1. BEHAVIOURISM- BF SKINNER ( 1904-1990 )
B. F Skinner proposed this theory as an account for Language acquisition in homo. B. F SKINNER’S full system is based on operant conditioning ( learning’s a map of alteration in open behavior ) A kid acquires verbal behaviour when comparatively plain voices. selectively strengthened. bit by bit assume signifiers which produce appropriate effects in a given verbal community” ( Skinner 31 ) Restrictions in Behaviorism
Language is based on a set of constructions or regulations. which could non be worked out merely by copying single vocalizations Children are frequently unable to reiterate what an grownup says
Noam Chomsky says on Behaviorism
Whatever ‘behaviorism’ may hold served in the yesteryear. it has become nil more than a set of arbitrary limitations on ‘legitimate’ theory building. . . the sort of rational bonds that physical scientists would certainly non digest and that condemns any rational chase to insignificance. ” ( Bjork. 1993. p. 204 ) 2. Cognitive Theory- JEAN WILLIAM FRITZ PIAGET ( 1896-980 )
The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget placed acquisition of linguistic communication within the context of a child’s mental or cognitive development. Language is merely one facet of a child’s overall rational development.
3. INNATENESS- Noam Chomsky ( 1928-Present )
Harmonizing to Noam Chomsky. the mechanism of linguistic communication acquisition formulates from unconditioned procedures. This theory is evidenced by kids who live in the same lingual community without a overplus of different experiences who arrive at comparable grammars. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR ( U. G. )
“Children are equipped with an unconditioned templet or design for linguistic communication and this design aids the kid in the undertaking of building a grammar for their linguistic communication. ” This is known as “Innateness Hypothesis. ”
The UG does non hold the existent regulations of each linguistic communication but it has PRINCIPLES & A ; PARAMETERS. The regulations of linguistic communication are derived from the PRINCIPLES & A ; PARAMETERS. Principles: cosmopolitan basic characteristics of Grammar e. g. . Nouns. Verbs & A ; Structure Dependency etc. Parameters: the fluctuation across linguistic communication that determines one or more facets of Grammar e. g. Pro. Drop and Head Direction. The Parameters are set during Language Acquisition.
UG is hidden unknown someplace in the encephalon.
Chomsky therefore proposes that “all kids portion the same internal restraints which characterize narrowly the grammar they are traveling to build. ” ( Chomsky. 1977. p. 98 ) NOAM CHOMSKY: ( 1983 ) “Language Development should be described as linguistic communication growing because the linguistic communication organ merely grows like
any other organic structure organ ( in the encephalon ) . 4. Jerome Bruner— Interactionist. ( 1915–Present )
“The linguistic communication behavior of grownups when speaking to kids ( known by several names by most easy referred to as child-directed address or CDS ) is specially adapted to back up the acquisition procedure. This support is frequently described to as scaffolding for the child’s linguistic communication acquisition. Bruner besides coined the term Language Acquisition Support System or LASS in response to Chomsky’s LAD. He is of the position that while Chomsky suggests a LAD. there must besides be a Language Acquisition Support System or LASS. He is mentioning to the household and the societal environment of the kid in which he interacts and acquires linguistic communication. THEORY OF BRUNER ( Social Interaction )
Bruner is one of the establishing male parents of Constructivist Theory. “Learners construct new thoughts and constructs based upon their bing cognition. ” – Learning goes on and is an active procedure.
If we look at the child’s early acquisition environment we can see how: A CHILD INTERACTS WITH THE ADULTS AROUND HIMHER.
CONSTANT & A ; CONTINUAL CHANCES ARE PROVIDED TO THE CHILD TO ACUIRE HISHER MOTHER TONGUE. PARENTS & A ; ADULTS PROVIDE A LEARNIG ENIRONMENT TO THE CHILD.
In 1991. Bruner published an article “Critical Inquiry” entitled “The Narrative Construction of Reality. ” In this article. he argued: “the head structures its sense of world utilizing mediation through “cultural merchandises. like linguistic communication and other symbolic systems“ . He focuses on the thought of narrative as one of these cultural merchandises. Bruner’s Concepts have been explained further by John McNamara ( a linguist ) : “Children. instead than holding an in-built linguistic communication device. have an innate capacity to read intending into societal state of affairss. It is this capacity that makes them capable of understanding linguistic communication. and hence larning it with easiness. instead than an LAD. ”
BEHAVIOURISM focuses on linguistic communication larning largely by societal and environmental interaction and conditioning & A ; support of BEHAVIOUR whereas Mentalism focuses chiefly on linguistic communication acquisition by concealed MENTAL ABILITY. Piaget focuses on the Cognitive. Conceptual & A ; Intellectual Ability of kids as utile in Language AcquisitionLearning and focal points on “Cognitivism” . Whereas Bruner focuses chiefly on linguistic communication learningacquisition by societal interaction and instructions of the attention giverscare takers of the kid or “Social Interaction. ”