Nowadays we can separate many different types of leading manners. Some of them are respected by employees, but on the other manus there are besides manners which are considered really ill. This paper nowadayss and explores leading manners based on the observations of directors in Sainsbury ‘s Nine Elms. In the first portion research inquiry has been formed and discussed. The 2nd portion is a literature reappraisal, with characteristic of most popular leading manners. In the 3rd portion, methodological analysis which will be used for research and to happen an reply on research inquiry will be discussed.

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Rationale aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..4

Research Questionaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦5

Significance of Studyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … 5

Literature Reviewaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.7

Leadership Manners in early XXaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.7

Leadership Styles Todayaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..7

Other Leadership Stylesaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … 9

Sainsbury ‘s Nine Elms- instance studyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .12


Research Methodsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..14

Qualitative Techniquesaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … aˆ¦15


Case Studyaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … 16


3.3 Research Process ‘Onion’aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..19

4.0 Conclusionaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..20

5.0 Referencesaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..21

1.0 Introduction


Human resource direction is a series of activities which, first enables working people and the administration which uses their accomplishments to hold about the aims and nature of their working relationship. Second, ensures that the understanding is fulfilled. ( Torrington, 2008 )

This research undertaking will be based on a field, which is human resource. One of the subjects which should be explored in mention to human resources is leading manner. In an effectual leading state of affairs, the leader is a accelerator and retainer whose leading manner is support, recommending and authorization. While in an uneffective leading state of affairs, the leader is a pushover whose leading manner is stepping down and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and pass on that belief ; they are seeable and accessible ; they empower, increase engagement, support, portion information and move determination doing down into the organisation.

We recognize effectual leaders when we work with them or detect them. However many different ways exist for specifying who leaders are and when they are effectual. Dictionaries define taking as “ guiding and directing on a class ” . A leader is person with dominating authorization or influence. Research workers have developed many working definitions of leading. Harmonizing to Nahavandi ( 2009 ) leader is a individual who influence persons and groups within an organisation, helps them in set uping ends and ushers them toward accomplishment of those ends, thereby leting them to be effectual. Leadership is a map more than a function. Good leaders are made non born.

1.2 RESEARCH Question

Research Question is a statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied.

The research inquiry, which I am traveling to analyze is: How does the leading manner affect employees public presentation in the administration? The research will be based on the instance survey, which is supermarket. Sainsbury ‘s Nine Elms is a topographic point where I have been working for over 3 old ages. I have a contact with directors every twenty-four hours and what ‘s more I am familiar with different manners of leading. This experience helps me to explicate the undermentioned hypothesis: positive and accurate leading manner motivates people to good and effectual work. To happen an reply on my research inquiry and to corroborate my hypothesis, I will make some qualitative research. This type of research is designed to state the research worker how and why the things happen as they really do. It helps to accomplish an in-depth apprehension of a state of affairs.



Positive ambiance in the work topographic point is a really of import factor and has a large influence on employees occupation. This is why the manner how leaders and directors behave is so of import. Unfortunately my long-time observations prove that directors really frequently do non even recognize what sort of errors they do. They do non understand that their inappropriate manner of behavior, has an influence on people ‘s work and effectivity of the organisation. The purpose of this study, based on literature reappraisal, is to depict the most valuable and effectual leading manners. Furthermore the most negative manners will be considered, those which are non approved of by employees. Finally some interviews with Sainsbury ‘s Nine Elms employees will be made to garner their sentiments and verify my hypothesis.



Leadership manner is the mode and attack of supplying way, implementing programs, and actuating people. Lewin ( 1939 ) led a group of research workers to place different manners of leading. This early survey has been really influential and established three major leading manners: bossy, democratic, laissez-faire.

In the past several decennaries, there has been a important revolution in how the leading is defined by direction experts. Their attack has changed from a classical one to a really advanced, democratic attack. Although it was besides determined that some old thoughts were still good whereas some of the new 1s were non perfect. The key is to utilize different manners depending on each state of affairs so leaders have to near every instance in a different manner.


There are four primary leading manners, many of them we can happen within most concerns or organisations around the universe. These manners are:





Each of the leading styles has impact on employee public presentation in the company. There are short and long-run effects of each manner. For case, the important manner may bring forth great consequences in a short sum of clip. However, inordinate usage of authorization will diminish productiveness in the long-run. Peoples either acquire fed up and go forth or fall into a unease of hum-drum insistent undertakings without creativeness and invention. ( Sadler, 2003 )


The bossy leading manner is really frequently regarded as an old fashioned technique. It was a really popular manner among directors commanding subsidiaries and it is still used around the universe. This manner fundamentally comes natural to many leaders and brings many benefits, therefore many directors start to take utilizing this manner and seek to better it when prosecuting their ain leading development. This manner is used when leaders inform their employees what they want done and how they want it attained, without being advised by their followings. Furthermore when leaders are short on clip, they have all information needed to accomplish a end and employees are enthused, bossy still is besides common. Nevertheless it should be used on occasion and with large caution. Having a batch of clip and covering with extremely motivated workers it is better to utilize democratic manner.

Democratic STYLE

The democratic leading manner is besides named the participative manner due to the fact that it encourages one or more employees to be a portion of the determination devising procedure ( finding what to make and how to make it ) . Nevertheless it is the leader who makes the concluding determination and maintains authorization. Decidedly this manner strengthens the place of the leader which is respected by his employees. When information and information is divided between the leader and employees, democratic manner is used really frequently. Directors are non expected to be familiar with everything, this is why they employ knowing and competent employees. Concluding, utilizing this manner is of common benefit, because employees can go a portion of the squad and on the other manus leaders can do better determinations.

Individualistic STYLE

The individualistic leading manner is besides known as the “ hands-offA? manner. This manner is based on doing the determinations by employees whenever the leader let them. Even though, he is still responsible for all the determinations. This manner is used normally when employees are able to make up one’s mind what needs to be done and how. They besides should hold good analytical accomplishments. Leaderships merely set most of the precedences for their squad and split undertakings between employees. This manner should be used merely when leaders are confident about his people and swear them no affair what. It should non be used as a manner of faulting employees of made errors.


The bureaucratic leading follow the regulations strictly and warrant that staff follows processs accurately. In this sort of manner everything must be done harmonizing to the regulations or policy. This is a really appropriate manner for work affecting serious safety hazards ( such as working with heavy equipment, with toxic substances, or at unsafe highs ) or where big amounts of money are involved ( such as managing hard currency ) . If director is non capable of doing determination on his ain, he refers to the following degree above him or her. The function of the leader is really similar to a police officer.


There are a figure of different attacks or manners to leading and direction that are based on different premises and theories. The manner that persons use will be based on a combination of their beliefs, values and penchants, every bit good as the organisational civilization and norms which will promote some manners and discourage others.


A magnetic leading manner can look similar to transformational leading, because these leaders inspire tonss of enthusiasm in their squads and are really energetic in driving others frontward. However, magnetic leaders tend to believe more in themselves than in their squads. As a consequence this creates a hazard that a undertaking or even an full organisation might fall in if the leader leaves. In the eyes of the followings, success is straight connected to the presence of the magnetic leader. Therefore magnetic leading carries great duty and requires a long-run committedness from the leader. It is interesting to watch a magnetic leader ‘working the room ‘ as they move from individual to individual. They pay much attending to the individual they are speaking to at a peculiar minute, so this individual really frequently feels like a most of import individual in the universe. Charismatic leaders focus every bit good on scanning and reading their environment and are besides good at picking up the tempers and concerns of both persons and larger audiences. Then they will hone their actions and words to accommodate the state of affairs. ( Conger & A ; Kanungo, 1998 )


A Participative Leader, instead than taking bossy determinations, seeks to affect other people in the procedure, perchance including subsidiaries, equals and higher-ups. However, directors are still really of import, as they decide whether to give or deny control to their subsidiaries. Most participative activity can be observed within the immediate squad. The inquiry of how much independency others are given therefore may change on the director ‘s penchants and dispositions. A whole spectrum of engagement is possible, as in the tabular array below.

& lt ; Not participative

Highly participative & gt ;

Autocratic determination by leader

Leader proposes determination, listens to feedback, so decides

Team proposes determination, leader has concluding determination

Joint determination with squad as peers

Full deputation of determination to team

The degree of engagement may besides depend on the type of determination being made. Decisions on how to carry through ends may be extremely participative, whereas determinations during low-level public presentation ratings are more likely to be taken by the director


This manner of leading starts with the thought that squad members agree to obey their leader wholly when they accept a occupation. The term “ dealing ” means that normally the organisation pays the squad members in return for their difficult attempt and conformity. If they do non work every bit stated in the understanding, they might be “ punished ” by the leader. In this manner regulations are really clear and reward system is introduced for the hardest working subsidiaries. Furthermore, penalties are besides possible and formal systems of subject are rather common. The leader can give an chance for his squad members to hold an impact on their income. It happens when they work harder which cause greater productiveness. Alternatively, a transactional leader could pattern “ direction by exclusion ” – instead than honoring better work. In fact transactional leading is instead type of direction than an existent leading manner. It focus fundamentally on short-run undertaking and is non suited for a originative work.


Peoples with this leading manner are true leaders who inspire their squads invariably with a shared vision of the hereafter. While this leader ‘s enthusiasm is frequently passed onto the squad they can be supported by “ detail people. ” That ‘s why, in many organisations, both transactional and transformational leading are indispensable. The transactional leaders ( or directors ) guarantee that everyday work is done systematically, while the transformational leaders look after enterprises that add value. Working for a transformational leader can be a superb and uplifting experience. Whatever they do they set passion and energy into it. They care about squad and want them to win. Transformational leaders besides tend to see the large image, but non the inside informations. So if they do non hold people to pay attending on this degree of information, so they are normally doomed to neglect. Finally, transformational leaders, by definition, seek to transform and develop. When the organisation does non transform and cipher complain about his fact, so such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, nevertheless, given the right state of affairs they come into their ain and can be personally responsible for salvaging full companies. ( Burns, 1978 )


Highly task-oriented leaders focus merely on acquiring the occupation done, so as a consequence they can be rather bossy. They actively define the work and the functions demanded, put constructions in program and topographic point, so they organize it and eventually proctor. However, there is a danger connected with this manner, that it might endure the same drawbacks as bossy manner. Leaderships do non pay to much attending about their squad members as they focus merely on completing the undertaking.

Peoples – ORIENTED ( RELATIONS – ORIENTED ) Leadership

This is the antonym of task-oriented leading. In this manner leaders are wholly focused on forming, back uping, and developing the people in their squads. It might be compared to a participative manner as it has similar premises. Most valued are team cooperation and creativeness. In pattern, really frequently leaders tend to utilize both task-oriented and people-oriented manners of leading.


This term was created by Robert Greenleaf, describes a leader who is frequently non officially recognized as such. He says that true leading “ emerges from those whose primary motive is a deep desire to assist others. ” Servant leading is a really moral place, seting the wellbeing of the followings before other ends. When person, at any degree within an organisation, leads merely by run intoing the demands of the squad, he or she is described as a “ servant leader ” . In many ways, servant leading is a signifier of democratic leading, because the whole squad tends to be involved in determination devising. Supporters of the servant leading theoretical account urge it as an of import manner to travel in front in a universe where values are progressively of import and where servant leaders achieve power on the footing of their values and ideals. Others province that in competitory leading state of affairss, people who pattern servant leading can happen themselves left behind by leaders utilizing other leading manners. ( Greenleaf, 1977 )


J Sainsbury plc was founded in 1869 by John James and Mary Ann Sainsbury. Drury Lane was one of London ‘s poorest countries and the Sainsbury ‘s store rapidly became popular at that place for offering high-quality merchandises at low monetary values. Today Sainsbury ‘s is the UK ‘s longest standing and 3rd largest supermarket. Operates a sum of 872 shops consisting 537 supermarkets and 335 convenience shops, every bit good as Sainsbury ‘s Bank. Sainsbury ‘s employs over 160 000 co-workers and serves over 19 million clients a hebdomad.

The shop Sainsbury ‘s Nine Elms was unfastened in February 1982 with 100 employee and 3 sections. Within about 30 old ages the shop has changed a batch. Today the shop has 346 employees and 11 sections. Every section has its ain section director plus shop director and 3 DU shop directors. Most of the directors are male, merely 2 female and all of them between 26-45 old ages old. And every one of them represents different manner of leading. From really rigorous and bossy through undertaking oriented leading boulder clay wholly individualistic manner.

Leadership manner is really of import in a company or a house. This is because a leader ‘s occupation is to assist everyone e.g. the leader can assist workers in a company by developing them to better their accomplishments at work. Leadership manner inspires people to accomplish demanding goods. Leadership explains many different attacks that can be taken to be an effectual leader. Good leaders are made and non born. They develop themselves through a ne’er stoping procedure of self-study, instruction, preparation and experience.



There are two step research methods: quantitative and qualitative. Some research worker prefers to take a quantitative attack to turn to their research inquiry and design survey that involves roll uping quantitative informations and analyzing those utilizing statistical methods. Other chance is qualitative method, which involves roll uping qualitative informations and analyzing them by utilizing interpretive methods. ( Collis & A ; Hussey, 2009 )

For this undertaking the most suited method will be qualitative. Figure holla shows, how the qualitative research and research procedure should goes.

Figure 1: Qualitative Research and Research Process ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2008 )


Harmonizing to Cooper and Schindler ( 2008 ) qualitative techniques are used at both the informations aggregation and informations analysis phases of a research undertaking. This undertaking will be based on primary informations and inductive method. Three techniques will be used to roll up the informations: single interview, instance surveies and research observation.


The interview is the primary informations aggregation technique. They vary depending on the figure of people involved during the interview, the degree of construction, the propinquity of the interviewer to the Numberss of interviews conducted during the research. There are 3 ways of interviewing:

i?? unstructured interview- no specific inquiries or order of subject to be discussed.

i?? semi structured interview- starts with few specific inquiries and so extra inquiries are asked with mention to the replies from opening inquiries

i?? structured interview- particular, elaborate inquiries, usually with open-ending

Most of the qualitative research is made on unstructured or semi structured interview. It enables the interviewer to inquire extra inquiries during the interview to derive more information. Many interviews are made face-to-face, which increase the quality of the interview. This sort of interview is more valuable than an interview by phone or online, because it allows the interviewer to detect gestural behavior of the people.

It is really of import for the interviewer to hold at least a basic cognition about doing an interview. Knowing how to additions person ‘s trust and how to promote replying inquiries candidly is decidedly important. Normally the interviewer is responsible for bring forthing the interview, inquiries or subject to be discussed and what the order should be. The figure holla shows the hierarchal inquiring construction.

Figure 2: The interview Question Hierarchy ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2008 )

3. 2. 2 CASE STUDY

The instance survey ( instance history ) is a really important research methodological analysis that includes single and ( sometimes ) group interviews with record analysis and observation. Firstly research workers gain information from company booklets, one-year studies, magazines and newspapers articles, and so together with direct observation, they eventually combine it with interview informations from members. The purpose of this method is to obtain multiple positions of a individual administration. The instance survey should hold a instance which is the object of survey. It should hold the undermentioned features: a complex operation unit ; investigated in its natural context with a battalion of methods and be a modern-day one.

Yin ( 1993 ) has identified some specific types of instance surveies:

Exploratory instances are sometimes considered as a preliminary to societal research.

Explanatory instance surveies may be used for making causal probes.

Descriptive instances require a descriptive theory to be developed before get downing the undertaking.

Stake ( 1995 ) included three others instance surveies, which are:

Intrinsic instances – when the research worker has an involvement in the instance.

Instrumental instances – when the instance is used to understand more than what is obvious to the perceiver.

Corporate instances – when a group of instances is studied.

3. 2. 3 Observation

Observation involves looking and listening really carefully. It is really common that people observe each other, although they do non look for anything peculiar and do non detect any sensible information about their behavior. It is possible to separate different relationship between perceiver and participant, position from three positions:

Directness of Observation



Direct observation, when the perceiver is physically present and personally proctors what takes topographic point. In this sort of observation, it possible for the perceiver to react to certain facets of human behavior as they occur, hence this method is really flexible. Indirect observation, when the recording is done by mechanical, photographic or electronic agencies. In comparing to the direct observation, the indirect one is less flexible. But on the other manus lasting informations can be reanalysed many times so many different facets of an event can be included.

Another factor which affects relationship perceiver and participant is concealment. The inquiry is, whether the perceiver should uncover himself. From the psychological point of position, it might be damaging ( it has negative influence on the observation result ) because people who know that are being observed, do non act usually. On the other manus, concealed observation is a signifier of spying and the properness of this action must be reviewed carefully. The best scenario is to uncover that people are being observed but the aims and participant of involvement are hidden.

The last type of relationship is based on the observer engagement in the whole state of affairs while detecting. Participant observation frequently requires months or old ages of intensive work, due to the fact that research worker demands to go accepted as a natural portion of the civilization. By making this it is most likely that the observation will be of the natural phenomenon.

Besides roll uping informations visually by observation, we can besides utilize communicating. The figure below describes the conditions under which observation is an appropriate method for informations aggregation.

Figure 3: Choosing the Data Collection Method ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2008 )

Before get downing the observation, it is necessary to do a good program. Helpful might be happening the replies for this few of import inquiries:

WHO? Who do we desire to detect? Does a individual suit our standards?

WHAT? What do we desire to detect? What are we concerned about? What is the purpose of our observation? How long or what period of clip? How frequently ( day-to-day, few times a hebdomad ) ? How many hours?

WHEN? When do we desire get down our observation? Is at that place some specific period of clip ( for illustration Christmas clip ) ?

HOW? Will the informations be straight observed? How many people will be observe?

WHERE? Where does the observation take topographic point? The location of the observation?


The research methodological analysis of the present thesis proposal is influenced and structured by the research procedure ‘onion ‘ , which was developed and introduced by Saunders et Al. ( 2003 ) . The figure below illustrates the relationships between research doctrines, research methodological analysiss, informations aggregation methods, and more.

Figure 4: Research Process ‘ONION ‘

4.0 Decision

Concluding, so far in this study leading manners has been explored and exactly described. The influence of each leading manner on the employees has been investigated every bit good. In the methodological analysis portion, qualitative method has been discussed which will be used for the research. It will be based on three different methods which are: interview, instance survey and observation. Case survey of this study will be the topographic point of my employment which is Sainsbury ‘s Supermarket which besides has been briefly described.


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