ISE Determination of Fluoride Content in Various Substances CHM 222 – A 4 / 20 / 2007 Introduction:The ion selective electrode used was made up of a silver / silver chloride reference electrode and a glass electrode. The pH of the electrochemical cell is determined by monitoring the electrical potential difference between the half-cells. The glass electrode is an ion selective electrode (ISE), which only responds to the hydronium ion concentration / activity in a solution under a large range of conditions.
In this experiment, we are measuring the fluoride ion concentration, which means our electrode responds to fluoride ion concentrations. Procedure And Data: |Standard Solutions | |Concentration (M) |Potential (mV) | |0. 9967 x 10-6 |15. 0 | |0. 9967 x 10-5 |1. 4 | |0. 9967 x 10-4 |-42. | |0. 9967 x 10-3 |-101. 1 | |0. 9967 x 10-2 |-160. 8 | |0. 9967 x 10-1 |-219. 0 | Unknown #6 was used for this lab group. It produced a potential difference of -196. 8 mV. This was then used in the equation derived from our standard solutions and found to have a [F-] = 0. 0618 M. Preparation of the toothpaste sample was done by a sonicator.
Then, the electrical potential difference was measured again, just as in the standard solutions and unknowns. It was found to have a potential of -85. 6 mV. Inserted into the equation, [F-] = 3. 31 x 10-4 M. Calculations:See attached sheets. Results:Toothpaste [F-] = 3. 31 x 10-4 M Unknown #6 [F-] = 0. 0618 M Label Value in Toothpaste 0. 15% w/v Calculated Value in Toothpaste 0. 8 mg / g 0. 8 mg/g converted to w/v (g/100 mL) is approximately 0. 1144% w/v. In comparison with the label, the calculated error is found to be about -24%.
A potential source of error could be found in the method of dissolving the toothpaste. There were a lot of bubbles formed, thus allowing for greater possibility of misreported volumes of solution. Also, the pH / V meter had difficulty settling on values during the standard measurements, which would alter the regression line. The ISAB seemed to work better with stronger concentrations of [F-], as the regression line fit better toward the latter part of the plot. However, the pH region seemed to be less important than the [F-] concentration.