The Present survey was conducted to compare qualitatively the populace and private secondary schools on different variables such as leaders leading manners, direction patterns and physical installations provided in these schools. Three public and three private schools, were selected as instance from Lahore metropolis on the footing of convenience and handiness. The stakeholders positions attack was adopted for instance survey. The secondary school principals, instructors, pupils of 9th and 10th categories and their parents were identified as stakeholders of these schools. Interview protocol for each stakeholder, observation and papers analysis were used as instruments of informations aggregation. Sixteen interviews were conducted for each instance which included the Principal of school, five instructors, five pupils of 9th and 10th category and five parents of these pupils. In this manner 96 interviews were conducted for these instances including 48 interviews from public school and 48 from private schools. The school direction / leading, patterns of caputs, execution of departmental policies, learning larning environment and subject in schools, lesson planning, available installations, co-curricular activities and future developmental programs etc were explored in different interview protocols from each stakeholder. Datas were analyzed by utilizing qualitative analysis methods. It was found that, the public schools have better installations, broad edifices, extremely qualified staff and people oriented direction manners as compared to private schools. The caputs and instructors of private schools desired to switch in public schools. It is recommended that Govt should jump the private sector to supply substructure and installations to the pupils similar to the pubic schools.
Keywords: public school, private school interest holders, environment, subject
Education is an of import determiner of economic and societal development of a state. Quality of instruction in a state indicates the quality of its human resource. Outgo on instruction is considered as an investing in human resource enrichment. The developed states spend a batch of money for the proviso of instruction to their people while developing states besides spend money harmonizing to their resources to supply instruction free or at minimum cost to their citizens. Pakistan is passing merely 2 % of its GNP on instruction ( Govt. of Pakistan 2009 ) . Across the developing states public schools enroll about 90 per centum of all primary and 70 per centum of all secondary pupils. Due to financial restraints a tendency to trust on private schools is increasing ( Jimenez & A ; Lockheed, 1995 )
The Public sector entirely particularly in developing states can non run into the demands of quality instruction for quickly turning population including Pakistan with a 2.7 % population growing rate ( Govt. of Pakistan 2010-11 ) , highest in the part. Government entirely ca n’t carry through the duty to supply instruction to fast turning population. So private sector has to portion this load. Therefore, both the populace and private sectors are engaged in supplying instruction to the multitudes. Education system in Pakistan is a bequest of British regulation in the sub-continent. At the clip of independency ( 1947 ) both pubic and private establishments were supplying instruction at primary and secondary degrees. Burki ( 1986 ) classified educational establishments at the clip of independency into two classs.
Public schools and colleges managed by provincial authoritiess or local organic structures.
Private schools managed by charities/missionaries.
All the types of educational establishments continued working after creative activity of Pakistan in 1947. At that clip, private sector had an of import function in supplying instruction through schools. Private schools were managed either by societies motivated by the cause of advancing instruction or by persons doing their life through running instruction establishments. Prior to 1972, in private managed educational establishments constituted a ample part of the entire educational system. Most of these establishments were operated at the school and college degrees. Such establishments were managed by voluntary organisations and, apart from bring forthing their ain financess through fees/ attached belongings and contributions, the establishments besides received grant-in-aid from the authorities. Some private educational establishments earned a high repute for the academic criterions they maintained and for the quality of their direction. In National Education Policy ( 1972 ) the Government of Pakistan decided to take over all the privately-managed educational establishments. As a consequence, in1974 the 19,432 educational establishments were nationalized. These included 18,926 schools, 346 madrassas, 155 colleges and 5 proficient establishments ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1998 ) .
The demand for the engagement of private sector to run into the spread outing demands of educational installations was once more realized. The National Educational Policy 1979 reviewed the effects of nationalisation and came to the decision that as a consequence of nationalisation of private educational establishments, the duty of supplying educational installations for all the kids shifted on the shoulders of authorities entirely which was intolerable. So in the National Education Policy ( 1979 ) the demand for the engagement of private sector to run into the spread outing demands of educational installations was realized. It was learnt that engagement rates at assorted degrees of instruction were hapless and authorities entirely was unable to supply required educational installations at all degrees. It was, hence, considered necessary to promote one time once more the engagement of the community in educational development. To make so, the undermentioned policy steps were proposed: “ Private endeavors will be encouraged to open educational establishments peculiarly in rural countries, permission to put up educational establishments ‘will be granted by the Ministry of Education or the several Provincial Educational Departments, the bing.legislation on nationalisation of in private managed educational establishments will be appropriately amended to let gap of private educational establishments and to guarantee that such establishments set up with the permission of authorities will non be nationalized in future. Regular instructional supervising of these establishments will be undertaken by the instruction sections and relevant statutory organic structures ( Govt.. of Pakistan, 1979 ) . After the execution of national instruction policy 1979, the state of affairs changed in the state. Persons and non authorities organisations started opening new schools at all degrees.
National Education Policy 1998 observed that as a consequence of the announcement of ( Promotion and Regulation ) Ordinance no. II of I984, a 2nd moving ridge of community engagement in instruction had been energized. It is estimated that more or less 30,000 private educational establishments at all degrees with about 3 million pupils are working in the state. Most of these establishments are ‘English medium ‘ schools and impart instruction from play-group to secondary degree, for illustration, Beacon House School System, City School, Aizer Kindergarten and secondary schools. ‘ Some schools have been established on community footing, while the others are owned by persons. The concentration of these schools is in urban countries. Heavy fees are charged by these schools ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1998 ) .
Shami and Hussain repoted that there were 81,103 private establishments in the state in 2005. In Punjab 48,541, in Sindh, 12.574 in NWFP 11, 276, in Balochistan 1,750, in ICT 750, in FATA 640, in FANA 2,861 and in AJK 2,711.
It is promoting to observe that private sector establishments are turning quickly, i.e. from 36,096 establishments in 1999-2000 to 81,103 in 2005 demoing thereby an one-year mean addition of 25 per centum.
Many research surveies have been conducted to compare the assorted facets of public and private schools all over the universe. Jimenez and Lockheed ( 1995 ) have summarized many surveies comparing public and private schools and reported decision that private schools in USA improved pupils ‘ public presentation as measured by standardised trial of verbal and mathematical accomplishments. It was besides reported that mean pupil public presentation was better in private than public schools is widespread ‘ .
Abid, Ishfaque and Gondal ( 1993 ) compared, the use of modern learning AIDSs by the instructors of public and private secondary schools. It was found that instructors of both types of schools are to the full cognizant about the advantages and effectivity of learning AIDSs. Both types of school instructors use learning AIDSs. However, the instructors of private schools use more teaching AIDSs and theoretical accounts relatively.
Farida and Madeeha ( 2000 ) in their comparative survey of private and public schools with regard to decision makers ‘ function found that caputs of authorities schools performed better in their administrative planning for the whole twelvemonth and academic activities while the caputs of private schools show more concerns about co-curricular activities.
Provision of instruction up to secondary degree is the duty of provincial authoritiess in Pakistan. Private sector is besides lending in this regard. Government is besides encouraging private sector to take portion in enlargement of instruction installations. Consequently private schools are turning and booming quickly. Therefore, there was a demand to compare the effectivity of both the types of the schools every bit good as factors act uponing the effectivity. Present survey was conducted to compare the public and private secondary schools sing their operation and effectivity.
Mustaqeem ( 2008 ) found in her comparative survey that bulk of parents and instructors of different makings, different age groups, different genders and different schools response that staff morale graduated table is same but they besides reported that staff morale of private instructors is higher than that of Govt. instructors.
Iqbal ( 2006 ) found in her comparative survey that instructors in English medium schools use more than one instruction methodological analysiss, English medium schools provide more instructional stuff for instruction, heavy little category size, set up more co-curricular activities, art and scientific discipline exhibition as compared to Urdu medium schools which are largely public schools.
Liaqat ( 2009 ) found in her survey that quality of instruction is better in private schools as compared to public schools and the instructors of private schools prepared lesson programs earlier learning as compared to public schools.
Shaheen ( 2008 ) found in her survey that bulk of public school instructors behave good, avoid quarreling, acquiring genius up instantly, faulting others, sing choler as compared to private school instructors.
Jaweria ( 2008 ) found in her comparative survey that male and female instructors of public and private schools have different making but the school civilization among the populace and private schools are same.
Hafeez ( 2008 ) found in her comparative survey that bulk female instructors are more satisfied as compared to male instructors.
To look into about.the operation of schools as societal establishments and comparing the populace and private secondary schools, it was necessary to cognize the positions of schoolmasters, instructors, pupils and parents associating to each instance. So interview was selected as tool of informations aggregation. The present survey included instance survey attack to analyze and examine two types of schools.
A instance survey is the in depth probe of a “ unit ” e.g. single, groups establishment, organisation, plan paperss, and so forth. In instruction, a unit is likely to be a school, college, section, institute, an decision maker, a instructor or a pupil. The instance survey, in its simplest signifier, involves an research worker, who makes a inside informations scrutiny of a individual topics or groups or phenomenon. In fact, a instance survey requires the aggregation of really extended informations in order to bring forth an in deepness apprehension of the entity being studied. Several sorts of instance surveies can be found in the societal scientific discipline literature. Of these really normally and widely used is “ historical instance surveies of organisations ” . These surveies trace the development of an organisation over clip ( Borgad Gall 1989 pp.402-403 ) . Khawaja ( 1985 ) summarizes the construct by stating that “ a instance is a written description of an endeavor, an event, an incident and information about its many aspects. It by and large contains its history in internal and external environment. Cases are by and large based on stuff gathered about existent organisations ” ( Khawaja: 1985, P. I ) .
Case survey is a methodological analysis and relates to the theoretical model for the studyaˆ¦.. It may be qualitative or quantitative depending on the type of instrument used to bring forth informations. Or it may be both ( assorted Methods ) .
Researcher prepared separate inquiries for interview of schoolmasters, instructors, pupils and parents. The caputs were asked about their making, learning and direction experience, length of service, planning of day-to-day activities and policies to run the school. The inquiries about school direction, instructions, leading, high quality of each type of school, anticipation about the hereafter of public and private schools, function of section in operation of schools, etc. were besides included in the questionnaire.
Teachers were asked about academic and professional making, category size, country of topics, lesson planning, and place work routines instructors ‘ perceptual experiences about good qualities of their schools, failings, principal ‘s leading manner, different between public and private schools.
Students were asked about parents ‘ making, figure of pupils in category and instructors for category, learning larning environment, use of AV AIDSs by instructors, physical installations, scientific discipline lab, scientific discipline practical place work, conductivity of scrutinies, taging documents and communicating of consequences to parents and schoolmasters, review modus operandis, excess coaching, co-curricular activities and failings. These all inquiries aimed to find the operation ( good or bad ) of school and to analyse about the proviso of installations.
Parents were questioned about the perceptual experiences sing the effectual functioning school. It included the inquiries about teaching-learning environment, pupils ‘ public presentation in category. place work policy, proviso of physical installations to pupils, behavior of scrutiny, communicating of consequences, school direction, and instructors ‘ covering with pupils and parents, cleanliness and care of school subject etc.
It was decided to make six instance surveies i.e. three from public and three from private secondary schools from Lahore metropolis. It was decided to choose the schools on the footing of public presentation, school registration and easiness of entree.
The research worker personally visited the above mentioned schools one by one and with the consent of school disposal, started entering interviews from the chief / schoolmaster, five instructors and five pupils from each school and their parents. Interviews of principals, instructors and pupils were recorded in schools which took three to four yearss for each instance. However, interviews with parents were recorded at their places after acquiring clip before recording of interviews. It was non possible to enter the interview of more than one parent each twenty-four hours because the parents resided at different countries of the metropolis.
The entire 96 interviews were recorded from six schools. Questionnaires of interview agenda were besides filled by the respondents. It took about two months to finish the instances.
The interviews of respondents of each instance survey were transcribed as follows:
The replies of each principal were transcribed as a individual instance.
The replies of five instructors, pupils and parents were transcribed and changed into norms for each instance. The opposing sentiments of respondents were besides highlighted.
Finally the results/responses of all public and private instances were compiled individually and so compared, interpreted and presented in the undermentioned brief
Opinion of Principals of Public Schools
Public school principals teach humanistic disciplines or scientific discipline topic when they get clip and supply instructional counsel to instructors through personal experience. They plan their day-to-day activities, and do school policies after seeking the suggestions from pupils, parents and peculiarly instructors. One caput told that non to the full but to a certain extent. They encourage their instructors to heighten their professional making. They pointed out that deficiency of fiscal resources is the chief job. Public school have edge on private school as public school holding extremely qualified staff, standard edifice and resort area every bit compared to private schools. Furthermore, in public schools course of study is prepared harmonizing to the political orientation of Pakistan while private school do non follow this policy purely. The two caputs of schools pointed out that section makes policies for the schools of the state and wants conformity from school caputs, so their function is restricted and they have to work consequently. Heads are non give much liberty particularly in fiscal affairs.
About the hereafter of schools, one principal replied that private schools have bright hereafter as Govt want to increase the function of private sector. However when caputs were asked to fall in private schools all caputs rejected this thought.
Opinion of Principals of Private Schools
Principals of private schools teach some topic whenever they get clip, All of them plan the activities of their school on a regular basis. Two of them told that they provide instructional counsel to their staff but the principal of Adbastan-e- Soophia told that every freshly inducted instructor is assigned a wise man. All the principals encourage the sweetening of making of their staff. They all make their policies after acquiring feedback from parents, instructors and pupils when it is required. All the principals provide the installations of co-curricular activities for the personality development of pupils. Principal of Adbastan-e-Soophia stated in this regard “ the on the job manner of public and private school is different. Teachers of public schools are somehow independent whereas private school instructors are bound to make harmonizing to the will of direction ” While the remainder of two chief replied the same that private school have sensible category size so the instructors can learn their pupils with easiness. Whereas public schools have overcrowded categories which create jobs for the instructors. All the principals told that hereafter of private schools is bright because Govt is advancing private sector. All the caputs of private schools told that they will fall in the public school as caput if they get a opportunity.
Opinion of Teachers of Public Schools
Majority of the instructors of public schools told that they plan lesson on instructor ‘s diary before learning the category. However, some told that they do non necessitate of lesson be aftering officially because of their experience. They besides use A.V.Aids for learning. they do assign place work to the category but it is non possible to look into it daily due to big figure of pupils. But they do it with the aid of group leaders. The instructors of two schools told that hereafter of their school is better than other because of holding broad edifice, library, resort area, basket ball tribunal etc. However, instructors of one girls school have different position because of deficiency of all above mentioned installations. The instructors pointed out that figure of pupil is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours but figure of instructors is non increasing consequently. They besides told that they show better consequence in malice of lacking edifice or other installations. The instructors besides told that public schools are supplying societal service as compared to private schools while private schools are net income earning and concern oriented establishments. Teachers of Govt Model High School told that they have huge and broad edifice, public school have qualified staff, instructors can non pay single attending to the pupils because of overcrowded categories. All the instructors like the leading manner of their principals.
Opinion of Teachers of Private Schools
All the instructors of private schools told that they plan their lesson officially and utilize A.V.Aids and split the course of study on hebdomadal or monthly footing and learn their categories consequently. Teachers of Adbistan-e-Soophia stated that prep is given to the pupils harmonizing to the agenda i.e. twice a hebdomad and checked decently. The remainder of two schools instructors told that prep is given on a regular basis and checked decently. All the instructors stated lacks of their schools that these schools have no drama land, library, scientific discipline lab little edifice or residential edifice ( one kanal ) deficit of qualified staff and that is why instructors have to learn more periods which consequence their public presentation. No competition of co-curricular activities are held. The instructors of private schools stated the difference of public and private school, they have to work more as compared to public school instructors. They give more single attending to pupils because of holding sensible category size as compared to public schools. They besides told that selected survey is done in private school and short notes are given to pupils. There is no occupation security in private schools, wage bundle is non attractive except that of Adbastan-e Soophia.
Opinion of Students of Public schools
All the pupils of public schools told that their instructors are hardworking and polite. They use A.V.Aids whenever it is necessary that is why they understand easy what is taught by instructors. There is no demand of more account of construct. The pupils of two male childs school stated that their schools have science labs and instructors demonstrate practicals on a regular basis while there is no scientific discipline lab in misss ‘ school which is housed in a rented edifice. The pupils described that prep is assigned to them and checked daily. They besides told that their chief see their categories but non more often. The pupils of both the male childs ‘ schools told that school provide them installations of games and co-curricular activities, peculiarly pupils of Govt Model H/S Model Town which have a broad drama land, they have chance to take portion in many games and athleticss. However pupils of Girls school pointed out “ our school has no drama land so we can non take portion in games but our instructors arrange literary plans and competition. ” The pupils of all schools told that they can see freely the principal when they have a job.
Opinion of Students of Private schools
The pupils of private schools besides replied that they easy understand what they taught by their instructors. The pupils besides told that that their instructors are hardworking and polite and good mannered, they do n’t lose any category. The pupils besides replied that they understand teacher ‘s talk but at the same clip they have to take aid from a training centers/ academy for more elucidation. The pupils stated that the school has good equipped scientific discipline lab except Bismillah Talent Girls ‘ High School, in this school merely the misss subdivision have scientific discipline lab. All the pupils replied that their school provide all the installations of co-curricular activities for the personality development. Furthermore, all the pupils stated that they can easy near their chief whenever they needed.
Opinion of Parents of Public Schools Students
Majority of the parents told that school direction is concerted. Parents indicated that the basic jobs of pupils are, deficiency of cool imbibing H2O, nominal system of rhythm base is non good. Some parents indicated that bathrooms are non cleaned decently and library cards and books are non issued to pupils. Majority of parents told that that behaviour of schoolmaster is frequently concerted and subject of school is harmonizing to a criterion of high school. . However one male parent stated that it should be improved.
All the parents are satisfied with the public presentation of their kids. All the parents replied that prep is assigned and checked daily. Furthermore they told that their kids understand easy but some clip they need assist for more elucidation and they have to fall in academy or tuition centre.
Opinion of Parents of Private Schools Students
All the parents of private schools pupils told that they are rather satisfied with the public presentation of their kids. They besides told that the prep is assign and checkered day-to-day by the instructors. They besides satisfied with the learning acquisition environment and direction of school. They were besides satisfied with the cleanliness at school. They can easy reach instructors and can easy near to principal when it is required.
Public schools have big, broad and harmonizing to standard school edifices.
Teachers are lasting, extremely qualified and trained. All installations including edifice, hall, library, furniture and public-service corporations like electricity, H2O supply, and gas etc are provided and financed by authorities.
Education is wholly free up to matriculation degree. Public schools enroll the bulk of pupils belonging to middle and lower in-between category households. Education is better at secondary degree than private schools.
Public schools have larger category size.
Maximum public schools caputs had people- oriented/ democratic leading manners. They plan and implement the section policies and supervise the school maps.
Private schools do non hold big broad edifices with little schoolrooms.
Private schools have less qualified or untrained instructors.
Teachers pay single attending to pupils.
Homework is assigned and checked on a regular basis. Selected survey is done sick private schools and short notes are given to pupils.
Students become more dependent and careless because of more attending of instructor.
Private schools are profit-earning establishments ; SO these provide: instruction T or those who have sound fiscal place.
Private schools have sensible category size little.
Maximal private school caputs had task- oriented/authoritative leading manner holding all decision-making powers in schools.
The findings of instance surveies showed that public school had better. big and broad edifices ~s compared to the private schoo1.s. Possibly it was due to the high cost of land and building of constructing public schools enjoys these installations on behalf of the budget allotment by the authorities of the Punjab: In the same manner learning staff of authorities schools is extremely qualified, trained and working on lasting footing while this factor is missing in private schools. All physical installations in authorities sector are provided by the authorities itself, while in private sector proprietors of the school separately can non supply these installations up to that extant. It is amazing that private sector although dawdling behind in the country of installations and staffing but showed better public presentation as compared to the authorities school. The chief differentiating factor is the better instructional supervising and monitoring system in private sector. Private schools are comparatively expensive so bulk of the people rush to the public schools and it is the cause of big categories in size which affects the instructors ‘ public presentation. Despite big categories at secondary degree in public schools, they showed good consequences as compared to the private sector. It may be due to the better installations in public schools in the signifier of resources, research labs and trained instruction staff. I-lead instructors in public schools are extremely qualified, experienced and have people-oriented / democratic leading manner. On the other manus most of the caput instructors in private sector are less qualified, untrained and inexperienced. They tend to be task orientated and important holding all determination doing powers in their ain custodies.