Is population control policy relevant in China, Singapore and Malaysia?
During the International Conference on Family Planning Program in 1965, it has been stated that ‘since 1960, the population job and the induction of action towards its solution have become affairs of increasing public involvement ‘ . The statement shows that most states in the universe have realized since decennaries that the household planning plan is of import and should be good monitored. Some have already proceeded with the national policies on population, while some are still making pilot undertaking on the policies. In some ways the policy can be seen as a good job work outing methods as it helps to cut down the birthrate rates, but there are some issues on the humanistic disciplines right towards the citizens. The inquiry is whether it is still relevant to be practiced in this century or non. Through this essay I will discourse on the policies pattern by three different states which is China, Singapore and Malaysia in order for me to make up one’s mind what I believe the policies hereafter should be.
In 1970 ‘s, the occupants of China citizen has quickly grown to about one tierce from the universe ‘s population who were busying merely 7 per centum of universe ‘s arable land ( Hesketh, T. & A ; Xing, Z.W.,2005 ) . Chinese authorities saw rigorous population control as indispensable to economic reform and to an betterment in life criterions. Therefore, the one-child policy has been applies in 1979. The one-child regulation applies to a minority of the population which is the urban occupants and authorities employees, the policy is purely enforced, with few exclusions. The exclusions include households in which the first kid has a disablement or both parents work in bad businesss or they besides come from one-child households. In rural countries, where about 70 per centum of the people live, a 2nd kid is allowed after five old ages spread, but this status sometimes applies merely if the first kid is a miss but largely the traditional penchant is to hold a male child. A 3rd kid is allowed among some cultural minorities and people under populated countries. The policy is supported by a system of wagess and punishments including economic inducements for fulfillment and significant mulcts, confiscation of properties, and dismissal from work for negative response.
Singapore chose non to defy the citizens from holding big households. The extension of the birthrate policy from clip to clip is a 1 of the ways in deciding the jobs and failings. Singapore leaders have the thought that they can non alter the nature, but they can assist by raising the coevalss without restricting the population. The turning point came in the mid-1980s after about a decennary of below-replacement degree birthrate. The force must hold been the consequences of the 1980 nose count, which showed that the better-educated adult females were non replacing themselves while the lower educated “over-reproduced” . The better-educated adult females were, furthermore, more likely to stay individual. As the consequence, on 1 March 1987, the so First Deputy Prime Minister and current Prime Minister Mr Goh Chok Tong announced the replacing of the two-child policy which had been in consequence since 1972 with the “three, or more if you can afford it” policy, together with a bundle of reproduction inducements ( Yap, M.T.,2003 ) . These inducements have been modified and added on to over the old ages, most late with the authorities giving out “baby bonuses” for 2nd and 3rd births and picking up the check for paid pregnancy leave for 3rd births.
Similarly, Malaysia practiced the New Population Policy that aim to increase the size of overall population. In September 1982, the Malaysian Prime Minister, Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, surprised many when he openly expressed the economic advantages of a larger population base and stated that, given the state ‘s resources could back up a population of 70 million, or approximately five times the size of the 1982 population ( Govindasamy, P. & A ; DaVanzo, J. , 1992 ) . A five-child household norm was wholly approved by the Prime Minister, who publically exhorted parents to “ travel for five. ” In support of this, pregnancy benefits, antecedently limited to the first three kids, were extended to the 4th and 5th kid. Malaysia is a multiracial state consists of three chief races and since mid 1970 ‘s the spread between Malay and non-Malay is widened but the rate were non big plenty to countervail the cultural differences in the state. Not merely that, the cultural groups besides differs in socioeconomic position and demographic features that could be explained in birthrate. So, through the inducements given in the New Economic Policy was formulated to cut down economic inequality in Malaysia, by assisting to better the socioeconomic position of Malays. Although it was non a population policy job, it appears to hold had an appreciable consequence on coveted birthrate among the three chief cultural groups.
While all of these policies are being practiced, there are many advantages and disadvantages occur from clip to clip. As for the China one-child policy, even though there are many sentiments said that the authorities do n’t hold any right to make up one’s mind the birthrate rate for the citizens, but it is really for the better hereafter of the state. Hesketh et Al ( 1997 ) stated that ‘China is commanding its population is clearly of benefit for the whole universe as natural resources per capita diminish. ‘ It can be said the Chinese authorities had decided on a good solutions for their limited resources in future. For illustration, if the population is over adult, it will cut down the handiness of resources and occupation chance that will take to unemployment and poorness. Besides that, the one-child policy besides offers increase benefits for the kids and female parents as the increased resources will be devoted for them, so they will non experience left behind. As for the female parents, they will hold more freedom to gain a life for the household. There were a motto for a run mentioned that “ With two kids you can afford a 14 inch Television, with one kid you can afford a 21 inch Television ” ; and “ The One Child Family Policy can vouch that kids will be better cared for and educated. ” ( Hesketh et al, 1997 ) . Since 1979, the policy has shown it significance in assisting the state ‘s economic stableness for more than 30 old ages and it already going a civilization for them in holding little household.
On the other manus, Singapore and Malaysia should non hold any population control policy as it brings no difference at all. The ground is there are no economic or resources limitation in their state. It ca n’t be denied that if the population is non control, it will take to ethnicity instability but population control is non the lone manner to get the better of the job. There are still other ways such as sketching new cultural policy or inducements for the citizens. The labour force job in Singapore can be a good ground why Singapore should non hold any population control as harmonizing to Yap ( 2003 ) , ‘Since the 1980s, Singapore has been loosen uping its in-migration policy to ease the entry of a turning figure of qualified aliens to work and populate in the state to do up for the deficit in births and to run into labour force demand. ‘ Similarly, the Prime Minister of Malaysia was confident that the state economic status can back up over 70 million citizens up to 115 old ages in front. ( Govindasamy, P. , & A ; DaVanzo, J.,1992 ) . Therefore, there is no acceptable demand for the population policy in both states.
All in all, although there are many differences in each of the states ‘ policies, the chief end is to command the birthrate rates that are tantamount with the socioeconomic state of affairs. In my sentiment, the one-child policy in China is relevant, but non in Malaysia and Singapore. Clearly, the population in China need to be controlled as the resources available in the state are diminishing and limited. So, it is without uncertainty that I believe the population control is strongly relevant for China but non for Singapore and Malaysia.