Leadership and Managements Influence on effective schools

Leadership and direction have a major influence on bettering and keeping the fit environment and any other important elements for doing a good school. Most research workers consider that effectual leading is the most of import factor in making a good school. For illustration, Fulan ( 2003 ) quoted in Brighouse and Woods ( 2008 ) says, ‘leadership is to the current decennary what criterions were to the 1990s for those interested in large-scale reform, even when good implemented, can take us merely portion manner to large-scale reform. It is merely leading that can take us all the manner ‘ . So in this assignment there will be a reasonably wide account of the constructs of leading and direction and their important functions in making an effectual school. I will advert some illustrations of leaders I have met in some schools where I worked in Egypt.

Many research workers believe that successful leaders can pull off alter expeditiously in their schools to accomplish success and effectivity. They have an indispensable function in each one of the other indispensable factors of making the good school get downing from saying a vision for the present and the hereafter. I will mention briefly to the vision of instruction in Egypt. It is a national vision for accomplishing quality in Egyptian schools. Besides I will emphasize on the shared values among the school community and the importance of a fit clime from all facets in making a good school and the function of leading in this procedure. I will demo the important function of the quality of instruction and acquisition for bring forthing effectual instruction, in add-on to utilizing appraisal for larning instead than merely of larning.

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Another factor of a good school is the uninterrupted staff development including instructors and non-teachers for guaranting high single proficiency for every one in the school. Self-evaluation and critical reappraisal for persons and the whole school besides are really indispensable to guarantee high accomplishment and high quality instruction in the school. Furthermore, affecting parents and community is a important constituent of the successful school. It can lend to back up and better the school. All of these elements if accomplished co-coordinately and efficaciously by effectual leaders, there will be an environment in which effectual instruction can boom the good school.

What is a good school and what is the function of leading and direction in doing it successful?

Specifying the good school can non be from one position, high accomplishment for illustration. A good school is the school that, in add-on to accomplishing first-class consequences, has a high repute. It is a beautiful and happy school. Every student and member of staff likes it, where every organic structure finds the safe and fit clime to larn or work. It prepares students to be knowing and utile citizens in the hereafter for themselves and for the society. In this sense, Higham, Hopkins and Matthews, ( 2009 ) province ;

Ask schools about the intent of instruction and about all will speak about carry throughing each pupil ‘s possible. Ask how and most will put out a vision of a healthy mix of cognition, accomplishments and makings, the wellbeing of every kid and their readying for big life.

So successful school attempts to accomplish high quality instruction for students to hold a good acquisition and derive the needed cognition and accomplishments. This enables them to acquire good places and have a nice life in the hereafter. Then, they will be good for the whole community.

There are chief factors must be provided and integrated together to make the successful school. The most of import of them is the effectual leading and direction, which plays the major function in this procedure.

Leadership and direction in schools

Leadership and direction in schools have been defined in assorted ways by many research workers. They handled them from positions of the differences between them. For illustration, one definition by Team Technology ( 1995 ) states that, ‘Leadership is saying a new vision for an administration and a leader is the caput for that new way, while direction directs people and resources in this administration harmonizing to regulations and ordinances that have already been established ‘ .

So to demo the difference between leading and direction, we should see what may go on when we have one without the other. If there is a leading without direction, this will set up a vision that the members of the school follow without gaining to what extent it will be fulfilled, so they will fight to do it win. While, if there is a direction without leading, it will direct resources to guarantee that all undertakings are done harmonizing to programs and ordinances. But when leading and direction are integrated together, the resources will be managed good for accomplishing the stated vision. ( Team Technology, 1995 ) .

This position is acceptable because in schools, the headteacher should non be merely a director who merely manages resources and applies regulations. He should be a leader who states a vision for the school, inspires and motivates others, feats every possible resource and involves his directors for carry throughing this vision.

Another definition, by Maurik ( 2001 ) quoted in Brighouse and Woods ( 2008 ) . He argues that, ‘there is a difference between leading and direction. Leadership is for the spirit, compounded of personality and vision ; its pattern is an art, direction is of the head, a affair of accurate computation ; its pattern is a scientific discipline. Directors are necessary ; leaders are indispensable ‘ . This definition, besides considers that effectual leaders province a vision for the school and direct the manner for accomplishing it on the land. While directors manage resources to carry through this declared vision. So, evidently there are some differences between the two constructs in peculiar characteristics ; nevertheless both of them are really of import in running schools. As a consequence they should complement each other and combined together for making the good school.

Effective leading and direction are considered the most cardinal constituent in the effectivity of schools and instruction in general. But some research workers believe that leading relies on personal endowments and accomplishments of leaders. ( Bennet, Crawford and Cartwright, 2003 ) . This position is reasonably accepted because it is thought by many people that most success is created by gifted leaders who use their first-class accomplishments in pull offing their administrations. They exploit any human or material resource expeditiously for accomplishing effectivity and success.

On the other manus, there are other research workers believe that leading is a undertaking in the institutional environment, which is possibly done by a certain member or more in the administration. So leading is considered a flexible construct ; an organizational quality, which depends on single experience, or on an person ‘s formal place in the administration. ( Bennet et al, 2003 ) .

Effective leading is really important in school. It can be seen evidently across ages that great leaders made the history. They changed our lives positively in different Fieldss. This is the same thing in instruction, successful leaders in educational administrations, specifically in schools ; take their schools to success. Effective leader takes on his shoulder the load of accomplishing success, and feels this is his mission and duty. So such a leader devotes himself for his vision. He is sincere, trusted and strong, and does non merely seek private benefits or personal glorification.

Developing leading and direction

It is indispensable for understanding institutional effectivity to appreciate the difference between leading and direction and how they are developed. Management is seen merely as making things right and leading as making the right things. Effective leader can unite the twosome groups of accomplishments suitably in hard state of affairss. Besides he has the endowments that enable him to pull off and organize himself efficaciously. This is the footing for his effectivity as a leader. The accomplishments can be learned if the leader is motivated and prepared to give clip to find and do important alterations in his behavior. ( DfEE, 2000 ) .

There are different manners of leading, leaders can utilize and vary between them harmonizing to the state of affairs to accomplish success, such as ; bossy leading, bureaucratic leading, magnetic leading, democratic leading, individualistic leading, people-oriented leading, servant leading, task-oriented leading, transactional leading and transformational leading. ( Mind Tools, 2009 ) . I will briefly compare the last two of them and their impact on making a good school.

Transactional and transformational leading

As mentioned earlier there are many manners of leading ; some of them are preferable and more effectual than others in running schools. For case, Bear, Crawwell and Millikan ( 1991 ) believe that the educational leading should be transformational instead than transactional. Leadership is transformational and democratic in many illustrations, viz. , there is a simple replace of one thing for another, for illustration, parents and students happy in the instance of a caput and teaching staff. The transformational leader responds to the members ‘ demands, nevertheless, he searches for possible endowments and motivations in those members, attempts to fulfill higher demands and engages them in the procedure of leading.

The transformational leader is democratic in his direction. He concentrates on human resources and accomplishing the long-run vision of the school by pull offing all possible resources and attempts for this end. He leads the way to implement success. He is flexible and engages all the staff in the procedure of decision-making, while the transactional leader is an bossy director. He is obstinate and rigorous in using regulations and merely holding all the undertakings done on clip. His vision is limited and he does non promote others to portion in doing determinations.

Most of instructors prefer the democratic leading because it encourages cooperation, regard and self-pride among the staff. It makes every member make his best for accomplishing high public presentation and excellence in the school. This is because every person feels that success is the duty of all as a consequence of being engaged in the procedure of decision-making by the democratic leader.

There is another type of leading called distributed leading. It involves much democracy and sharing sentiments in the procedure of work outing jobs, decision-making and pull offing the school. It is defined as a type of concerted leading, where instructors who collaborate together can develop their experience. So the duty is non on one merely, but it is distributed on all the school community. The cardinal characteristic of distributed leading is the cooperation and squad work, where instructor leaders can join forces with other instructors to accomplish the coveted aims. So distributed leading may lend to better and develop the school as internal authorization for alteration and effectivity. ( Harries, 2004 ) .

I remember when I was a pupil in the secondary phase in Egypt, the school so was managed by a really strong headteacher. I mean a leader non merely a headteacher. He had a really strong personality, as the leader should be. Every one ; a instructor, a non-teacher, a pupil or a parent respected him. He, in fact, was strict in using regulations, but this was a sort of changing his manner of leading harmonizing to the current state of affairs. However, he was a democratic leader in general. He was affecting instructors and parents in doing determinations. He had valuable aims for his vision. He wanted the school to be competitory to other celebrated successful schools. He wanted pupils, instructors and all the staff to love the school. It was truly to far extent a successful school. But after few old ages when I left this phase, other headteachers managed that school, but they were instead weak leaders as a consequence the school bit by bit missed its celebrity and no longer became successful as it was earlier. So the leader should ever put the vision for others to follow after him.

Another illustration from my experience in instruction, I worked in two schools, the first 1 was a in-between school, where I worked for one twelvemonth. It was a little rural school of 150 students. The headteacher was a weak and bureaucratic leader ; he wanted to hold all the occupations done as regular every twenty-four hours. However he was a good adult male, but because the school was an afternoon-period, he was merely remaining in the school for the first two periods. Then he was go forthing the school allowing the oldest instructor run it the remainder of the twenty-four hours. In fact, he was non an active or effectual leader. As a consequence that oldest instructor was considered the existent headteacher of the school, although he was non much respected by the staff. This led to that the school was non a good 1. So there were struggles among the staff and the headteacher, alternatively of get the better ofing this, he was seeking to allow the members of the staff difference with each other to counterbalance his failing in personality and pull offing the school. Therefore I tried to go forth this school and travel to another 1.

In the following school, where I worked, there was a headteacher, in fact he had a strong personality and a good administrative experience. He was much more a director than a leader. He tried as a bureaucratic leader to follow regulations, modus operandis and to hold all undertakings done as usual. But on the other manus, it was thought by many of the staff members that he was non really wise in running fiscal affairs. The school was a productive 1, as it was a proficient industrial school. It had a section for ready- made apparels, which was bring forthing merchandises and exposing them for sale. Here was the job, where every twelvemonth the budget, the disbursals and the incomes were non spent in a proper manner for bettering and developing the edifices and facilitates of the school. So the caput must be really wise and intelligent in his direction and seeks the general benefit non merely his private 1.

The function of leaders in pull offing alteration for bettering schools

It is thought by many research workers that alteration is inevitable. It must go on across clip because every thing is mutable in the universe. Every thing grows and develops. There are ever new in every field. So all administrations, including schools, should expect uninterrupted alteration and fix to get by with it. Effective leaders manage alteration to use from it and accomplish development and betterment for their schools.

Change does non happen all of a sudden. But it may develop from minor and accrued alterations to major 1s. It besides needs clip to be fulfilled. So schools will develop to be future schools, and to be different things, but they will be related to today ‘s schools. Here the alteration takes topographic point. Hence, it is considered a turning alteration that really likely will predominate in the hereafter. ( Leithwood, Jantzi and Steinback, 1999 ) .

Change has some facets in schools and instruction, Brighouse and Woods ( 2008 ) for illustration argue that while sing libraries was non easy in the yesteryear, the cyberspace now is available for every organic structure to acquire information and cognition easy. The instructor is no longer the lone supplier of cognition. Now he is a facilitator and developer of students ‘ acquisition, accomplishments and values. So the instructor today knows that he should better his patterns.

Therefore, schools change on a regular basis, get bying with world in order to better and accomplish success and effectivity. But effectual leaders should comprehend what needs to be changed and why. Beerel ( 2009 ) stresses this, when she states that ; ‘the alteration procedure begins with why and what needs to alter and continues right to the executings and execution of alteration ‘ . School leaders, accordingly, should be really careful when pull offing alteration, particularly complex 1s. They should understand the new alterations and choose the best from them, they, so prosecute the whole school community to pull off and accommodate to the new facets of alteration.

Changes in a school should non belie with its vision and way. Preedy, Glatter and Wise ( 2003 ) emphasis this stating that leaders must be effectual in pull offing complex alteration. They should do a balance between the external alterations and the criterions and ends of the school. Therefore, this requires a strategic overview of the way of the school, and so leaders can be after the hereafter of the school in the most appropriate and effectual method.

Across ages, there are ever necessary major alterations in the instruction system. There are, and still will be, newer policies, course of studies, methodological analysiss, or educational theories. That is, in add-on to scientific and technological developments, this requires effectual leaders who are able to cover with alterations and do usage of them efficaciously. Such alterations, as Whitaker ( 1993 ) provinces ; may do confusion in the educational system. So, leading in schools is really of import, where the leaders are capable of developing the educational experience. They can animate and actuate members of the school community to increase their abilities to set and accommodate to new alterations and conditions. When this happens expeditiously, so the school will be able to accomplish development and betterment in the hereafter.

The clear vision and shared values

First of all, effectual leaders reflect and province a vision for the school for the hereafter. They ever try to remind all the staff about this vision in the meetings and assemblies. Furthermore, they involve instructors, non-teachers, senior students and parents in saying and updating the vision. ( Brighouse, 2006 ) . This ensures a complete understanding. Then all of those feel that they portion in the procedure of decision-making from the beginning. As a consequence all members in the school do their best to accomplish the declared vision and the mission of the school.

The school community has shared values, where every one considers that success is non merely the leader ‘s duty, but it is the duty of all. The school states a system for utilizing formative and self- appraisal for larning non merely of larning. Furthermore, the school makes certain that all students realise that instruction is a womb-to-tomb and uninterrupted. The successful leader is able to allow all the school community appreciates these values and relates them to the mission statement. Then, every one in the school seeks the highest degrees of accomplishment and betterment for all. For students, they know good that there are no boundary lines for their attempts. In the school, there is ever common regard among all staff and students. Every one is involved in the accomplishment of others and in the full success of the school. All members of the school community exert their attempts for the uninterrupted acquisition for themselves and for others. The effectual leader facilitates these ends and supports love of acquisition, accomplishment and success. ( Brighouse, 2006 ) .

In Egypt, in fact, the vision for instruction and all schools in general, is stated by governments. For case, in the usher of ‘the Quality of Egyptian Schools ‘ , the Egyptian Ministry of Education declares that ;

the vision of Pre-University Education as ; it is up to the Ministry of Education to guarantee high quality instruction for all ; as one of the cardinal human rights, within a decentralized system based on community engagement. And that the instruction in Egypt should be a pioneering theoretical account in the part, working on fixing citizens for the society of cognition under a new societal contract based on democracy, justness and a lasting transition for the hereafter. Therefore, all elements of the input in the educational procedure should organize and use efficaciously to make the end product of extremely competitory ability at the local, regional and planetary degrees while continuing the changeless values of the state.

( Suleiman and Abdel-Aziz, 2006 ) .

This vision statement is absorbing, but it is merely at the theoretical degree. How can it be achieved on the land? Today in Egypt, the bulk think that world is non satisfactory. The reform of instruction and accomplishing such a vision needs extremist alterations from the top, in leaders, policies, course of studies and methodological analysiss. However, the undertaking of Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education is a new signifier of this reform. It has already begun to be achieved on the land in many schools but it needs clip, effectual and strong leaders to pull off alteration and resources to carry through the coveted ends and generalizing the quality in all Egyptian schools.

Fit clime in schools

Making a fit clime is really of import for the success of a school. There are many facets of a fit clime ; physical, ocular, aural and behavioral facets. First of all the school should be in a quiet country far from noise and crowd but besides non far from students and staff ‘s abodes. The edifices should be well-organised and beautiful from inside and outside. There should be adequate Numberss of broad schoolrooms of maximal 20 students, equipped with all necessary chairs, desks, closets, hangers and all ICT tools for easing instruction and acquisition. There should be broad corridors and communal countries for the smooth of motion in add-on to assembly suites for meetings and a little theater for shows and hounoring jubilations.

All of dining suites, sufficient suites for instructors and staff, a large hall for response and waiting country are necessary. Besides there should be a large library with many Personal computers and quiet suites for survey. That is in add-on to many IT suites for survey and research. The scientific discipline lab should be provided with all modern equipments and contraptions for experiments. Nice toilets are really of import. There should be plentifulness of them in each floor. The resort areas should be huge and have a batch of green pitches and tribunals for different athleticss. Wall shows excessively are of import. They should include clip tabular arraies, charts and maps of school edifices and marks for waies. Posters besides should demo the school policies and criterions about order and day-to-day modus operandis for both staff and students. Models of students ‘ plants and hourning boards should be displayed as good.

Unfortunately, a batch of these things are missing in Egyptian schools because of the deficit of resources and funding which is a job for many developing states except in private and some experimental schools where these installations are reasonably provided because a batch of fees are charged from students.

Here, comes the function of the leader. He must do usage of every penny from the budget. He should seek to do, if needed, one-year betterments or reforms in the school edifices. He can confer with members of the staff and do precedences of the pressing demands. The good leader is honorable and trusted. Besides he is really efficient and practical in covering with fiscal affairs. But the leader may non happen sufficient resources as in most of Egyptian schools because of, as mentioned earlier, the deficit of budgets. However, the intelligent leader can believe of extra resources. He might affect staff, students and parents in this affair. Some headteachers in Egypt ask for volunteering contributions and parts from rich parents or charity societies. Others may do a little canteen inside the school and name one member from the staff to run it as an extra undertaking. It sells nutrients, drinks and letter paper for staff and students. Then the incomes contribute to raise the budget of the school

Brighouse and Woods ( 2008 ) argue that the aural clime is really of import in the school, where schoolrooms and most of countries should be carpeted, unagitated music are played during lunch hr by either students or utilizing a DJ. But lunch hours are non available in most of Egyptian schools. There is merely a interruption and merely in kindergartens and some primary schools, biscuits are distributed to students in a limited clip.

For the behavior of both staff and students, as discussed earlier, the spirit of common regard among staff and students should predominate in the school. There should be something like general papers in the school, which stated by the leader with the aid of his deputies and senior instructors. All of staff excessively should portion with their positions in this procedure. This papers determines the regulations, the ethos, the duties and the relationships in the school. ( Brighouse, 2006 ) . It should be agreed with by all the staff, where every member Acts of the Apostless and reacts harmonizing to these shared values. Cooperation and support should be the common behavior among the school community. The headteacher or the leader should let all members of the staff to portion their sentiments in the procedure of doing determinations. Besides a system of wagess and countenances for both staff and students demands to be shown and known by every one. Now it can said that all these facets of a fit clime in the school should be integrated together by effectual leader and his directors to accomplish excellence in the procedure of instruction and doing the school a successful 1. Besides Brighouse and Woods, ( 2008 ) argue that ;

School clime is more than the aural or the ocular. It is caught in the corridors ; in the manner people behave one to another, in doors that are held unfastened or closed heedlessly in your face, in grownups and members of the staff who have the clip for a snatched smiling or a confab with ephemeral pupils or base on balls unblinking or un-recognising a fellow member of the community.

Furthermore, it is thought that the most of import thing in the clime of the school is that every one, either from staff or students should experience that the school is one incorporate organic structure, where every one feels regard and safety in it. Then every organic structure will see that the success of the school is his or her duty. In the fit environment students should be dealt with good and involved in all the activities of the school because they are our wealth. All attempt to do the good school for them to accomplish success and have effectual instruction.

Pull offing instruction, larning and appraisal

All of instruction, larning and appraisal have a great influence on the effectivity of the educational procedure. They are the footing of the day-to-day life of the school. If they are managed expeditiously by leaders and all staff, they will lend to do a good school and accomplish first-class instruction. Brighouse ( 2006 ) stresses the importance of these factors saying that ; ‘at the bosom of any truly successful school is learning, which leads to larning. Ultimately, after the successful appraisal of work by the instructor, it enables the students to measure their ain work, as they become progressively independent ‘ .

Effective instruction is really of import in schools because it leads to effectual acquisition. Consequently, this will ensue in high accomplishment for students, which is considered a major factor of the good school. Where, ‘a focal point on accomplishment for every student is likely the most valuable property of a high executing school ‘ . ( Taylor and Ryan, 2005 ) . So effectual leaders should guarantee good instruction in their schools. This can be achieved if foremost, they are every bit repetitive as possible on naming good qualified instructors in the school. Then, they should ever promote and back up instructors to better their patterns by uninterrupted professional development. Leaderships can inscribe them in preparation and professional development programmes.

There are a batch for instructors to heighten their instruction, for illustration Brighouse ( 2006 ) argues that instructors should ever speak about learning. They should detect each others. They besides need to be after, organize and measure their patterns. Teachers can even learn each others for increasing their experience and bettering their instruction.

Effective leader besides should hold the ability to pull and retain good instructors. This can be achieved by supplying learning helpers and back uping staff to help adept instructors in making day-to-day modus operandis such as ; registering attending, run offing, taging, siting students or working with groups of students and low attainers. This provides more clip and attempt for instructors to learn better and to be retained in the school. ( Taylor and Ryan, 2005 ) .

Teachers should ever utilize effectual methods and schemes in learning such as ; explicating, patterning, oppugning, role-playing and stating narratives. They should change among these schemes. They should utilize ICT tools for heightening both of their instruction and students ‘ acquisition. In my instruction, for illustration I ever try to better my patterns by over readying ; good lesson planning and farther readings. Furthermore, I normally talk with my co-workers about our instruction, what and how to learn and how to cover with certain or debatable state of affairss in schoolrooms. I sometimes inquire some co-workers to detect them during their instruction. Besides, when a supervisor or a senior instructor observes me, I ask them for provender back and recommendations to better my instruction.

When effectual instruction, suited methods and a good clime are provided by effectual leader and his directors and instructors in the school, so, there will be effectual acquisition. Dimmock ( 1993 ) confirms this stating that ; ‘it is suggested that four sets of factors exert a strong influence on pupil acquisition: the method by which pupils are expected to larn ; the quality of instruction ; a supportive acquisition clime ; and a quality curriculum… . ‘ So pupils need good instruction, good course of studies and a safe and fit environment to larn good.

Assessment is another important factor in the educational system which can hold a strong influence on the effectivity of schools. Assessment should be for larning non merely of larning. ( Brighouse and Woods, 2008 ) . It should non be limited on taging or scaling of formal scrutinies. There should be a policy of appraisal in the school stated by the leader and senior staff members but it does non belie with the formal national standards for measuring students ‘ public presentation and accomplishment.

There should be a assortment of assessment tools such as ; students assess themselves, by for illustration, comparing their work with the instructor ‘s theoretical account. They can measure their advancement by comparing their present acquisition and public presentation with the declared criterions of accomplishment. Peer -assessment is besides a good tool for students to measure each other ‘s public presentation and advancement.

Formative and summational appraisals should be used and integrated together to measure students. Formative appraisals are uninterrupted appraisals during instruction and acquisition. They include assorted ways such as ; observations, inquiries, treatments and portfolios. They are used to look into students ‘ apprehension and give feedback for instructors about their effectivity in learning. This enables them to supervise students ‘ acquisition and better their instruction patterns every bit good. Additionally, formative appraisals provide students with feedback about their public presentation and advancement. This besides enables them to heighten their acquisition.

Summational appraisals are indispensable excessively for formal appraisal of students ‘ accomplishment. They normally are in the signifier of province scrutinies. They, in combination with informal appraisals, aid in measuring the public presentation of the school. This assists it in uninterrupted development and betterment. Besides, Brighouse ( 2006 ) states that appraisal should be for larning and it is chiefly taging students ‘ work which has many signifiers such as ; taging by equals, ego marker, by computing machines, by instructors or by support staff. These appraisals give feedback and studies for students themselves and for parents every bit good to cognize their kids ‘s advancement. Overall, formal and informal appraisals of public presentation and accomplishment are really of import in heightening students ‘ acquisition and increasing the effectivity of schools.

Continuing professional development

Continuing professional development for both instructors and non- instructors is really of import in heightening their public presentation and experience. This contributes to better the effectivity of students ‘ acquisition and high accomplishment. Therefore, school leaders should promote, non merely instructors but support staff every bit good, to develop themselves continuously. Teachers should develop their instruction and accomplishments separately by farther readings, survey and research devising usage of the cyberspace and specialised books and researches. This develops their cognition, information and accomplishments.

On the other side, school leaders, collaborating with governments, should supply developing programmes and workshops for instructors and support staff. They may do awards and inducements for promoting all to fall in these programmes. Here, Dimmock ( 1993 ) argues that effectual school demands to develop uninterrupted professional development based on its vision and supported by available resources. Dimmock ( 1993 ) adds that the staff should portion in taking the professional development activities. And for those who are loath to prosecute in preparation programmes, they should be obliged to go to workshops to portion information after the terminal of these programmes.

Successful leaders ever do their best in making a desire and energy in the staff members to be uninterrupted scholars and develop their professionalism and competency. They besides try to larn leading at all degrees and portion their experiences together. All of these contribute to bettering the public presentation and the success of school. ( Brighouse and Woods, 2008 ) .

In Egypt now there are many professional development programmes such as ; the preparation programme for heightening instruction. This programme includes both instructors and support staff like ; bibliothecs and societal workers. They learn new course of studies, methodological analysiss and utilizing ICT tools for illustration. There are besides classs for instructors in the Centres of picture conferences for about the same intents. These preparations are led by educational experts, professors or senior supervisors. I one time attended a picture conference preparation of new English course of study for the preparatory first twelvemonth. It was truly utile for my pattern. Besides, there are intensive ECDL preparation programmes for all instructors and non-teachers. They have become obligatory for new appliers for learning occupations. Finally, the missions of Egyptian instructors have being sent to UK, France and USA for many old ages. All of these aid in the uninterrupted professional development of Egyptian instructors.

Self-evaluation and critical reappraisal of the school

Many research workers have stressed the importance of school-self rating in its betterment and success. It is defined merely by Scheerens’defintion ( 2002 ) ; ‘…as the type of internal school rating where the professionals that carry out the programme or nucleus service of administration ( i.e. instructors and headteachers ) carry out the rating in their ain administration ( i.e. the school ) . So school leaders and the whole school community evaluate the public presentation of the school. This rating includes students ‘ accomplishment, instructors and non-teachers ‘ public presentation and the advancement of the whole school harmonizing to its stated mission and the national criterions of instruction. Good school leaders make their schools take the duty for reflecting critically on their public presentation. Then they have self-accountability of heightening students ‘ instruction. Therefore, self-evaluation aids in the procedure of school development and betterment. ( Brighouse and Woods, 2008 ) . (

Good leaders engage all instructors, support staff, students and parents in measuring the school. That is in add-on to formal rating by specialized governments. The information about school strengths and failings are collected from them and analysed to be used for accomplishing the school betterment. ( TCfCSRI, 2008 ) . This thought is non available in Egyptian schools now because most rating is conducted by specialized formal commissions of supervisors and inspectors. So it is hoped to hold self-evaluation of these schools to accomplish uninterrupted internal betterment of the school in add-on to external one by governments.

Parents and community engagement

Involving parents in schools is of import in bettering their kids ‘s acquisition. So good leaders should ever do their schools have partnership with households in all different ways because prosecuting them in students ‘ acquisition has a great influence on their accomplishment. ( TCfCSRI, 2008 ) . Good schools can prosecute parents in assorted ways. They involve them in school activities and events. They engage them in programmes within schools to develop them how to supply a safe place clime and how to back up their kids in their acquisition and prep. Schools besides engage parents in their kids ‘s acquisition by directing them intelligence letters and studies about their public presentation to follow their advancement. ( Brighouse and Woods, 2008 ) .

Good leaders engage parents as stakeholders from the beginning of saying a vision for the school. Further, they engage them in the procedure of self-evaluation of the school. Parents besides should be invited in school meetings and award jubilations to portion in the school life and discourse their kids ‘s accomplishment continuously. In Egyptian schools, parents participate in school life in the meetings of parents ‘ council in schools. In these meetings with the headteacher and his deputies and senior instructors, they discuss some jobs in the school particularly fiscal 1s and how to work out them. Parents may donate for schools as aid in increasing their resources.

For community battle in schools, TCfCSRI ( 2008 ) states that ; ‘community engagement in a school can supply the school with outside support_ both in footings of community good will and resources. ‘ so Good leaders should let local community to prosecute in their schools to supply support and external reappraisal for them. Besides Brighouse and Woods ( 2008 ) argue that headteachers should hold relationships with local bureaus and governors to assist in planning development, reexamining and bettering schools.

In Egypt, there are some relationships between schools and some local concerns and companies. These schools, in fact are proficient and industrial schools, so they are productive and may join forces with local bureaus in exposing and selling their merchandises. On the other manus there are some immense architecture companies set up their ain proficient schools to acquire well-trained and qualified workers and employee. However, community engagement now still is non satisfactory. So it is hopefully to be wider for developing and bettering schools to accomplish success and effectivity.


In decision, as discussed in this essay, leading and direction have a great function in making a good school. The influence of both has been tackled by many research workers across clip. It was found that leading and direction are the secret in accomplishing effectivity in schools because effectual leaders and their directors have the most of import function in all factors of the successful school. Leaderships province the school vision and directors manage resources efficaciously to implement it. They besides manage alterations to better the school. Furthermore, good leaders provide the school with a fit clime visually, aurally and behaviourally for guaranting effectual instruction.

Teaching, larning and appraisal every bit good are cardinal in the success of the school ; therefore successful leaders strive to supply good instruction, course of studies, methodological analysiss and a fit environment for students to acquire effectual acquisition and high accomplishment. They besides province a system for utilizing formal and informal appraisals for students ‘ public presentation. Leadership and direction excessively can play a important function in promoting and prolonging uninterrupted professional development for instructors and all the staff for heightening instruction. Excellent leaders use school self-evaluation and prosecute all the staff, parents and students in this procedure to better their schools efficaciously. Finally they benefit from the function of parents and community in back uping schools and students ‘ acquisition. All of these factors contribute to do a good school where instruction can boom.

So all of these elements, which we have learned from our seminars and readings, gave us complete ideas of how a good school should be and the function of leading and direction in each component. Therefore, we, as instructors, can utilize this valuable cognition for doing positive alteration in our schools in Egypt. But if there are troubles in making this, we can get down with ourselves by bettering our patterns and supplying our schoolrooms with a fit environment for effectual acquisition. Besides we may seek to be teacher leaders utilizing our experience to back up our co-workers to heighten their instruction. We besides can use what we have learned about effectual leading and direction when we reach higher places as headteachers to do alteration and reform in our schools. In add-on we may inscribe in farther preparation programmes of leading and direction and promote all instructors to hold the same chances to fix coevalss of good leaders.



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