Lower Hearing Aid Prices Economics Essay

As a normal regulation, monetary value additions will do the lessening in the measure demanded as the demand curve is elastic as per the jurisprudence of demand. However, the demand curve for hearing AIDSs is a down-sloping and comparatively inelastic demand.

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To those peoples with hearing job, hearing assistance is an appropriate necessity but they sometimes can non obtain this service easy. Medicare is the insurance plan offered by the authorities but this can non subsidy all peoples in demand as the younger peoples can non be good from this and this will be approved after personal plus auditing. Private hearing AIDSs insurance companies will so be the of import option to the necessary people.

While in the market of hearing AIDSs suppliers, some barriers hinder new comers to take part into the competition. Seldom rivals can come in as the scope of consumers is limited in merely the peoples with hearing jobs. Meanwhile, supplying hearing AIDSs services or bring forthing hearing AIDSs tools are incurring high cost as it need to keep the quality and advanced engineering and accomplishments at the same time. Since the nature of the demand, the expected return will be concentrated on a little group of consumers with hearing job. Companies need to pass high advertisement costs on publicity as consumers are non easy to understand the service program and merchandise while some misinterpretation can non be to the full avoided. Those companies can non anticipate a immense return with big sale.

In most times, authorities can non implement adequate authorization to command the wellness AIDSs suppliers. The bing companies will be connected together consistently. Once after developed the base, the market will change easy. Due to few rivals, these companies may take to turn up in the countries with low rent which cause incommodiousness to the clients, together with shorter office hours and limited advertisement, the possible users can non find to take which service supplier they should corroborate merely based on the monetary value. As a consequence, the service suppliers will non hold inducement to keep low monetary value as they do non hold a strong demand to cut down costs. Merely if the authorities can non supply adequate subsidies to their citizens, the users will turn to seek their aid. In add-on, the private wellness insurance companies, the hearing assistance is non a one-off aid but long term in nature. They merely play the gate keeper function and so they can vouch to keep the long term insurance on the hearing AIDSs.

The house has to reserve net incomes to an acceptable degree and they maximize the net income when the fringy gross is same as fringy costs. Price in monopoly is determined by the demand based on the purchaser ‘s penchant and demand and it should be higher than the fringy cost. Both the authorities and the private insurance companies are non the monetary value compositor. Either the authorities or the insurance companies can continue the monetary value to accomplish ace net incomes. Although the houses will non proactively take down the monetary value, there are new comers to fall in the market to near possible clients by offering replacement services and merchandises. Competition will coerce the house to take down the monetary value in order to beef up their power in the market. However, this action can non assist the house to increase the gross as lower monetary values can non assist to cut down costs. As mentioned before, the demand is inelastic. No similar replacements will be developed. Meanwhile, merely mass production aligned with advanced engineering and immense capital can pry the norm costs. The house besides need to measure if the monetary value decrease will be touch the balanced degree or even lower than minimal mean cost they can afford, if this is the instance, the house will confront the crisis of shuting down.

The house can utilize their market power to put to death the monetary value favoritism in the market. The monetary value of wellness AIDSs is showing the first grade of monetary value favoritism as the house is seeking to put the maximal monetary value peers to the monetary value the consumer willing to pay. Without authorities subsidies and no high insurance coverage, people need to pay on themselves. But when monetary value is reduced to the degree exceeds the fringy cost, the end product will be allocated inefficiently and so gross will non be increased comparatively. Unless the fringy cost is zero, the net income will so be maximized.

2. Measure different possible schemes that companies could implement to derive a sound place among their rivals in this hearing aids market. Use relevant theoretical constructs discussed in chapters.


In the hearing AIDSs market, the companies are common interdependent with each other to some extent. The companies are acting in a strategical manner as they will think what the others think and behave foremost. Before doing a determination on traveling to make, they will seek to expect how their rivals will react. In order to guarantee that they will non loss the market portion or clients, they will see the coordination so others will follow in a parallel signifier when one of them becomes the leader to put the alterations. Entry barriers will be concretely built and market will non be opened with a long term planning in order to cut down the chance of new replacements so they can bask long term net incomes. Owing to common interdependent, the companies have strong sense of ego protection although they are non really depending on others. The companies besides will continue slow invention of new engineering and narrow range of publicity so let new comers non follow. Nevertheless, those companies will seek to develop alone merchandises or service program in order to do their services to be differentiated with others so it can cut down the opportunity of replacing by others. For the pricing, the companies would put the monetary value by higher than the fringy cost so they can make the degree when fringy gross is same as the fringy cost as this is because merely the long tally net income is larger than zero, the companies can bask net income. For illustration, in the local oil providers, they played as the monetary value compositor as they can put monetary value when they feel necessary for the addition, they chiefly provide oil for the autos but they besides will bring forth oil assembled merchandises for day-to-day usage like gasolene or lubricating oils. In order to keep their market portion, really few companies can come in the market. The bing companies will respond to the rivals ‘ actions and so do necessary accommodations.

3. What economic conditions are relevant in managerial decision-making and how they are related with the typical types of hazard faced by a house?


Business hazards are the hazards that the company are confronting with no thoughts about the concern environment by full of uncertainness. These will be occur when there are some economical alterations in the whole society or a specific industry, some actions held by the rivals, fluctuation in engineering or accommodation in the balance between cost and outgos. Directors need to analyse the nature, grade and consequence of the concern hazard before they make determination. These 3 points are being affected by the resource allotment, gross revenues volume, penchant alterations, prognosis, unit monetary value, production costs, overall economic state of affairs and authorities intervention. If the directors take positive concern hazards they can bring forth net incomes. For illustration, the cost of development new LED visible radiation engineering is really high and it is non easy to engage expert to finish the procedure as it involves high administrative and advertisement costs, unsure gross return as people may non accept new engineering, high care cost for new merchandises, etc. But one time people accepts and happen that the advantages of LED visible radiation such as fewer electricity will be cost and it reduces the injury to the oculus, the visible radiation will go popular and so gross revenues will be mostly increased. Conversely, negative concern hazards such as a new luxury flat was built in the country about the industrial country, people is non willing to populate near the industrial country with fumes and noises as they think the sea position can non counterbalance the bad effects to their wellness and foresee long term net incomes after resale, so the sale s of the edifice will non be optimistic. Some economic conditions will straight impact the determination devising. If the resource is allocated in high productive country and can be obtained easy, the house will be willing to take the hazard as they do non necessitate to pass high geographic expedition cost to obtain the resource. If the resource is scarce, the director needs to see the chance cost and weigh the importance of corroborating the determination by against the chance cost. They have to apportion these scarce resources and happen the dorsum up with options. Due to limited resources, the directors have to make up one’s mind whether they should bring forth the merchandises on their ain or merely purchase from outside. When the economic system is progressive, the directors will see bring forthing the merchandises on their ain as they can to the full command the gross revenues program and the quality, but high development cost will be involved so they may necessitate to allow loan or debt to cover extra disbursals and they need bear the duty on necessary fix work. If they buy from exterior, they may can bask low monetary value and fix coverage due to mass purchasing but the quality will be affected. While when economic system is in recession, the consumer demand is reduced so the authorities will cut the revenue enhancements or lower the involvement rate to imitate the economic system. When the involvement rate is low, loan can supply subsidy on capital for engineering invention or new development. But the directors besides need to see cut downing the debt to countervail the concern hazard. Through probe in the overall economic system, the directors can seek to understand the impact on the hereafter concern environment.

4. Unions have by and large bee far more successful in forming and raising rewards in skilled trades such as woodworking than in unskilled trades. Use the Torahs of derived demand to explicate why.


The derived demand is one sort of economical demand which mean the demand for one specific good or service will take to the happening of another demand for another good or service. For illustration, a husbandman has to turn vegetable, he needs to utilize fertiliser to nurture the vegetable seeds. As he needs to sell the veggies to gain income, so the demand for fertiliser is increased comparatively. Or such as one furniture company, the manner to gain net income is to sell out the furniture. If this company is aiming to spread out the concern for net income maximizing, they need to raise the sale of furniture. Then, they would necessitate more labour to bring forth more furniture to suit the gross revenues. But they need is skilled labour alternatively of fresh alumnuss or unskilled labour which is looking for interesting occupation or pleasuring as skilled labour can assist to raise the quality of the merchandises and services and so the efficiency and productiveness will be improved consequently. This proves that the addition in supply will so take to the addition in demand of factor of production. Then the cost of factor or production i.e. the rewards of skilled labour will be increased and so the norm cost for a house will be increased. Conversely, if the furniture demand is reduced, so the demand for skilled labour is reduced consequently. Another illustration of lodging building besides can stand for the derived demand for the skilled labour. For the unskilled labour, the productiveness and efficiency of them is lower due to less concentration on work and lower inducement so may drag down the advancement of the production as they need more clip to larn and work. Furthermore, the house can non have a high return for the goods produced by the unskilled labour at a high monetary value. Therefore, a derived demand is less successful in unskilled labour trades than skilled labour trades.

5. Critically analyze the importance of the factors that directors must see in prediction? Elaborate with illustrations on the requirements of a good prognosis?


There are some factors that directors need to see for prediction. First, they need to understand the concern rhythm and adjust the concern program subject to the economic state of affairs. This includes puting up a eventuality program for sudden economic recession. Second, directors have to analyze the alteration in clients ‘ penchant and the rivals ‘ activities reacting to the market alteration. Customers ‘ penchants will impact the demand for the merchandise and services, people change to purchase replacements will cut down the gross revenues, directors need to make up one’s mind to get down profitable advertisement activities. Meanwhile, when rivals develop new merchandise in order to pull more clients, the directors should follow necessary activities to minimise the loss of market portion. These factors will straight impact the consequence after prediction and the net income degree of the company. A good prognosis besides must be accurate, meaningful, easy to utilize with a on clip footing. The prognosis can non be out dated and in obscure analysis otherwise this can non reflect the true economic state of affairs and can non utilize to put up some schemes to maximise net income with last costs.

6. Analyze the effects of the jurisprudence of decreasing returns to a contemporary concern. Why this jurisprudence is considered a short-term phenomenon? Use appropriate illustrations


The jurisprudence of decreasing returns provinces that the fringy return will be diminished when an extra variable unit of production cost is added into the production while other fixed production costs are staying unchanged. Fringy merchandise will increase when fringy cost is decreased. A simple illustration of running a vegetable works can easy explicate this jurisprudence. Originally two husbandmans worked on the works. After one husbandman joined the working, the end product has increased. Output was triply increased after another more husbandman joined subsequently. Then, more husbandmans wanted to fall in into the same works as they saw the increased return and anticipate to portion a portion. However, the end product was started to decelerate down after they worked as the works was over fertilized and watered so the seeds can non absorb extra foods and resulted in decelerating their growing out of the blue. Other illustrations are such as some preparation in athletics or skill expertness. Over trained will impede the advancement alternatively. Karl Marx of all time described this phenomenon is the expected net income rate is tended to fall. Unless the figure of works is increased, more infinite can suit more seeds and equilibrate the mean soaking up country for the foods, and so the end product will be increased faster. Therefore, this jurisprudence is considered as a short tally phenomenon as the return can non be raised in long tally and this is straight depending on the nature of the system. This jurisprudence besides can be applied on other modern instances such as companies want to hike up the gross revenues by increasing the publicity and advertisement. A short period can pull consumers ‘ attending but after several months, this will go a wont or a common affair in people ‘s life so the gross revenues will be remained or increased really easy. Similarly, when workers in one little cafe are increased, workers can non work faster in a little on the job country and the clients besides are non experiencing comfy in sitting at that place. As a consequence, the workers become non efficient plenty as they can non present the service to the clients instantly and this is truly impacting the gross revenues. No uncertainty gross revenues will be increased by establishing publicity, but supra mentioned restriction will decelerate down the addition in net income. In order to keep the increasing net income, the companies so need to get down other schemes such as publicity run, launch exhibition, etc to re-collect purchaser ‘s buying will. Therefore, this regulation can reflect a short term phenomenon but so the net income will increase in a decreasing rate.

7. Analyze with illustrations why the “ kinked-demand curve ” theoretical account of oligopoly represents a game theory attack to oligopolistic behaviour.


Traditional demand curve is set by some market powers such as monopoly which the marginal cost will be same as the fringy gross, i.e. upward inclining fringy cost curve is crossing with the downward inclining fringy gross curve, in which more units are produced will do to monetary value decrease and manufacturer will gain less net income. Traditional demand curve is a uninterrupted curve as any alteration in fringy cost will reflect the accommodation in the monetary value. While, in oligopoly market, inked-demand curve is an economic theory stand foring the behaviour for Oligopoly. The demand curve in oligopoly market is a down sloping demand curve but is non a smooth, consecutive and uninterrupted curve which has a “ crick ” in it. Kink is a interruption or a leap in the fringy gross so the fringy gross will all of a sudden hold a halt and discontinue from the original line. In this crick curve, bulk thinks the mean cost is equal to the right monetary value and so the fringy cost alteration will non take to monetary value accommodation.

By and large, the monetary value is set in a stable degree in oligopoly market and monetary value competition is non the major competition between oligopolies. They may non follow others when one oligopoly reduces the monetary value. The HDTV and gasoline provider are the illustrations of the oligopoly. They will non easy increase the monetary value as they worry clients will travel to the rivals. Under similar state of affairs that they will take down monetary value easy as they expect others will make the same so will besides do to client loss. Unless there is a large addition in cost otherwise they will non easy adjust the end product and monetary value. Oligopolies are be givening to stabilise the monetary value as they think monetary value addition will do client loss so they besides do non incentive to alter the monetary value.

Normally, one house can maximise the net income when fringy cost is tantamount to the fringy gross. In oligopoly market, harmonizing to the kinked-demand curve, when the stuff cost is increased, it will take to the displacement of the fringy cost curve to the upper degree. This action will do the monetary value increased but the end product will stay the same which the fringy gross curve will stop so no extra net income will be earned.


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