List And Discuss With Examples

The strongest contract, in term of enforceability, has an offer, credence, consideration for the exchange, clearly sets out the term of the understanding without ambiguity, and is signed by the involved parties with proper capacity to come in into the contract. An understanding enforceable by the jurisprudence between two or more parties to make or to abstain from making some act, their purpose being excessively create legal relation and non simply to interchange common promise both holding given something or holding promised to give something of value as consideration for any benefit derived from the understanding.

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Agreement, consisting offer and credence. The being of an offer and credence are a agencies of analysing the procedure of dialogue to make up one’s mind whether a contract has been made and if so, when it was made. Common acquiescence of the parties is the footing of understanding. The parties must hold on the right and duties to be created under the contract. Agreement that is reached through a procedure of offer and credence is cardinal portion of any contract because it requires consensus ad idem.

Examples: in affin recognition ( Malaysia ) sdn bhd V trap yuen fui ( 1984 ) the federal tribunal held that where there was no offer and credence, the purported hire- purchase understanding was declared null Bachelor of Arts initio, that is the understanding was void from the beginning. Thus it can be seen that understanding forms the footing of contract, if there is no valid understanding to get down with, there can be no valid contract at all.


For a contract to be valid, there must be a proper credence by the offered. Section 2 ( B ) of CA 1950 provides that when the offered signifies his acquiescence to the offer, the offer is said to be accepted. Credence may be made in authorship, orally or implied by conduce, but if method of credence has been prescribed by the offer or, so credence must be harmonizing to the mode prescribed. Acceptance must be made within a sensible clip. What sum to sensible clip would depend on the fortunes of each instance.

Example: In Taylor V Allan ( 1966 ) , the tribunal held that the offer of a motor insurance was deemed accepted by behavior when the offered drove his auto in trust on the insurance.

Purpose to make legal dealingss

An understanding reached between an offer or an of free will be lawfully adhering contract merely if the parties intended that they should be lawfully bound. The parties purpose to be bound can be expressly stated or be implied from their action. Where purposes are expressly stated, the tribunal would non ascribe otherwise unless there is strong grounds to turn out the reverse. The purposes are to be implied from the behavior of the parties, there are certain givens that would be considered depending on the relationship between the parties to the understanding.

Examples: In Balfour V ( 1919 ) , the hubby went to work in ceyloon and agreed to pay his married woman & A ; lb ; 30 per month. He did non pay the money and his married woman sued. It was held that there was no contract because the parties did non mean to make a legal relationship.


Section 26 of CA 9150 provides that an understanding without consideration is null. Therefore, consideration is an indispensable component to the formation of valid contract. Where no consideration is given by the promise, the promissory simply owes a moral duty to execute the contract. A simplistic definition may be the monetary value paid for the purchase of a promise. However recent determinations have taken a more practical attack to the definition by acknowledging a broader scope of objects that can now represent consideration.

Example: If Jenny promise to give Susie RM700 as a gift on her birthday, this promise can non be enforced by tribunal because Suisse has non provided any consideration for the promise.

Capacity to contract

In order to hold a valid contract all parties to a contract must hold capacity to come in into a contract. Capacity refers to the legal ability to come in into a contract and the jurisprudence by and large presumes that everyone has capacity to contract except certain classs of individual.

Section 11 of CA 9150 provides that every individual is competent to contract who is of the age of bulk harmonizing to the jurisprudence to which he is capable. The sound heads and non disqualified from undertaking by any jurisprudence to which he is capable. A individual who has been disqualified from undertaking by any jurisprudence is regarded as incompetent to come in into a contract.

Example: a insolvent or an enemy foreigner can non come in into a valid contract.


Agreement that are non certain in significance or which the significance is non capable of being made certain, are null. For illustration Agrees to sell to B a 100 dozenss of oil. There is nil whatever to demo what sort of oils was intended the understanding is null for uncertainness. The term of an understanding must be clear, preside and certain.


Even where all the demands of valid contract discussed above are present, a contract may be illegal and therefore unenforceable. Agreement are contract if inter alia they are made for lawful consideration and with lawful object. Section 24 CA 1950 further provides that the undermentioned consideration and object are improper. It is forbidden by jurisprudence, it is of the nature as to get the better of any jurisprudence, it is deceitful, it involves or implies injury to individual or belongings of another, the tribunal regards it as immoral, or opposed to public policy.


A contract is an understanding enforceable by jurisprudence between two or more parties to make or to abstain from making some act ( s ) , their purpose being to make legal relation and non simply to interchange common promise both holding given something or holding promised to give something of value as consideration for any benefit derived from the understanding. Redresss that are available for breach of contract would depend on the gravitation of the consequence and impact of the breach. The types of redresss that are available are foremost is recission of contract. The contract is annulled and both sides are excused from farther public presentation and any money advanced is returned. Second are amendss. It ‘s an just quantum of money is paid to the complainant to counterbalance for any loss. Next is specific public presentation. A tribunal order necessitating public presentation precisely as specified in the contract. This redress is rare, except in existent estate minutess and other alone belongings, as the tribunals do non desire to acquire involved with monitoring public presentation. Lastly is injunction. A tribunal order directing one party to execute or to forbear from making a certain act. It is used particularly in state of affairss where a pecuniary award for amendss would non fulfill a complainant ‘s claim or would non protect personal or belongings right from irreparable injury.

Question 2

Write notes with illustrations on the three most of import redresss available for breach of contract.


When one party has refused to execute or disenable himself from executing his promise, the other ( guiltless ) party may set an terminal contract: s40, CA 1950. Therefore, the guiltless party may handle the contract as being discharged. This depends on whether the breach is breach of a status or a guarantee. If it is a breach of a status, the guiltless party can handle the contract as being discharged.


The purpose of amendss is put the inexperienced person party into place he would hold been, had the contract been performed. The types of amendss are such as.

Compensatory or ordinary amendss

These are amendss that are given to the party who has suffered loss caused by the breach of contract. The general place with respect to amendss for breach of contract is that amendss may be recovered every bit long as they are non excessively distant.

Exemplary amendss

This amendss requested and awarded by the tribunal when the suspect ‘s wilful Acts of the Apostless were malicious, violent, oppressive, deceitful, wanton, grossly foolhardy. These amendss are awarded both as a penalty and to put a public illustration. Although frequently requested, model amendss are rarely awarded.

Liquidated amendss

These are the amendss pecuniary compensation whose sum the parties agree upon during the formation of a contract for the injured party to roll up as compensation if a specific breach occurs. Damagess can be liquidated in a contract merely if the hurt is either unsure or hard to quality, or it would be hard to turn out the loss, or it would be hard to happen another equal redress. The sum is sensible and is considered the existent or awaited injury caused by the contract breach and structured to map as amendss, non as a punishment.

Nominal amendss

Nominal amendss are amendss which consist of a little sum of hard currency payment which the tribunal orders to be paid to the complainant who has suffered no quantifiable monetary loss. The award serves as a item of award to the right of the complainant. Nominal amendss is frequently sought to obtain a legal record of who was at mistake.

Recission of Contract

On a breach of status of a contract, the injured party may handle the contract as at an terminal or rescinded and decline to execute or carry through his portion of the contract. When one party to a contract has refused to execute, or disabled himself from executing his promise in its entireness, the promise may set an terminal to the contract, unless he has signified, by words or behavior, his acquiescence in its continuation s 40, CA 1950. A individual who justly rescinds a contract is besides entitled to amendss under s 76, CA 1950. An illustration is provided in the illustration to s 76 as:

A, a vocalist, contracts with B, the director of a theater, to sing at his theater for two darks in every hebdomad during the following two months, and B engages to pay her RM 100 for each dark ‘s public presentation. On the 6th dark A wilfully absents herself from the theater, and B, in effect, rescinds the contract. B is entitled to claim compensation for the harm which he has sustained through the non-fulfillment of the contract.

Specific public presentation

Specific public presentation is an just redress. It is specialised redress used by the tribunal when no other redress, such as money will adequately counterbalance the injured party. Specific public presentation is a discretional redress and non an arbitrary redress, an injured party may inquire for an order of specific public presentation but it is up to the tribunal whether or non to allow it. The most common ground tribunals grants specific public presentation is that the topic of the contract is alone. Specific public presentation is most normally granted for contracts connected with land, it is non normally granted in gross revenues of good unless it is for the purchase of a rare or alone merchandise. Example, Roslyn offers to sell Azmin his beachfront house and Azmin accepts. Roslan later decides to maintain the house. Since there in no other precisely like Roslan ‘s, Azmin may be entitled to specific public presentation of the contract and the tribunal may oblige Roslan to sell the house.


An injunction is an order of the tribunal keeping a individual from making a specific act in the hereafter. It is granted merely when it is merely and just to make so holding respect to all the fortunes of the instance. In regard of contracts, an injunction may be sought to pervent a party from perpetrating a breach of contract. For illustration, the tribunal may order that a marketer be restrained from selling land to anyone else when the marketer has contracted to sell that land to the complainant.


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