Literature Review On Remote Sensing Environmental Sciences Essay

Remote detection is the scientific discipline or art of geting information about the Earths surface without really being in contact with it. This is done by feeling and entering reflected or emitted energy and processing, analysing, and using that information. In much of distant detection, the procedure involves an interaction between incident radiation and the marks of involvement. ( Dr. S. M. Rahman, 2001 ) .

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Distant feeling makes it possible to roll up informations on unsafe or unaccessible countries. Remote feeling applications include supervising deforestation in countries such as the Amazon Basin, glacial characteristics in Arctic and Antarctic parts, and depth sounding of coastal and ocean deepnesss. Military aggregation during the Cold War made usage of stand-off aggregation of informations about unsafe boundary line countries. Remote feeling besides replaces dearly-won and slow informations aggregation on the land, guaranting in the procedure that countries or objects are non disturbed. Remote feeling extremely influences mundane life, runing from conditions prognosiss to studies on clime alteration or natural catastrophes. As an illustration, 80 % of the German pupils use the services of Google Earth. ( Wikipedia, 2012 )

In recent clip, with adult male ‘s increasing intercessions with the environment, the state of affairs is aggravated. The quality of available informations is highly uneven. Land usage planning based on undependable informations can take to dearly-won and gross mistakes. Soil eroding research is a capital-intensive and time-consuming exercising. Global extrapolation on the footing of few informations collected by diverse and non-standardized methods can take to gross mistakes and it can besides take to dearly-won errors and misjudgements on critical policy issues. So, distant feeling provides convenient solution for this job. Furthermore, voluminous informations gathered with the aid of distant feeling techniques are batter handled and utilized with the aid of Geographical Information System ( GIS ) . ( M. H. Mohamed Rinos, 2000 )

There are two different attacks that can be adopted for finding the features of landslide from distant feeling informations. The first attack determines more ‘qualitative ‘ features such as figure, distribution, type and character of dust flow. This can be achieved with either orbiter or air borne imagination collected in the seeable and infrared parts of the spectrum. The following attack complements the qualitative word picture, gauging dimensions ( e.g. length, breadth, thickness and local incline, gesture, and debris distribution ) along and across the mass motion. ( V. Singhroy, 2004 )

Literature Review on Geographical Information System ( GIS )

Geographical Information System ( GIS ) is used to set up the computing machine hardware, package, and geographic informations. It helps the people interact, analyze, place relationship and happen the solutions to the jobs. The system is designed to capture, shop, update, manipulate, analyze, and show studied informations and used to execute analyses ( ESRI, 2005 ) . Since 1970s, GIS has been used to analyse assorted environments. But the extended application of GIS to hydrologic and hydraulic mold and inundation function and direction Begin from early 1990s. ( Maidment, 2000 ) .

GIS has the ability to stand for lift in footings of topographic surfaces is cardinal to structural analyses and therefore to the importance of stand foring topography utilizing Digital Elevation Model ( DEM ) . It is through the distribution of dirt that the land surface alterations over the long term and so the ability to associate sediment transportation with DEM alterations. ( Schmidt, 2000 )

ArcView GIS desktop package provided the tools of map characteristics that will impact a belongings ‘s value such as offense rates, environmental jeopardies, and the status of environing vicinities and belongingss. ESRI ‘s ArcGIS is a GIS which is working with maps and geographic information. ArcGIS package can be used for following maps: making and utilizing maps, roll uping geographic informations, analysing mapped information, sharing and detecting geographic information, utilizing maps and geographic information in a scope of applications, and pull offing geographic information in database. ( Wikipedia, ArcGIS, 2012 ) . The ArcGIS provides tools for building maps and geographic information.

Literature reappraisal on dirt eroding

Soil eroding is one signifier of dirt debasement along with dirt compression, low organic affair, and loss of dirt construction, hapless internal drainage, salinization, and dirt sourness jobs ( Wall, 2003 ) . When the debasement of the dirt is acquiring serious, it will lend in accelerate the dirt eroding. Soil eroding is a natural procedure ; it normally does non do any major job to the environment. The dirt is carried by the agents such as air current, H2O, ice, animate beings, and the usage of tools by adult male. Soil eroding is a really slow procedure and even unobtrusive sometime, but it may happen at an dismaying rate which doing the loss of surface soil.

Farmers worldwide are losing about 24 billion metric tons of surface soil each twelvemonth. In developing states, because of the population force per unit area forces land to be more intensively farmed, the eroding rates per acre are twice every bit high as the criterion. The dirt eroding besides will impact the productiveness and growing. This is because when the dirts are depleted and harvests receive hapless nutriment from the dirt, the nutrient provides hapless nourishment to people. The rate of losingss dirt is faster than the creative activity of new dirt. The difference between creative activity and loss represents an one-year loss of 7.5 to 10 metric tons per acre worldwide. ( DeHaan, 1992 )

The scoured dirt that enters watercourse will cut down the H2O quality, reduces the efficiency of the specific ‘s drainage system and besides decreases the storage capacity of lakes. Sediment is the scoured dirt that settles in the H2O systems. Accretion of the deposit will cut down the capacity of a river or reservoirs to keep flood H2O. Therefore, it requires a batch of money to clean the deposit frequently and manually. Sediment besides can barricade the sunshine for aquatic works and suppress fish spawning. The H2O becomes non safe for imbibing if there is overflow of chemical and foods from environing husbandman ‘s Fieldss.

In Malaysia, dirt eroding is a common natural happening. This is due to peculiar topography, dirts and matching flora that predominate and the extended rainfall that the state experiences. However, accelerated dirt eroding is going a serious job in Malaysia because of rapid land usage developments. Assorted signifiers of eroding control have been proposed to develop the land in ways that are sensitive to its geographics. ( Abdullah, 2005 )

Literature reappraisal on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation

The development of Universal Soil Loss Equation ( ULSE ) ab initio was to help dirt environmentalists in farm planning. They used ULSE to gauge the dirt loss on specific inclines in specific Fieldss. USLE was a usher for the environmentalist and husbandman to command the eroding if the estimated dirt loss exceeded acceptable bounds.

Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation ( RUSLE ) is a scientific discipline tool that has been improved over the last several old ages. It is based on USLE and makes some betterment on the equation. The RULSE has improved the effects of dirt raggedness and the consequence of local conditions on the anticipation of dirt loss and sediment bringing. ( Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, 2003 ) . RUSLE can be used for site rating and planning intents and to assistance in the determination in choosing eroding control step. The RUSLE provides Numberss to confirm the benefits of planned eroding control steps and besides an estimation of badness of eroding.

A = R.K.LS.C.P

A is one-year dirt loss ( tonnes/ha/year ) .

R is rainfall erosivity factor. It is an eroding index for the given storm period ( )

K is soil erodibility factor. It is the eroding rate for a specific dirt uninterrupted fallow status on a 9 % incline holding a length of 22.1m ( tonnes/ha/ ( ) )

LS are topographic factor. It represents the incline length and the incline abruptness. It represents the ratio of the dirt loss from a specific site to that from a unit site ( 9 % incline with incline length 22.1m ) while other parametric quantities are held changeless.

C is the cover direction factor. It represents the protective coverage of canopy and organic stuff in direct contact with the land.

P is the support pattern factor. It includes the dirt preservation operations and other step of control eroding.

Literature reappraisal on USLE and RUSLE

Table 2.1 Comparison of USLE and RUSLE ( Renard, 1991 )





Based on long term mean rainfall conditions for specific geographic countries

Datas from more conditions Stationss and therefore the value are more precise for any given location.

RUSLE computes a rectification to R. This is to reflect the consequence of raindrop impact for level inclines striking H2O ponded on the surface.


Based on dirt texture, organic affair content, permeableness, and other factors built-in to dirty type.

Adjusted to account for seasonal alterations such as freeze and melt, dirt wet, and dirt consolidation.


Based on length and abruptness of incline, irrespective of land usage.

Delegating new equations based on the ratio of rivulet to interrill eroding, and accommodates complex inclines.


Based on cropping sequence, surface residue, surface raggedness, and canopy screen, with are weighted by the per centum. Lumps these factor into a tabular array of dirt loss ratios, by harvest and cultivated land strategy.

Sub factors ( anterior land usage, canopy screen, surface screen, surface raggedness, and dirt wet ) are used. Dividing each twelvemonth into rotary motion of 15 twenty-four hours intervals, so cipher the dirt loss ratio for each period. The value demand to recalculate if one of the sub factors change.

RUSLE provides improved estimations of dirt loss alterations as they occur throughout the twelvemonth, particularly associating to come up and near surface residue and the effects of clime on residue decomposition.


Valuess change depending on the incline ranges with some differentiation for assorted ridge highs. It is based on installing of patterns that slow overflow and therefore cut down dirt motion.

Valuess are based on hydrologic dirt groups, incline, row class, ridge tallness, and the 10 twelvemonth individual storm eroding index value.

In RUSLE, it computes the consequence of strip-cropping based on the conveyance capacity of flow in heavy strips relative to the sum of deposit making the strip.

The P factor for preservation planning considers the sum and location of deposition.

Literature reappraisal on landslide

Landslides are a type of dirt eroding and major natural geological jeopardies. Each twelvemonth, the landslide is responsible for tremendous belongings harm which involves both direct and indirect costs. Malaysia experience frequent landslides. Harmonizing to the local newspaper study in the old ages 2006-2009, along east seashore main roads in Peninsular Malaysia, in Sabah ( East Malaysia ) and in the island province of Penang, heavy rainfalls triggered landslides and clay flows. ( Pradhan, 2009 )

Landslides happen when there are alterations from a stable to an unstable status in the stableness of a incline. There are natural causes and human causes which lending to a alteration in the stableness of a incline. Natural causes of landslides include:

Groundwater ( pore H2O ) force per unit area moving to destabilise the incline

Loss or absence of perpendicular vegetive construction, dirt foods and dirt construction

Erosion of the toe of a incline by rivers or ocean moving ridges

Weakening of a incline through impregnation by snowmelt, glaciers runing, or heavy rains

Earthquakes adding tonss to hardly table incline

Earthquake-caused liquefaction destabilizing inclines

Volcanic eruptions

Landslides that are due to human causes are:

Deforestation, cultivation and building, which destabilize the already delicate incline

Vibrations from machinery or traffic


Earthwork which alters the form of a incline, or which imposes new tonss on bing incline

In shallow dirts, the remotion of deep-seated flora that bind colluvium to bedrock

Construction, agricultural or forestry activities which change the sum of H2O which infiltrates the dirt. ( Wikipedia, 2012 )

Landslides in Malaysia are chiefly triggered by tropical rainfall and brassy inundations. The rainfall and inundations cause the stone to neglect along break, joint and cleavage planes. The geology of Malaysia is rather stable but uninterrupted development and urbanization lead to deforestation and eroding of the covering dirt beds therefore doing serious menaces to the inclines ( Pradhan, 2007 ) . Abandoned undertaking at hill sites for a certain period which impacting the care of the inclines could doing the inclines to prostration.

List of landslide events happened in Malaya:

1 May 1961 – A landslide occurred in Ringlet, Cameron Highlands, Pahang.

21 October 1993 – The semisynthetic Pantai Remis landslide caused a new cove to be formed in the coastline.

11 December 1993 – 48 people were killed when a block of the Highland Towers collapsed at Taman Hillview, Ulu Klang, Selangor.

30 June 1995 – 20 people were killed in the landslide at Genting Highlands faux pas route near Karak Highway.

6 January 1996 – A landslide in the North-South Expressway ( NSE ) near Gua Tempurung, Perak.

29 August 1996 – A mudflow near Pos Dipang Orang Asli colony in Kampar, Perak, 44 people were killed in this calamity.

15 May 1999 – A landslide near Bukit Antarabangsa, Ulu Klang, Selangor. Most of the Bukit Antarabangsa civilians were trapped.

20 November 2002 – The cottage of the Affin Bank president General ( RtD ) Tan Sri Ismail Omar prostration doing landslide in Taman Hillview, Ulu Klang, Selangor.

December 2003 – A rockfall in the New Klang Valley Expressway ( NKVE ) near the Bukit Lanjan interchange caused the freeway to shut for more than six months.

31 May 2006 – Four individuals were killed in the landslides at Kampung Pasir, Ulu Klang, Selangor.

26 December 2007 – Two villagers were buried alive in a major landslide, which destroyed nine wooden houses in Lorong 1, Kampung Baru Cina, Kapit, Sarawak.

12 February 2009 – one contract worker was killed in a landslide at the building site for a 43-storey condominium in Bukit Ceylon, Kuala Lumpur.

21 May 2011 – 16 people largely 15 kids and a caretaker of an orphanhood were killed in a landslide caused by heavy rains at the Children ‘s Hidayah Madrasah Al-Taqwa orphanhood in FELCRA Semungkis, Hulu Langat, Selangor. ( Wikipedia, 2012 )

A scientific analyses of landslides need to be carry out to foretell landslide-susceptible countries, and therefore cut down landslide amendss through proper readying and extenuation. So, understanding landslides and forestalling them is a serious challenge across worldwide.

Literature reappraisal on past research and surveies


The application of GIS-based logistic arrested development for landslide

susceptibleness function in the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains, Central Japan

Writer, Year

Lulseged Ayalew, Hiromitsu Yamagishi, 2005


Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains and their milieus.


To analyze the landslide hazard around the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains.

To analyze the usage of logistic arrested development.

To show the combination bivariate statistical analyses ( BSA ) to simplify the reading of the theoretical account.


Analytic attacks

In LR or even in additive arrested development, it does little good to unite informations with different mensurating graduated tables.

Make sure that informations have been normalized in a mode LR needs. Failure to make so by and large leads to jobs during the reading of the concluding consequences.

Statistical consequences

Overall theoretical account statistics of the arrested development conducted in this survey utilizing IDRISI.

Coefficient positive indicating that they are positively related to the chance of landslide formation through the log transmutation.

Prediction chances and the building of the susceptibleness map

In add-on to the theoretical account statistics and coefficients, the concluding consequence of the arrested development procedure in IDRISI is a predicted map of chance defined by Numberss that are constrained to fall between 0 and 1.

The more these Numberss are close to 1, the better they indicate the likeliness of happening the mapped landslides.

Depending on the independent parametric quantities considered, the landslide stock list map and the statistical attack used, the best forecaster parametric quantities and the predicted chance map of a logistic arrested development can change well.


Landslides are portrayed harmonizing to the types of motions viz. slide, autumn, flow, spread and topple.

The rule of logistic arrested development ( LR ) rests on the analysis of a job, in which a consequence measured with dichotomous variables such as 0 and 1 or true and false, is determined from one or more independent factors.


Appraisal of dirt eroding and sediment bringing ratio utilizing distant detection and GIS

Writer, Year

Weifeng ZHOU and Bingfang WU, 2008


Upstream Chaobaihe River catchment, north China.


To develop monitoring of dirt losingss in the upstream Chaobaihe River Catchment.

To develop a theoretical account by utilizing Geographic Information System tools.

To calculate sediment bringing ratio ( SDR ) per hydrological unit.


Data Collection

Distant feeling informations, digital lift theoretical account ( DEM ) , and land usage and land screen GIS informations were used.

Universal Soil Loss Equation ( USLE )

Simple empirical theoretical account, based on arrested development analyses of dirt loss rates on eroding secret plans in the USA.

The theoretical account is designed to gauge long-run one-year eroding rates for agricultural Fieldss.

A = R·K·L·S·C

A represents mean ( one-year ) dirt loss, R is the rainfall erosive factor, K is the dirt erosibility factor, L is the incline factor, S is the incline length factor, and C is the cover direction factor.


The work indicated there are a figure of advantages in utilizing the modified USLE equation including the ability to unite it with a raster-based GIS to bring forth a cell-by-cell footing for mapping spacial forms of dirt eroding rates.

The advantage of utilizing a GIS raster based model is that it allows one to quantify the impact of a individual factor on the overall consequence and it can besides easy be updated with improved



Soil eroding jeopardy rating – An integrated usage of remote detection, GIS and statistical attacks with biophysical parametric quantities towards direction schemes

Writer, Year

Md. Rejaur Rahman, Z.H. Shi, Cai Chongfa, 2009


Within the Danjiangkou County, with an country of 3115.58 km2 and located in the north-western portion of Hubei state of China.


To develope numerical theoretical account for dirt eroding jeopardy appraisal

Tto analyze dirt eroding by trying to gauge the volumes or multitudes of dirt loss


Analysis of survey country

The selected country is within the Danjiangkou County, with an country of 3115.58 km2 and located in the north-western portion of Hubei state of China.

Sandy clay loam, silt loam and flaxen loam on the survey country play a dominant function in dirt eroding by H2O.

Data acquisition and readying

Prepare and analyze the different types of informations in dirt eroding anticipation and hazard appraisal as there are many factors that affect dirt eroding position.

Soil eroding appraisal

Models are needed to foretell dirt eroding rates under different resource and land-use conditions.

Empirical eroding anticipation theoretical accounts continue to play an of import function in dirt preservation planning and are widely used to foretell dirt eroding.


The Z-score analysis with GIS and selected parametric quantities, provided a hazard appraisal of dirt eroding of the country. The methodological analysis of uniting the Z-score with GIS provided an improved method for the man-made rating of dirt eroding jeopardy, which extended the GIS capableness of spacial analysis and the Z-score capableness of multi-layer analysis.


Spatial Prediction of Landslide Hazard Using Discriminant Analysis

Writer, Year

Peter V. Gorsevski, Paul Gessler, Randy B. Foltz, 2000


Rocky Point, a little water parting of the Clearwater River Basin in cardinal Idaho.


To analyze the construct of Discriminant Analysis and GIS.

To analyse the landslide hazard country on Rocky Point.


Chief Component Analysis ( PCA )

Aid to analyse the multivariate informations set.

Discriminant Analysis

Classify presence and absence of landslides utilizing chief constituent tonss.

Discriminant analysis is a multivariate technique that is used to construct regulations that can sort landslide jeopardy into appropriate category.


Estimate the chances of misclassification.

Cross-validation method removes each observation vector from the standardization informations set at a clip, forms the discriminant regulation based on all the staying informations to sort the removed observation, and notes whether the observation is right classified.


provided a elaborate footing for spacial anticipation of landslide jeopardy.


Hazard map generated.

Graph of multivariate normal chance secret plan for the chief constituent tonss.


Remote detection and GIS-based landslide jeopardy analysis and cross-validation utilizing multivariate logistic arrested development theoretical account on three test countries in Malaysia.

Writer, Year

Biswajeet Pradhan, 2010


Penang, Cameron and Selangor.


To bring forth cross-validation of a multivariate logistic arrested development theoretical account utilizing distant detection and GIS for landslide hazard analysis.


Data and stuff

Interpreting aerial exposure and orbiter images ( SPOT 5 and Landsat TM ) of survey country.

These aerial exposure were taken during 1981-2006 and were acquired from Malayan Remote Sensing Agency data archives.

Data analysis utilizing ARC/INFO GIS package bundle and a Digital Elevation Model ( DEM ) was constructed.

These informations are related to the primary ei¬ˆects ( impact of dust or inclusion of ai¬ˆected site from antecedently occurred landslides ) of a broad assortment of landslide types

Model Approaching

Traditional attack utilizing a multivariate logistic arrested development theoretical account implemented in a GIS model.

The landslide jeopardy analysis is a map of a assortment of variables that include incline, facet, curvature, topography, distance from drainage, land screen, dirt texture and types, geology and distance from quality, rainfall precipitation, and the normalized dii¬ˆerence flora index ( ndvi )

The coefficient applied to the survey country, for landslide jeopardy function.

Multivariate logistic arrested development theoretical account

Easier to utilize than discriminant analysis when have a mixture of numerical and categorical regressors, because it includes processs for bring forthing the necessary silent person variable automatically.

Application of multivariate logistic arrested development theoretical account on landslide jeopardy function.

Validation of the theoretical account.


The proof consequences showed a hearty understanding between the jeopardy maps and the landslide locations verified in the field.


GIS Application in Landslide Hazard Analysis

Writer, Year

Chyi-Tyi Lee, 2009


Shihmen Reservoir Catchment Area in Northern Taiwan.


To analyse the landslide jeopardy country utilizing GIS application.


Image and informations aggregation

The basic informations utilized included a 5m ten 5m grid DEM, SPOT5 images, 1/500 photo-based contour maps, 1/50000 geologic maps and hourly rainfall informations.

Establish of event-based landslide stock list

To develop susceptibleness theoretical account, merely considered new landslides triggered by typhoons.

Landslides triggered by Typhoon Aere were interpreted and delineated by comparing SPOT5 images taken earlier and after thetyphoon.

Determination of causative factors and triping factors

These factors are so statistically tested and y effectual factors selected for susceptibleness analysis.

10 factors are selected:

Lithology, incline gradient, NDVI, incline raggedness, profile curvature, entire incline tallness, comparative incline tallness, topographic wetness index, distance to a mistake, maximal rainfall strength.


Construction of theoretical account via logistic arrested development.

Logistic arrested development to find a additive map of factors for construing the landslide distribution from a set of preparation informations.

The additive map is used to cipher the landslide susceptibleness index ( LSI ) for each cell.

The LSI used to set up a chance of failure to LSI curve and find the spacial chance of landslide happening at each cell.

Landslide susceptibleness function

The landslide jeopardy country could be for the anticipation of future landslides supplying a scenario rainfall distribution is given.


Successfully predict landslide location, country and volume in a drainage basin or catchment country utilizing GIS.


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