition in value of their portions is paramount of corporations ‘ ends, there is one and merely one societal duty of concern – to utilize its resources and prosecute in activities designed to increase its net incomes ( Friedman, 1962 ) . The construct started from an premise that the societal intent of corporation is to maximize stockholders ‘ wealth, this is one manner for a corporation to bring forth good will as a byproduct of outgos that are wholly justified on its ain opportunism ( Friedman, 1970 ) . To explicate for this statement, Elena ( 2007 ) considered this construct implies that Company ‘s Directors and Executives act as agents of the stockholders, and should utilize Corporation ‘s resources merely for their principal ‘s benefit ( Elena, 2007 )

This construct shows that the aim of corporation should be maximize the portion value of the corporation, with the superior involvement to stockholders.

Stakeholder theory

Stakeholder theory claims that corporation should be guided by concern the involvement non merely of stockholders, but of all stakeholders, including employees, clients, providers, local community, besides stockholders ; whose involvements are affected by company ‘s public presentation. Stakeholder theory, argues that directors should do determinations so as to take history of the involvements of all stakeholders in a house ( Jensen, 2001 ) . The end of corporate administration is to maximize the wealth creative activity of the corporation as a whole ( Stephen and James, 2008 ) .

A stakeholder was defined by Freeman as “ any group or person who can affected by the accomplishment of the house ‘s aims ” , and this is “ meant to generalize the impression of shareholder as the lone group to whom direction demand to be antiphonal ” ( Freeman, 1984 )

These two theories attempt to specify what chief aim of corporation value maximization. While stockholder theory underscore the higher-up of stockholders ‘ involvement over stakeholders ; by contrast, stakeholder theory tends to make wider stakeholders ‘ involvements by rejecting the higher-up of stockholder value.

In my sentiment, I support stakeholder theory which concerns long – term concern operation and growing.


What contribute the concern success of a company?

R S Kaplan and D P Norton ( 1992, 1996 ) , these writers pointed that to accomplish a correct and efficient balance, concerns are to obtain positive rating from 4 positions:

Fiscal position

Customer position

Internal concern position

Invention and larning position

Stockholder is taken into history fiscal position. Hence, from a position of fiscal position, its nonsubjective might be maximise stockholder wealth, but it should non be superior nonsubjective over stakeholder involvement. Beside fiscal position, corporation should obtain other perspective value: client position, invention and larning position should connote employee preparation and development, internal concern should be incorporated to supplier ‘s relation. It shows maximise stockholder wealth every bit non every bit superior as stockholder theory idea.

If one corporation concentrating on stockholder wealth maximization, it is merely short-run benefit. Such short-run benefit can damage company ‘s concern. For farther long-run point of position, should corporation see the stakeholder involvement maximization, it will be a firmly growing of concern and stockholders long-run involvements are besides gained.

A house can non maximize value if it ignores the involvement of its stakeholders ( Jensen, 2001 ) . Corporate administration should care for the involvements of others involvement, besides stockholders ‘ . Corporate administration who concern to stakeholders are easier to accomplish corporation ends ( e.g. , cost decrease by providers channel ) , and perchance work out fighting struggles ( e.g. , dissatisfied brotherhood activities ) . The corporation that attention for stakeholders certainly will have the positive interaction. Customers will purchase merchandises from sure companies. Suppliers will construct partnerships with dependable companies. Employees will work for respectable companies. Lenders will put in responsible companies. With such good relationship to stakeholders, a corporation can acquire stable and turning gross comes from clients ; qualified stuffs and on clip bringing semen from providers ; endowment and adept workers and employees, repute comes from community. And I believe that a corporation with caring stakeholders ‘ benefits can derive great wealth for stockholders every bit good.

Taking HONDA VIETNAM as one illustration:

With caring clients, when nearing Vietnam market, Honda has carefully studied the demands of Vietnamese, they have adjusted many Honda design to run into the demands of Vietnamese. Furthermore their after service is besides instead good.

With caring providers, HONDA VIETNAM has developed relationships with many local spouses. They support and transfer engineering, assisting local houses in bring forthing many accoutrements for Honda, increasing the quality of input beginnings.

With caring community activities, HONDA VIETNAM has particular involvement parts on traffic safety activities, instruction and environmental protection.

Resulting these right waies, HONDA VIETNAM is now going one of the taking minibike manufacturers in Vietnam, with high grasp and good repute. With consolidate study of whole group, the 2nd one-fourth FY 2010-2011 ( Jun-Sep 2010 ) , HONDA MOTOR got net net income of 135.9 Billion JPY ( tantamount to 1.7 Billion USD ) , increasing more than double compare to 54 Billion JPY of the same period last twelvemonth. Gross saless increased 9.5 % comparison to the same period last twelvemonth, in which gross revenues from selling minibike in Asia and South America increased 13.4 % . It proved sensible direction lesson of HONDA.

No company can permanent survive if they try to take merely one advantages for one party ; such as: in order to increase net income with purpose wage high dividend to stockholders, the company attempt to increase the merchandising monetary value, lower the stuffs input monetary value, and lower the employee ‘s wage and rewards. It can raise the value of company ‘s stock value in short term, but no longer, net income can be damaged in the hereafter. The rivals in market likely can happen the manner to stand higher place. Bankruptcy might be the close scenario.

There besides have some negative patterns about these theories in Vietnam. One of them is BICICO ( Microbiological and Chemical Industry Joint Stock Company ) . Before 2004, the concern public presentation of BICICO was non so good. In 2004, BICICO transform from State-own to Joint-Stock Company, the General Director tried his best to pull off the company good, he replaced some old machines, combined labour brotherhood, developed adept workers, aˆ¦ since that, the net income was improved. The matter happened when the Board of Managers held in 2009 about paying dividend, the president did non hold to pay dividend 16 % -20 % as suggested, he wanted to pay 200 % , even there was some thoughts from stockholders want to pay 400 % . The consequences for that incorrect determination are these:

Orders decreased. Customers decreased from 30 clients down to 2 clients merely.

Alternatively of working full capacity like before, now workers merely work 1 shift per twenty-four hours, 14 yearss per months.

The company is confronting many troubles at present.

One corporation has many related parties – stakeholders. Well pull offing these relationships will assist the corporation strongly develops.

A company has duties to a figure of interested parties

A good director is who can command and equilibrate the benefits among stakeholders, how much dividend should pay to stockholders, how much budget should pass to other engagements. These are concern schemes of each company and besides the successful key for their concern. Net income division should establish on part of stakeholders to corporation. The more part of stakeholders, the better value creative activity and worthy award.

A balanced scorecard was used to as a manageable measuring. It supposed that fiscal position is non the merely 1 to mensurate the direction ability. Beside fiscal position, there should be other positions to mensurate. Let ‘s see “ How one company linked steps from the four positions? ” of the balanced scorecard.

I strongly suppose that a balanced stakeholder involvement will come to consequences in long-run stockholder wealth maximization.


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