Investigation Number Of Patients Dengue Fever Government Hospitals Economics Essay

The dengue infection like malaria is a disease that is communicated by a vector which are mosquitoes but the species of this mosquitoes are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus who are different from the Plasmodium species which cause he spread of malaria though the mechanism of distributing the disease is the same in which the virus is dispersed via contact with the host through seize with teething it. Dengue febrility is besides referred to as breakbone febrility due to the characteristic marks suggested by patients that they feel their castanetss are being literally broken. The dengue infection can be segmented into three categorizations with changing grades of clinical symptoms. Dengue febrility symptoms are chronological in nature. The beginning is sudden with icinesss and high febrility, utmost concerns, joint and musculus strivings. After 24 hours pain in the oculus part occurs and oculus motions become progressively hard. Other common manifestations utmost weariness, irregularity, sore pharynx, depression etc.

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Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever ( DHF ) is a patterned advance of dandy fever febrility which has the same kind of symptoms but the clinical manifestations can widen to the point where they can go life endangering. DHF is characterized by four classs in which the badness of the disease increases with every class and Grade II and Grade III have symptoms like self-generated hemorrhage and circulatory failure which consequence in narrowing of pulse force per unit area. Grade IV is characterized by the patient traveling into daze and the pulsation going undetectable. This stage is known as Dengue Shock Syndrome ( DSS ) . The decease rate is most common in patients where the infection has progressed to this point which is daze and if immediate intervention is non provided so it becomes deadly.

The dandy fever infection is an endemic in many tropical and sub tropical parts and is normally present in urban and sub-urban countries. The endemic is largely present in the South East Asiatic part and in states like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, Thailand etc. The factors that lead to the spread of the disease are due to unmanageable population growing, rapid urbanisation, hapless H2O direction as they are engendering evidences for the vectors, and restrictions of authorities controlled vector obliteration plans present in these states. All these factors contribute towards 5,000,000 instances of dandy fever hemorrhagic febrility and 12,000 deceases as cumulated by the World Health Organizations ( WHO ) and is really rapidly taking the lead in being the cause of hospitalization and deceases next to diarrheal disease and acute respiratory infections which are characteristic of this part.

Background of the subject:

Pakistan foremost reported an epidemic of dandy fever febrility in1994. In Asiatic states where DHF is endemic, the rate of epidemics has become increasingly larger in the last15 old ages. In 2005, dandy fever became the most of import mosquito borne viral disease impacting worlds globally.

Dengue virus has become endemic in Pakistan. The disease circulates throughout the twelvemonth and reaches its extremum after the station monsoon period when the genteelness begins due to higher H2O content and humid conditions and afterwards in the winter. The recent inundation in Pakistan made the state of affairs worse as they provided farther parametric quantities for growing and the deficiency of vector control is taking to increase in the mosquito population. The dengue infection like malaria is viral in nature and hence no proper medicine is present which can eliminate the virus from the system. The lone effectual steps which can be taken are to guarantee the necessary interventions of the symptoms which go with the infection and to take the needed contraceptive steps to guarantee that the spread of dandy fever does non happen.

If the patient is enduring from dandy fever febrility merely so this counteracted by supplying the patient medicine for symptoms like concerns, purging, icinesss etc. However in the incidences of DHF and DSS, it becomes necessary for the patient to be hospitalized as proper treatmernt can non be provided from place. One of the factors that leads to the spread of dandy fever is due to uncontrolled population growing and this factor is going more and relevant in Pakistan as the urban population growing rate is increasing due to the inflow of people from regional countries and the unmanageable migration is taking to a heavy concentration of people in urban countries. The job arises that the bulk of these people do non hold the fiscal agencies of protecting themselves against the dandy fever vectors as they live in countries which are dumbly populated, ill aerated and have effectual genteelness evidences for the dandy fever vector. Furthermore these people besides do non hold accurate cognition sing dandy fever and therefore do non cognize how to protect themselves against the infection. If a individual suffers from dandy fever so he/she can go a wellness hazard to that community. Besides due to fiscal grounds, entree to medicine becomes narrow and they have to travel to Government infirmaries in order to have intervention.

The sum of investing and support that is provided by the Government to infirmaries has ever been a point of degeneracy. With over 70 % of the Pakistani budget being allocated towards defence and another 20 % being spent on public outgos, a minimalistic watercourse of fiscal support is being provided towards the wellness sector which is hardly adequate to back up it. However with the increasing population, infirmaries are going overcrowded with patients and this is taking to carelessness of patient public assistance non because it is being done on intent but because classification is going prevalent as physicians and nurses have to measure the extent to how vomit a patient is and who requires which signifier of intervention. The deficiency of resources in Government Hospitals has become a point of dismay as even the most basic of wellness demands and medicines are non being catered excessively. Besides the sum of support which is being provided ne’er reaches the needed party due to corruptness amongst the higher direction responsible for the control of financess distribution. As such a batch of physicians and medical aid forces are being overworked and non being paid for it which is taking to deficiency of motive amongst the wellness attention forces and professional weariness. All of this is holding an inauspicious consequence on the quality of patient public assistance and a proper enterprise has to be taken.

Dengue run plans and significance of research

Before 2009 no proper authorities enterprise was taken to command the spread of the dandy fever vector and the virus. Some statistical steps were taken by parts to roll up informations which would be able to quantify the rate of the spread of the infection and that how many people were enduring from it. Most of this information was taken by infirmaries that would so direct rough estimations to the Institute of Public Health ( IPH ) . The institute would so do a annual figure of the people affected by the infection. The authorities run that was started in 2009 aimed at finding the countries where the dandy fever was prevailing and planing control steps in order to eliminate the vector and the genteelness countries through spraying methods. These spraying methods are used for larviciding i.e. obliteration of the larvae which breed the dandy fever vector mosquitoes.

The country of Lahore has been divided into districts and each district is assigned a supervisor who is responsible for these spraying activities. Despite these attempts high flat corruptness in 2010 led to buy of low quality insect powders which were unable to stamp down the growing of these mosquitoes and therefore as the 2010 run study suggests, the figure of people enduring from dandy fever increased significantly. A proper list of people enduring from the dandy fever infection was kept in which proper demographic information such as age, topographic point of abode, contact Numberss were taken along with other informations such as the infirmary from where the patient was treated. Although these steps are helpful in quantification but no qualitative or analytical probe has been undertaken to happen out whether any correlativity exists between the battalions of factors responsible for the spread of dengue infection.

This peculiar research will be of significance as it aims at happening the important relationships between the spread of the dandy fever virus and whether the control measures being taken are effectual plenty. The past information and information from the 2010 dandy fever run will assist in finding the causal variables and the degree of importance can so be entailed to each factor. This signifier of research can be help Government wellness organisations in apportioning duties and funding to different wellness institutes so that they can be more expert at managing the dandy fever state of affairs. This research is more of a statistical probe instead than a medical one as it aims at happening the sociological factors behind the spread of dandy fever.

Multiple Regression Analysis

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Dependent variable: Dengue patients

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Standard T

Parameter Estimate Error Statistic P-Value

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CONSTANT -118668.0 38546.6 -3.07857 0.0275

No. of dispensari 10.8458 3.79129 2.86072 0.0354

No. of physicians -1.31832 0.370043 -3.56261 0.0162

No. of infirmaries -57.2074 22.221 -2.57447 0.0498

Population 0.0241539 0.00605089 3.99179 0.0104

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Analysis of Discrepancy

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Source Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F-Ratio P-Value

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Model 2.29928E7 4 5.74821E6 21.52 0.0024

Residual 1.3356E6 5 267119.0

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Entire ( Corr. ) 2.43284E7 9

R-squared = 94.5101 per centum

R-squared ( adjusted for d.f. ) = 90.1183 per centum

Standard Error of Est. = 516.836

Mean absolute mistake = 277.069

Durbin-Watson statistic = 2.84279

Findingss and reading

Multiple arrested development is one of the analytical tools which is being used in this analysis. It is designed to happen relationships between the dependent variables and the independent variables. In this peculiar research one dependent variable and four independent variables have been taken into consideration. The intent of the multiple arrested development theoretical account will be to find whether the independent variables that have been considered follow a important form or that they have a important relationship with respect to the independent variable. The theoretical account that has been produced follows a additive relationship which can be defined in a generic equation and a arrested development line is drawn in the signifier of least square line or line of best tantrum.

The dependent variable that has been taken in this research is that of the figure of dandy fever patients that were reported from Government Hospitals situated in Lahore. The dependent variables that were taken were the figure of dispensaries, the figure of physicians and the urban population of Lahore.The equation of the fitted theoretical account is

Dengue patients = -118668.0 + 10.8458*No. of dispensaries -1.31832*No. of physicians – 57.2074*No. of infirmaries + 0.0241539*Population

The arrested development equation determines the factors responsible for the figure of dengue patients present in Lahore. The overall p-value in this respect was 0.0024 which indicates a important relationship amongst the variables. The R squared is the coefficient of finding which ranges between 0 to 1. The R-Squared statistic indicates that the theoretical account as fitted explains 94.5101 % of the variableness in Dengue patients. The adjusted R-squared statistic, which is more suited for comparing theoretical accounts with different Numberss of independent variables, is 90.1183 % . The R squared 94.5101 % indicates that a 0.945 discrepancy exists in the dependent variable which can be explained through the equation and the staying 5.5 % is unexplained. The single p-values of the independent variables will bespeak whether the single hypothesis that were taken are true or the alternate hypothesis is relevant.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: Addition in figure of dispensaries will ensue in better coverage of the figure of dengue patients.

H1: Addition in figure of dispensaries will non ensue in better coverage of the figure of dengue patients.

The p-value in this instance was 0.0354 which is less than 0.1 and hence shows that a important relationship exists between the dependent variable and the independent variable. The t statistic 2.86072 and indicates a positive relationship which confirms the initial hypothesis that addition in figure of dispensaries consequences in better coverage of dandy fever patients and the alternate hypothesis is rejected.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: Addition in figure of physicians will ensue in better handling of dandy fever patients.

H1: Addition in figure of physicians will non ensue in better handling of dandy fever patients.

The p-value was important which was 0.0162 and the t statistic indicated a negative mark which shows that an opposite relationship bespeaking that more figure of physicians will ensue in better handling of the patient work load and will ensue in better patient attention and dandy fever patients being catered to.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: An addition in the figure of infirmaries will ensue in better handling of dandy fever patients.

H1: An addition in the figure of patients will non ensue in better handling of dandy fever patients.

In this state of affairs the P value was important holding a value of 0.0498 and the T statistic had a negative mark which shows that an opposite relationship exists therefore corroborating the void hypothesis that an addition in the figure of patients will ensue in better handling of patients as the load of patients will be dispersed amongst more infirmaries and therefore better medical attention can be provided.

Hypothesis 4:

H0: An addition in urban population will ensue in an addition in the figure of dengue patients.

H1: An addition in urban population will non ensue in an addition in the figure of dengue patients.

The P value was important in this peculiar hypothesis every bit good as it had a value of 0.0104. the T statistic besides indicated a positive mark which shows that a direct relationship exists therefore corroborating the void hypothesis that an addition in urban population will take to increase in figure of dengue patients owing to the fact that one of the primary factors which is responsible for the spread of the dandy fever virus is dumbly populated countries and unmanageable population rate.

Decision

The intent of the survey was to look into the figure of patients being treated for dengue infection in authorities infirmaries. The research was based wholly on secondary informations which had information associating to regional distribution of the dandy fever vector, figure of physicians, infirmaries and dispensaries present who can provide to the wellness demands of these dengue patients. The intent of the 2010 run was to look into if the demographic and geographic informations refering to dengue control and dandy fever patient verification could be analyzed in order to organize an analytical relationship which would find the necessary factors that are responsible for the spread of the dandy fever infection and if the people who are infected are acquiring the proper intervention or non.

The multiple arrested development that was done and was based on certain independent variable showed positive consequences which conferred that most of these factors have a important function in the spread and control of the dandy fever virus infection. The analysis of the theoretical account can be used to plan policies which will be able to provide to these independent variables. An addition in the figure of infirmaries and dispensaries have both shown an impact on dandy fever patient recovery and designation severally therefore if more support is given in the signifier of investing and support so it can stamp down the rate of dandy fever patients and besides diminish the backsliding rate i.e. patients who might endure from the dandy fever virus once more. Hence this study can be used as an effectual tool by authorities wellness bureaus in order to better construe and command the dandy fever virus epidemic which is prevalent in the state.

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