This essay will research the instance survey of Ryan, foremost, looking into how the deficiency of instruction can impact a individual when seeking to get down a calling. Second, researching into how going involved with drugs can take to an dependence. Furthermore, how these dependences can hold an impact on a individual ‘s behavior and emotional control, followed by the different drug intervention programmes that are available for wrongdoers while they are in prison. Third, looking into how both of these issues can take to being stateless and ask into what an wrongdoer can make while in prison to seek and derive or maintain adjustment for when they are released. Finally, reasoning how each of these issues can hold a know aparting consequence on a individual, with a background such as Ryan ‘s.
‘Employment is believed to cut down piquing by a 3rd and a half, nevertheless more than half of wrongdoers do non hold a occupation ‘ ( Local Government Association ( LGA ) , 2006 ) . This seems to be the issue with Ryan, as at an early age Ryan got involved with the incorrect group of friends, and spent most of his clip at his local arcade instead than being at school. At merely 15 old ages old he left school early go forthing him with no makings, which harmonizing to a study by the Ministry of Justice ( 2008 ) seems to be a reoccurring state of affairs as they discovered that 89 % of males left school aged 15 before scrutinies and that and that 52 % of male grownups have no makings. From holding no makings and a deficiency of accomplishments Ryan struggled in his daubing class, falling behind to the point where he left, hence still go forthing him with no makings, no accomplishments and no occupation. This can besides be referred to the Ministry of Justice study ( 2008 ) where they found that half of all wrongdoers do non hold the accomplishments for 96 % of occupations.
While in prison, Ryan could hold gained information about The National Offender Management Service ( NOMS ) , which harmonizing to Fletcher ( 2010 ) is an administration to assist wrongdoers find educational and developing chances that can assist them to derive makings and accomplishments needed to derive a occupation. Administrations such as NOMS can hold a immense impact on a wrongdoer such as Ryan ‘s life, as harmonizing to the Howard League study ( 2006 ) , out of all the immature work forces they interviewed in prison, who were asked, what would assist them
to halt committing offense, 55 % said being in employment would assist.
Ministry of Justice ( 2008 ) besides found during their research that 67 % of captives had been in paid employment during the 12 months before detention. However when asked, 18 % of these had lost their occupations as a consequence of being in prison. Furthermore the 33 % of captives who were unemployed before detention, 16 % said it was because of their old felon record that they could non acquire a occupation, 14 % said it was because of drug or intoxicant dependence, 12 % said it was because of the deficiency of skills/qualifications, 10 % said it was because they had jobs with stable adjustment and 5 % said it was because of wellness jobs.
Ryan is known to take illicit drugs, but he denies that he is drug dependent ; as explained by Cyprus ( 2010 ) drug dependence is when a individual has an unmanageable physical or psychological demand for a substance which has a traumatic consequence on their wellness, emotions and their general twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities. In Ryan ‘s state of affairs he does look to be holding emotional alterations, perchance choler and aggression which could hold a nexus with his offense of assault, while rummy and possibly on drugs. Ryan is clearly in denial, if he came out of this denial and faced his issues ; he could hold become involved, while in prison, in the CARAT ( Counselling, Assessment, Referral, Advice and Through-care ) strategy. HM Prison Service ( 2004 ) provided the information that the CARAT strategy was designed to increase the support available to drug utilizing captives, both during detention and on release. It gives captives the opportunity to hold one-to-one treatments with a CARAT worker or if preferred group work, it gives them the opportunity to have information about the effects of the drugs they are taking and if they choose to they assist them to give up or cut down on their misusing. A CARAT worker can besides mention the captive to a drug intervention programme if they thought it would profit the captive and if the captive agreed to make so.
There are many drug intervention programmes available for those captives who seek aid, such as the Drug Treatment and Testing Order ( DTTO ) which harmonizing to Home Office ( 2010 ) began following the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 as a community sentence and began as a solution to the consistent links between drug abuse and repeated piquing. With this order the wrongdoer must hold to random but frequent drug trials and attend tribunal in order for their advancement to be reviewed. However Home Office ( 2010 ) discovered that the recorded sum of wrongdoers that really finished their DTTOs was low, merely 30 % of 161 wrongdoers finished successfully and 67 % of the 161 wrongdoers had their orders revoked. They besides found that out of the wrongdoers that had their orders revoked, 91 % were reconvicted and of those whom completed their orders 53 % were reconvicted.
There is besides the Drug Intervention Programme ( DIPS ) , which harmonizing to Home Office ( 2010 ) was created in order to assist halt drug abuse and to cut down drug related offense as drug related offense has fallen by 32 % since the programme started it seems to be working. They so stated that following the completion of DIPS, many miss-users have now gone back in the mainstream of society as none users. However this aid is merely at that place if the wrongdoer wants it, and with Ryan being in denial, he has missed an chance to alter his ways.
Ryan could hold besides had the opportunity to larn and take action on the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act ( RHOA ) 1974. Harmonizing to Home Office ( 2010 ) , RHOA targets wrongdoers who have received a sentence of two and a half old ages or less in prison. If the wrongdoer does non perpetrate an offense within a certain period, their strong belief becomes spent and the wrongdoer does non hold to uncover their offense to anyone which would be highly helpful to an wrongdoer when using for occupations. Although in some fortunes when using for certain types of employment the wrongdoer must delight their offense, the two chief exclusions are when using for a occupations that involves working with kids or working with the aged or ill people.
Harmonizing to Greve ( 1997 ) British people have been enduring the effects of lodging costs for many old ages ; many persons have become stateless because of this, each with their ain single grounds why. In Ryan ‘s instance it is due to being unemployed because of the deficiency of makings and accomplishments he has detained throughout his adolescent old ages.
A proportion of stateless people may stop up in prison after perpetrating offenses in order to last or to feed their dependences. Many stateless people suffer with drug and intoxicant jobs, which may lend to them being stateless or fighting to happen adjustment, which seems to be the state of affairs with Ryan. Harmonizing to The Guardian ( 2008 ) half of the people taking portion in stateless twenty-four hours Centres are ex-offenders, and most of them had multiple jobs such as drugs and intoxicant dependences.
The HM prison service works alongside administrations such as NACRO and Shelter in order for captives ‘ to have any information they may necessitate about lodging. The benefit of the information that is given to captives is important harmonizing to Shelter ( 2010 ) , who province ‘the three chief issues normally experienced by ex-prisoners are ; homelessness or insecure lodging before sentence, loss of lodging whilst in prison and homelessness on release ‘ .
HM Prison Service ( 2008 ) provided information about the captives information book, which all wrongdoers receive on come ining prison, it is provided by the Prison Reform Trust and HM Prison Service, this information indicates that Ryan would hold received this book, nevertheless he did non seek out any information from it, hence losing an chance to have information from Shelter on lodging and losing the opportunity to make full out an application lodging on release from prison. This would hold been really helpful for Ryan ‘s hereafter as harmonizing to the LGA ( 2006 ) research, holding adjustment can assist a individual such as Ryan from reoffending as they found that stable lodging can cut down reoffending by more than 20 % .
The Welsh Assembly Government has late initiated a policy for lodging ex wrongdoers which was created in order to assist wrongdoers settle back into society. The Policy was as follows ; for ‘statutory lodging governments to give responsibilities towards the bar of homelessness ; prison, the probation service and young person piquing squads give committedness to effectual resettlement/rehabilitation and cut downing reoffending ‘ . Welsh Assembly Government ( 2010 ) .
Harmonizing to the Howard conference study ( 2006 ) they found that out of all the immature work forces they interviewed in prison, who were asked, what would assist them halt committing offense, 26 % said that holding a stable topographic point to populate would assist them to halt.
To reason ; from holding a history such as Ryan ‘s, he will happen himself in many state of affairss where he may experience he is being discriminated against. Many topographic points of work will non take on a individual with a condemnable record, and for person who has an offense of assault, occupations extremely affecting the populace, viz. supermarket and retail shops, will non use person with the background of assault and violative behavior. Besides holding a repute of taking or being involved with drug maltreaters may make an employer, if non, and Ryan progressed to an interview the employer may turn a intuition of drug abuse as many drugs can hold an impact on a individual ‘s physical visual aspect, depending on the drugs which has been taken. The employer may see Markss on Ryan ‘s weaponries and his face my seem a spot drawn and thin furthermore he may be really sweaty and agitating which may be a mark of backdown symptoms. On the other manus it may come up when making a condemnable agency cheque, depending on whether or non he has been convicted of being in ownership of drugs. Being homeless is besides an issue while seeking for a occupation as you must hold a lasting reference to be registered with national insurance and besides to be able to hold a bank history, for your rewards can acquire paid into. Therefore, each of these issues are related, a individual can non acquire employed without holding an reference, yet a individual can non afford a place without being employed, this is a barbarous circle for a individual to be in, particularly person with a background such as Ryan ‘s.