This chapter describes a brief background of the company. It explores the job statement, aim of the survey, research inquiries of the survey, range of the survey and the significance of the survey. Definition of cardinal footings besides provided at the terminal of the chapter.
1.2 Background of Study
Knowledge direction is a comparatively immature subject, comparative to other older strategic tools, and it has been pulling the attending of research workers and faculty members over the past decennary or so. Different facets of cognition direction have been studied both from the IT and IS point of position. Despite this tremendous attending, both faculty members and practicians have been alerted about cognition direction as being merely another cant, which attracts attendings for a decennary or so, and so its popularity fades off ( Alavi & A ; Leidner, 2002 ; Swan et al. , 2002 ) . If this calamity were to go on, legion research articles and scientific studies would look irrelevant. Therefore, it is indispensable to analyze this topic more from a practical facet, and in the context of Malaysia.
Globalization is already in topographic point and Malaysia, like many other developing states, is endeavoring to carry through its vision of going a developed state. One of the strategic enterprises devised by the Malayan authorities is to reassign this state from a production-based economic system to a knowledge-based economic system. To this terminal, pull offing rational capital, particularly cognition is of great importance. Although Asiatic economic system seems really promising, the competition is besides inordinately intense. On one manus, there is this improbably aggressive economic system, viz. , China and on the other side, there are states with abundant figure of cheap labour force such as Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and so forth. Leaving these aside, India is another Asiatic state with turning economic system coupled with plentiful cheap and yet good educated work force particularly in IT and computing machine scientific discipline.
All above mentioned facts make it hard for Malaysia to derive an border over its strong rivals. The fortunes are rather demanding and infixing excess force per unit area on the authorities. That is why the authorities should recognize that there is no room for disused schemes and methods to deploy. Fortunately, it seems that Malayan authorities has already discovered this fact so that it had capitalized so much on cognition intensive undertakings and information communicating engineerings. In this instance, Multimedia Super Corridor ( MSC ) is an outstanding illustration. These issues are actuating us to look into them more meticulously and more deeply. In this regards the accent of the undermentioned subdivisions will be place chiefly upon the cognition position and importance in Malaysia.
1.2.1 Intel Corporate
Malaysia has been a place to one of Intel Corporation ‘s abroad operations for more than three decennaries. In fact, the site in Penang was Intel Corporation ‘s first abroad site which began operation in 1972 with about 100 employees.
Since so, the Penang site has played a cardinal function in set uping Malaysia as a high engineering centre. Intel Malaysia went to open an office in Kuala Lumpur in 1995 for gross revenues and selling operations. Subsequently, Intel Malaysia set up another of its assembly and trial operations at a hi-tech park in Kulim in 1996.
In 2001, Intel opened an office in Cyberjaya which houses its package development operations. Intel Malaysia ‘s work force encompasses the staff strength in Penang, Kulim, Kuala Lumpur and Cyberjaya. It is Intel ‘s most complex offshore site with multi maps – assembly & A ; trial, design & A ; development and local & A ; planetary support services. As a cardinal portion of Intel ‘s planetary R & A ; D operations, Intel Malaysia plays a cardinal function in the production of the latest Intel merchandises, as it moves up the value concatenation.
At the same clip, Intel Malaysia works difficult to be an assets to Penang and Malaysia by endeavoring to better mathematics, scientific discipline, technology and engineering instruction, back uping community demands through giving and volunteerism ; and beef uping nation-building in Malaysia.
To day of the month, Intel has invested about USD 3.2 billion in Malaysia and has trained and employed 1000s of gifted local occupants, beef uping Malaysia ‘s economic system and offering chances for difficult working and gifted Malaysians.
1.2.2 Malaysia and Knowledge Era
Knowledge sharing is going a planetary phenomenon and the whole universe is coming to see borderless flow of information thanks to the state-of-the-art information and communicating engineerings. Malaysia, every bit good, has been trying to take an active portion in this respect. This is chiefly because it has realized that the tendency of globalisation accompanied by the outgrowth of new constructs such as “ knowledge economic system ” and “ knowledge direction ” are enabling tools toward deriving a strategic advantage in many of import countries refering a state ‘s development, peculiarly concern and economic system. Knowledge hence, can non be confined to certain flush states possessing munificent resources, instead it is fluxing throughout the universe and this is up to each state to take advantage of it.
The undermentioned subdivisions are amplifications on the of import issues sing today ‘s cognition age. It covers issues like globalisation, knowledge economic system and ICT growing, which all bear the context of Malaysia. Furthermore, an debut to Malaysia Multimedia Super Corridor ( MSC ) is presented and shall be closed by an overview of the development of cognition direction in Malaysia.
1.2.3 Knowledge Management and Globalization
Once the term “ Global Village ” sounded like a fancy topographic point, yet the fast gait of globalisation tendency has proved it otherwise. National boundary lines are, figuratively, disappearing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours and the states are over-flown by immense sums of up to the minute information. Knowledge is shared between states and even the human labour faces no barrier to migrate from topographic point to topographic point.
The former Prime Minister of the Great Britain, Tony Blair ( 1999 ) , asserts: “ During the Industrial Revolution, capital was in short supply and labour was relatively inexpensive. In the twenty-first Century, fiscal capital will go the trade good and rational capital will be in short supply. Already in the IT industry, the value of package now exceeds that of hardware. Most of the worth of the pharmaceutical industry is locked up in its patent. Knowledge is the key. To win in this new, competitory, planetary economic system, Britain ‘s concerns need to be knowledge driven. That applies non merely to hi-tech concern but to all concern in all sectors. ” This message reflects the importance of cognition direction, non merely in the United Kingdom, but internationally. Similarly, as in instance of Malaysia, globalisation has urged Malayan companies to respond faster, adapt faster in order to keep the competitory advantage in the planetary market ( Chang, 2005 ) .
In footings of planetary investing flows, there have been immense additions in foreign direct investings ( FDI ) flows across states. The World Investment Reports suggests that flows have more than doubled over the last decennary and now include greater flows into states such as China every bit good as between the chief trading axis of the European Union ( EU ) , Association of South East Asiatic Nations ( ASEAN ) and the North American Free Trade Area ( NAFTA ) . In Asia, there have been cross-border investings by Asiatic endeavors in other states in Asia and in other parts. The Asia and Pacific part has seen moving ridges of investing by Nipponese, American and European companies and cross boundary line investings by the “ four ” Asiatic firedrake economic systems of Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, pushed by labour deficits, lifting rewards, stronger exchange rates every bit good as the development of external wings to its economic system. The three “ tiger ” economic systems of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand are besides puting overseas. There has besides been an addition in regional cooperation zones in the ASEAN states such as the Growth Triangle formed by Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore ( Chong,2005 ) .
It is believed that industrial and developed states tend to retain the knowledge-work in-house while outsourcing the production-work to other states. The principle is rather clear. As the provided statistics by Ishak ( 2002 ) unsurprisingly illustrate “ while the production-work is a “ star ” performing artist locally, in the planetary context, the P to K-wage derived function is immense. For illustration, Malaysia ‘s value-added per-worker is US $ 15,200, whereas the value-added per worker for Japan and US is US $ 110,000 ( for the lower terminal engineering ) . As for the rewards per worker, Malaysia ‘s pay per worker is US $ 4,300, which is comparable to Indonesia ” ( p. 9 ) . As portion of the planetary ICT growing e-business has besides been booming. The same state of affairs holds true for Malaysia. Based on a study study released by the Malayan Communications and Multimedia Commissions in 2002, the consciousness on the online services has pushed the Internet endorsers to 2372,000 in 2001. The Internet incursion in Malaysia retains unchanged in 2002, but a higher incidence is noted among Males and younger sections that are below 30 old ages of age ( Taylor Nelson Sofres Intereactive- Global eCommerce Report, 2002 ; Cited by Chang, 2005 ) . Electronic concern still contributes small to the Malayan economic system but Malaysia recognizes the importance of electronic concern since the beginning phase. Many activities have been developed to do certain Malaysia to be able to follow the path traveling into the digital age ( Chang, 2005 ) .
It is believed that industrial and developed states tend to retain the knowledge-work in-house while outsourcing the production-work to other states. The principle is rather clear. As the provided statistics by Ishak ( 2002 ) unsurprisingly illustrate “ while the production-work is a “ star ” performing artist locally, in the planetary context, the P to K-wage derived function is immense. For illustration, Malaysia ‘s value-added per-worker is US $ 15,200, whereas the value-added per worker for Japan and US is US $ 110,000 ( for the lower terminal engineering ) . As for the rewards per worker, Malaysia ‘s pay per worker is US $ 4,300, which is comparable to Indonesia ” ( p. 9 ) .
As portion of the planetary ICT growing e-business has besides been booming. The same state of affairs holds true for Malaysia. Based on a study study released by the Malayan Communications and Multimedia Commissions in 2002, the consciousness on the online services has pushed the Internet endorsers to 2372,000 in 2001. The Internet incursion in Malaysia retains unchanged in 2002, but a higher incidence is noted among Males and younger sections that are below 30 old ages of age ( Taylor Nelson Sofres Intereactive- Global e-Commerce Report, 2002 ; Cited by Chang, 2005 ) . Electronic concern still contributes small to the Malayan economic system but Malaysia recognizes the importance of electronic concern since the beginning phase. Many activities have been developed to do certain Malaysia to be able to follow the path traveling into the digital age ( Chang, 2005 ) .
1.3 Research Problem
1.3.1 Factor that make cognition sharing hard
Possibly the toughest portion about Knowledge Management, besides specifying it, is happening what you need when you need it ( ‘Guiding Principles ‘ , CIO, 1995 ) . Organizations must make and keep easy-to-use “ cognition maps ” or navigational tools.
Sloppy efforts at Knowledge Management can rapidly intensify into serious information overload. Companies that merely carry informations with small organisation and no analysis frequently find that, given strains on storage infinite and the clip wasted looking for misplaced stuffs, excessively much information is worse than none at all.
Effective Knowledge Management requires making a supportive, collaborative civilization and extinguishing traditional competitions. For some employees, that may intend distressingly ‘unlearning ‘ long standing lessons. Person who interprets the old maxim ‘knowledge is power ‘ to intend ‘to stay strong, I have got to conceal and protect what I know ‘ is non likely to encompass the construct of sharing resource.
Successful attempts leave no room for incompatibility, unavailability or stray islands of expertness. Knowledge Management becomes a lampoon, a beginning of acrimonious internal struggle, if the resources are non every bit accessible enterprise-wide, in every section and all distant locations, 24 hours a twenty-four hours.
Knowledge does non populate by IT entirely. Even the most user-friendly tools will non assist much with pull offing information unless they are strongly linked to people and procedures, says Thomas H. Davenport, Director of the Information System Management Program at the University of Texas at Austin and editorialist for CIO. “ cognition dies when it is disembodied. ” By manner of illustration, Davenport describes an technology and building company ‘s effort to continue its best patterns expertness. The attempt failed mostly because cipher edited the stuffs for consistence or relevance, and those who contributed information did non include their names, so nobody cognize where to turn with inquiries.
Finally, it is tough to interpret consequences to the bottom line. Of 80 corporations surveyed by Arthur Anderson during a 1995 Knowledge Conference ( ‘Elusive Assets ‘ , CIO, 1995 ) more than three quarters called Knowledge Management an indispensable or of import portion of their concern scheme. But more than 90 per centum admitted they had non yet developed dependable ways to associate Knowledge Management to fiscal consequence. “ While companies may be get downing to mensurate knowledge assets, the nexus to fiscal consequences remains fuzzed, ” research workers concluded. “ The deficiency of advancement in this country and the uncertainness of whether it is even of import, could finally torpedo Knowledge Management enterprises. ”
1.4 Research Objective
To place and analyze the effectual of cognition sharing in the organizational.
To happen out the relationship between independent variables and step ining variables.
To happen out the relationship between step ining variables and dependent variable.
To analyze the intervening variables on the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable.
1.5 Research Question
In seeking to accomplish the above aims, these surveies try to reply the undermentioned research inquiries:
Is it employees confident in ain ability to supply cognition that other in my company see valuable?
Is it employees is wholly unfastened in covering with spouse?
Is it top direction support and promoting cognition sharing with employees?
Is it organisation reward take of import portion in sharing cognition?
Who are act upon your determinations think that you should portion knowledge with co-workers?
Is it your company allows employees to utilize engineering to portion knowledge?
Do you believe when you learn something new, you will state your co-workers?
Will you portion your accomplishment when your co-workers inquire for it?
1.6 Significance of Study
The present survey intends to understand the determiners of user credence of cognition sharing. Understanding the determiners for trust will supply added influence to heighten credence of cognition sharing in the hereafter.
This survey will assist to give penetration on the organisational that will develop an apprehension on how to promote staff to accept sharing cognition in the shortest clip. The consequences from this survey can be used by representative in charge of sharing cognition to either better the system or use the information to happen ways to pull staff to portion their hard-won cognition.
The present survey will be important as it provides a quantitative analysis to warrant what needs to be administered to better the credence to knowledge sharing. There could be assorted facets that may be the cause for deficiency of credence ; illustration deficiency of trust and deficiency of ICT usage. Therefore, understanding the cardinal factors that addition cognition sharing among staff and organizational will ensue in accurate recommendations for runs and commissariats by the organizational.
1.7 Scope of Study
The model of this research is targeted on cognition sharing within employees in an organisation. The grounds why we study this relationship between the cognition sharing within employee and organisation is to cognize that the effectivity of encourage cognition sharing in an organisational.
1.8 Definition of Key Term
Self-efficacy – as the judgements of persons sing their capablenesss to form and put to death classs of action required to accomplish specific degrees of public presentation ( Bandura, 1986 ) .
Trust – “ Trust is a psychological province consisting the purpose to accept exposure based upon positive outlooks of the purposes or behaviour of another ” ( Rousseau et al. , 1998 )
Top direction support – top direction support indispensable to making a supportive clime and supplying sufficient resources ( Lin, 2006 ) .
Subjective norm – frequently measured straight by inquiring respondents to bespeak whether “ of import others ” ( that is, self-selected referents ) would O.K. or disapprove of their executing a peculiar behaviour ( Ajzen, 1991 ) .
ICT usage – ICT can enable rapid hunt, entree and retrieval of information, and can back up communicating and coaction among organisational employees ( Huysman and Wulf, 2006 )
Organizational Reward – Organizational wagess can run from pecuniary inducements such as increased wage and fillips to non-monetary awards such as publicities and occupation security ( Davenport and Prusak, 1998 ; Hargadon, 1998 ) .
1.9 Organization of Dissertation
This research proposal is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the survey. The intents and research aims have been put away to steer the way of the survey. Chapter 2 reappraisals related literatures by old research workers. Based on these literatures the theoretical model and hypotheses are developed. Chapter 3 discusses the research methodological analysis used in this research. Chapter 4 presents the consequence of the statistical analysis. Chapter 5 summarizes research findings, deductions of the findings and restriction of the survey. The reasoning chapter besides provides some suggestions for farther surveies.