Abstraction:An of import manner of enriching the vocabulary of a linguistic communication is by borrowing words from other linguistic communications. Like most lingual communities, the talkers of English have non developed in isolation from the remainder of the universe but have been in contact – societal, political, cultural and commercial – with other lingual communities. Some German words have been incorporated to English use for many grounds and have become a natural portion of mundane English vocabulary, while others are chiefly literary, scientific, rational, or are used in particular countries, such as in psychological science, doctrine or architecture. Furthermore, some German words are presents used in English because they have no true equivalent in this linguistic communication.
Keywords: loan words, adoption, vocabulary, linguistic communication
Loan words ( besides written as loan-words or loanwords ) are words adopted by the talkers of one linguistic communication from a different linguistic communication, called the beginning linguistic communication. A loan word can besides be called a adoption and refers to the procedure of talkers following words from a beginning linguistic communication into their native linguistic communication.Loanandadoptionare of class metaphors, as there is no actual loaning procedure. There is no transportation from one linguistic communication to another, they merely come to be used by a address community and are incorporated in that linguistic communication. This procedure is a effect of cultural contact between two linguistic communication communities and it can travel to both waies between the two linguistic communications in contact. Those who foremost use the new word might utilize it at first merely with talkers of the beginning linguistic communication who know the word, but at a certain point they come to utilize the word with those to whom the word was non antecedently known. To these talkers that word might sound ?foreign? and, at this phase, when most talkers do non cognize the word and if they hear it think that it comes from another linguistic communication, the word can be called a foreign word.
However, in clip talkers become more familiar with a new foreign word. The community of users reaches the phase where even people who know nil or small of the beginning linguistic communication understand and even utilize the certain word themselves. The new word becomes conventionalized and at this point it becomes a loan word. Conventionalization is a gradual procedure in which a word is increasingly adopted and used by a address community. As portion of its going more familiar to more people, with conventionalisation a loan word bit by bit adopts sound and other features of the new linguistic communication. The longer a loan word has been in the linguistic communication, and the more often it is used, the more it resembles the native words of the linguistic communication.
The English linguistic communication has a strong inclination to follow foreign vocabulary, normally curtailing version to phonemics. In fact, since the clip of the Renaissance, English
authors and bookmans by and large have claimed that lexical acceptances lead to an enrichment of English vocabulary.
The extent of this enrichment may be gauged from the fact that between 65 and 75 per centum of contemporary English vocabulary is of foreign beginning. Much of that vocabulary comes from Romance. In most instances of Romance adoptions, the beginning is Gallic ( e.g. veau, paint, topographic point, receive ) . Less normally, other Romance linguistic communications, particularly Italian and Spanish, are the beginning languages, as inplaza( from Italian ) orplace( from Spanish ) . In add-on, of class, there is an copiousness of loan words from Graeco-Latin beginnings. But the phonic form of these loan words is normally closer to French than to either Latin or Greek. In some instances, this is because the word was borrowed via French. This may be the instance forstate.In others, the ground is that the English word has been assembled from elements received via French, as inintercontinental.In other instances, the word may hold been likewise assembled in Gallic, such as in the instance ofH.We have to observe farther that in some instances, English words may owe their phonological form to etymological nativization based on the phonic correspondence between earlier loan words from Gallic and their English equivalents, such as the Gallic wordstate.The consequence of these loan words is particularly dramatic in proficient prose, where English and Gallic or other Romance languages show a great trade of terminological similarity, whereas German, with its alteredWasserstoff“hydrogen” ( illuminated. H2O affair ) ,Kohlenstoff“carbon” ( lit. coal affair ) , appears to be rather different and “Teutonic” .
In 1910 Walter Skeat listed 36 words as straight borrowed from German into English. In 1935, Mary Sergeantson noted seventy-seven, while Charles T. Carr’s survey of 1934 contained 820 items.?
[ * ] In 1987, J. Alan Pfeffer surprised the scholarly universe with a controversial aggregation of over 3,000 loan words and, in coaction with Garland Cannon, the catalogue grew to 6,001 entries. The consequence was a really of import work of mention. Pfeffer and Cannon used as their footing all important lexicons of modern English, approximative 30 in figure. An appendix listed more than five 100 words attested in auxiliary beginnings. Their work comprises an alphabetical vocabulary, with information on the first English attestation, variant signifiers, etymologies, definitions, derived functions, grammatical characteristics, and besides beginning mentions. The writers attempt was to estimate the word’s position from its frequence of happening in lexicons and its morphological productiveness, detecting that about 25 per centum of German loan words are regarded as holding reached fullest assimilation.
2.German words normally used in English
Some German words that are normally used in English contexts can easy be recognized by many English talkers. Such words aswurstorblack breadstill retain German intensions, while others, such asbeefburgerorlaager,retain none. Not every word is recognizable outside its relevant context.
Mentioning to nutrient and drink, English talkers often use the undermentioned words:apfelstrudel, Austrian apple bar ;beergarden( German spelling:Biergarten); bratwurst,a type of sausage ;hotdog,beefburger ; kirschwasser( in U.S. English merely ) , a spirit drink made from cherries ;Brassica oleracea gongylodes,a type of chou ;laager,beer ;liver pudding( from the GermanLeberwurst); muesli( German spelling:Musli) , breakfast cereals of Swiss beginning ;Pilsner( orPils, Pilsner),a pale laager beer ;pretzel( German spelling:Bretzel),a chip salty biscuit in the form of a knot ;black bread,a type of sourdough rye staff of life, strongly flavoured, dense, and dark in coloring material ;sauerkraut,fermented chou ;schnaps( German spelling:Schnappss),distilled drink ;spritzer,a chilled drink from white vino and soda H2O ;spritzig, scintillating, particularly of vino ;strudel,a filled pastry ;torte,a rich sweet bar or pastry, frequently garnished or filled with fruit ;Wiener, a hot Canis familiaris ;Wiener schnitzel, a crumbed veal scallop, escalope ;wurst, sausage, cold cuts ;rusk, a “twice baked” staff of life, difficult biscuits.
Some other German loan words refer to facets of mundane life, such as:Dachshund, a word that Germans seldom usage, they merely sayDackel;Dobermann Pinscher( German spelling:Dobermann-pinscher,but Germans frequently sayDobermann) ;doppelganger( German:Doppelganger,“double-goer” , used for “look-alike” or “imitation” , in German it denotes a individual portraying another, non an object ;ersatz,“replacement” , from the GermanErsatzteil( trim portion, replacement portion ) , in English used derogatorily for “substitute” , “imitation” ;flack catcher( German:FLugabwehrKanone,literally: air-defence gun ) for anti-aircraft guns or their shells, as in flack catcher jacket, or in the nonliteral sensepulling flack catcher,significance to be to a great extent criticized ;kindergarten,“children’s garden” , common in many states, though non in the UK, intending either a nursery school or a school/class to fix kids for school ;kitsch, inexpensive, sentimental, brassy points of popular civilization ;Kraut,a derogative term for a German, because of false dietetic wonts ( chou ) and it was pimarily used during World War I and Wold War II ;living space,“space to live” , a term popularized by Adolf Hitler’s genocidal program to suppress eastern Europe and repopulate it with cultural Germans ;meister,“master” , besides as suffix “-meister” , in modern English used sardonically ;Nazi,short signifier for National Socialist, now U.S. slang for totalitarian behavior ;Neandertal man( new German spellingNeanderthal man) , of/from the “Neander Valley” , a topographic point near Dusseldorf where early “Homo neanderthalensis” dodos were found ;Oktoberfest,a Bavarian common people festival held yearly in Munich during late September and early October ;poltergeist,“mischievous, noisy ghost” , instances of stalking affecting self-generated telekinesis ;Rottweiler,strain of Canis familiaris, named for its town of beginning ;Schnauzer,a German strain of Canis familiaris with a stopping point, stringy coat and heavy beards round the muzzle, besides intending “moustache” ;Spitz,another strain of Canis familiaris,Volkswagen, trade name of car, a proper name in English, frequently pronounced with English phonetics ( [ ?volksw?gE™n ] alternatively of German [ ?folksva: gE™n ] ) , but in Germany, the abbreviationVWis often used ;Weltanschauung,world-view, implicit in premises about world, a peculiar attitude towards life ;zugzwang, a irresistible impulse to travel ( in cheat ) , a state of affairs in which 1 is forced to do a disadvantageous move.
As we have noticed so far, nouns in German are written with capital letters. The German loan words adopted into English are non written any longer with capital letters, except some proper nouns such as topographic points ( e.g. the “Neander Valley” –Neanderthal ) ,names of festivals:Oktoberfest,species of Canis familiariss:Rottweiler,Schnauzer, or types of autos:Volkswagen, Mercedes.
Many German footings frequently appear in English academic subjects, architecture, humanistic disciplines, theater, typography, economic sciences, geographics, geology, psychological science, doctrine, sociology, history, medical specialty or music.
These are some academic footings often used in English:ansatz,basic attack ;festschrift,a book prepared by co-workers to honor a bookman, traditionally presented sixty old ages after the first major work by the single being honoured ;leitfaden,“guiding thread” , an illustration of the mutuality between chapters of a book ;leitmotif/leitmotiv, an thought or a phrase that is repeated frequently in a book or a work of art, or is typical of a peculiar individual or group ;methodenstreit,dissension on methodological analysis ;doktorvater,thesis adviser.
Mentioning to architecture, footings such asBiedermeierorJugendstil,Art Nouveau are deserving to be mentioned and are universe broad well-known. Sing theater dramas, the termverfremdungseffektis besides sometimes used, believing of Bertolt Brecht who foremost used this technique in his dramas.
In the field of economic sciences we encounter footings like:freiwirtschaft,“free economy” orwirtschaftswunder,“economical wonder” , in geology:graben,ditch ; or minerals asvitreous silica,a difficult mineral, frequently in crystal signifier, that is used to do redstem storksbills and tickers ; in psychological science:angst,a feeling of fright, but more deeply and without concrete object. Many people think that the significance is much more specific in English and the GermanAngstpeers “fear” . Yet, this is non true, because the GermanFurchtagencies “fear” . The difference is thatfurchtis caused by a specific happening or object, whileangstis a more general province of being that does non necessitate to be determined by anything concrete. It can go on automatically, for case influenced by anterior experience offurchtwithout any ground. [ † ] ? Another psychological term issorge,a province of concern, but in a less concrete, more general sense, for case concern about one’s luck or the universe. Other loan words areSchadenfreudeorschadensfreude, a feeling of pleasance at the bad things that happened to other people, malicious joy, triumphing over others’ bad luck ;world-weariness, intending “world-pain” or world-weariness ; orwunderkind, a really successful, intelligent, gifted kid, an baby or kid prodigy.
In sociology we find footings like:gemeinschaft,community, sociology ;gesellschaft,society, sociology ;Weltanschauung,a peculiar attitude towards life, doctrine ;Zeitgeist,the general temper or quality of a peculiar period of history as shown by the thoughts or beliefs common at that clip, the spirit of the age ;zeitgeisty( adj. ) e.g.zeitgeisty tendencies.Important German philosophers are known global and so are some footings and looks:Dinging an sich,“thing in itself” , from I. Kant ;Gott ist tot! ,“God is dead! ” , a popular phrase from Nietsche ;Ubermensch,besides from Nietsche, the ideal of a “superhuman” or “overman” ;wertfreiheit,freedom from value opinions, ethical neutrality in a post-modernistic doctrine sense.
Music is besides a sphere in which the German speech production states, particularly Austria and Germany, had a great part in its development. That is why some German footings have been incorporated in English vocabulary, such as:fluegelhorn,( German spelling: Flugelhorn ) , a type of brass musical instrument ;orchestral bells,a percussion instrument ;heldentenor,“heroic tenor” ;hammerklavier,“hammer-piano” , an antediluvian term for piano or the name of a specific sort of piano, most normally used in English to mention to Beethoven’s hammerklavier sonata ;leitmotiv,( German spelling: Leitmotiv ) , a musical phrase that associates with a specific individual, thing or thought ;lied,pronounced [ Li: T ] , “song” , used particularly for “art song” ;minnesingers,( German spelling: Minnesanger ) , love poet or folk singer ;singspiel,German musical play with spoken duologue ;urtext,the composer’s original text ;walk-in,( German spelling: Walzer ) , a graceful dance and the music for this dance.
Throughout its history, the English linguistic communication has borrowed really big Numberss of foreign words and today it seems more unfastened than of all time to such external influences. In what fortunes does such borrowing take topographic point? In the simplest instances, a word is adopted along with the thing it represents. The profusion and assortment of the vocabulary, which is such a noteworthy characteristic of English, is due in no little step to the elements which the linguistic communication has absorbed from foreign civilizations, in this peculiar instance from German
The linguistic communication as a human module and agencies of communicating can be assimilated to a dynamic mechanism, being capable to alter. Its dynamism is reflected really good in the uninterrupted enrichment of the vocabulary and the enlargement of the use of verbal linguistic communication. Therefore, it must be said that English has gone through many periods in which big Numberss of words from a peculiar linguistic communication, in this instance German, were borrowed. These periods coincide with times of major cultural contact between English talkers and those life in the German speech production states ( Germany, Austria and Switzerland ) . On the other manus, the moving ridges of borrowing during periods of particularly strong cultural contacts are non aggressively delimited, and can overlap. It is portion of the cultural history of English talkers that they have adopted loan words from German and this facet led to a important enrichment of the English linguistic communication.