Introduction to film theory


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Week 3 – Film Genre ( I ) Puting the Foundations



Week 4 – Film Genre ( II ) Rewriting the Rules – Genre Fusion



Week 6 – Film Authorship ( I ) Puting Claims



Week 8 – Michael Chuah, the Director



Week 9 – Asiatic Film Analysis ( Malaysian Cinema )



Week 10 – Film Spectatorship, Psychoanalysis and the Audience



Journal Week 11 – Film Stars



Journal Week 12 – Film Commerce Blockbuster



Journal Week 13 – Filming the Real – Documentary, Non-Realism and the New Aesthetic Realism



Week 14 – Filming Motions and Manifesto



List of Mentions

13 & A ; 14

Week 3 – Film Genre ( I ) Puting the Foundations

In An Introduction to Genre Theory, “indeed, a genre in any medium can be seen as incarnating certain values and ideological assumption” , said Daniel Chandler on the definition of genre. Red River ( 1948 ) was a authoritative western movie directed by Howard Hawks that focused on the issue of rebellion go oning in a cattle thrust. This movie revolved around a merciless, hard-as-nails rancher Tom Dunson.

A merger of genres can be noticed in this movie. However, the primary genre is decidedly western, which was proven with a straightforward secret plan. Just like any other typical western movie, Red River set a subject on archetypical struggles such as cowpunchers vs. Native Americans who fought over lands and cattles ( filmsite, n.d. ) . Besides, western movies normally take topographic point at rivers and comeuppances and this is why the cinematography was located at Arizona and Mexico ( Nixon, n.d. ) . There is besides the genre of action in this movie where conflicts and deliverances occurred in this movie. For illustration, detonations happened when Dunson’s passenger car caught on fire.

In the construct of empiricist quandary, we have to insulate the common features which are normally portrayed in certain genres of movies to understand the movies better. For case, we know that gunplaies normally exist in western movies like how Dunson and others fired their guns while siting on their horsebacks. A stereotyped scene of stampede occurred, excessively when the cattles and Equus caballuss all of a sudden charged in fright in the thick of their journey.

Week 4 – Film Genre ( II ) Rewriting the Rules – Genre Fusion

In hebdomad 4, both sub-genres and genre merger have been introduced to turn out the ability to spread out one’s creativeness in film-making. Alternatively of merely being stuck with the general and common genres, genre merger provides the chance to demo more assortments to the audience.

One of the really primary sub-genres is movie noir, which is under the class of crime-gangster or thriller movies. ‘Noir’ literally means ‘black’ , under a direct interlingual rendition in French. Film noir started manner back in the early 1940s, when most managers were extremely inspired by the dramatic American offense fiction with the imagination of German expressionism ( filmnoirfoundation, n.d. ) . Out of the Past ( 1947 ) and Sweet Smell of Success ( 1957 ) are a few illustrations of movies that portrayed the sub-genre of movie noir. This is because these movies displayed the typical features like holding aggressively delianeted shadows and blunt duologues. Harmonizing to Schrader, “American ‘tough’ moral understrata, the hard-bitten school was waiting with predetermined conventions of heroes, minor characters, secret plans, duologue and themes” . The ‘hard-boiled’ tradition gives the characters a really rugged kind of moving and speech production ( cindytsutsumi, n.d. ) .

Near Dark ( 1987 )

Near Dark, a movie directed by Kathryn Bigelow in 1987 is an illustration of a movie with genre merger. One of its genres is supernatural where this movie focuses on the lives of a lamia group. The behavior of a stereotyped lamia are shown in this movie, such as lamias acquiring burnt under the exposure of the Sun and besides how they to the full rely on blood to last. Besides that, the location of the movie is a little town, like merely any other lamia movies where they wish their secret will non be disclosed. Besides supernatural, it besides contains the western genre where the characters in this movie are dressed up in modern cowpuncher expressions, populating in farms or the countryside and speech production in a western tone. The genre of thriller exists in this movie excessively

when it involves the day-to-day wonts of lamias trailing and runing for nutrient ; along with the gruesome and barbarous violent death.

Week 6 – Film Authorship ( I ) Puting Claims

Western movies seem to be the best manner to show and show the history, fables and myths of American yesteryear and phantasies they had. Howard Hawks, an natural manager was well-known for being a maestro and veteran in picturing Western in his movies.

There are many possible ways to make Western movies and Howard Hawks’ method in “Rio Bravo” ( 1959 ) was somewhat dissimilar from “Red River” , a 1948 movie directed by him every bit good. Having John Wayne as the lead character for both of the movies, “Rio Bravo” was considered to be one of the best public presentations he did. The chapeau that he put on in this movie was the exact same one in “Red River” , of all time since his playing in John Ford’s “Stagecoach” ( Ebert, 2009 ) . Besides that, “Rio Bravo” seemed to hold the absence of heroic nature ( Malcolm, 1999 ) . Unlike “Red River” , it truly provided a great environment of comeuppances and etc.

On top of that, seeing him taking away the kernel from a genre that he had already portrayed in “Red River” , he stopped utilizing the Fordian individuality of the Wild West as a isolated desert where Western cowpunchers and adventurers wandered and brawled ( Allen, n.d. ) . As an option, he presented a gentrified, about middle-class boundary line town where heroes are withstand to be introduced in the traditional and stereotyped manner. As a contrast to the movie “Red River” , “Rio Bravo” was more of moderate, economical and besides utmost movie. Unlike the former, it provided a wide-ranging feeling due to the brave positiveness and luxury spirit ( Lim, 2007 ) .

In a nutshell, Hollywood manager Howard Hawks and film star John Wayne were so compatible that they worked on five movies together. The chemical science of them were fantastic that “Rio Bravo” was produced with such strength. It truly gives away the conventional image of western movies being boring. Alternatively, it came out to be hysterical and impressive action scenes

Week 8 – Michael Chuah, the Director

In hebdomad 8, a Malayan manager was invited to give a talk on his directing experience and to portion his pre-film industry life. His name is Michael Chuah and he is well-known for his movies, “Fist of Dragon” and “Firefly” . Undeniably, dozenss of film makers have been inspired by Hong Kong’s popular soldierly humanistic disciplines films as the criterion of first-class soldierly humanistic disciplines movies. In order to truly earn the audience’s attending, the action movies have to be able to show antic stage dancing and out-of-the-box stunt work. However, Chuah is one of them who got astonied and therefore, he largely involves soldierly humanistic disciplines as portion of the chief component in his movies. Therefore, he took up Wushu lessons and one time became a province representative for it.

Furthermore, Chuah admitted that his motive to make soldierly humanistic disciplines movies came from his deep esteem on Jackie Chan and Jet Li as both are respectable histrions in making stunt plants. He besides shared his discouragement when “Fist of Dragon” was announced that it was banned in China due to the force and use of black threes being portrayed in the movie. He gave out his biggest attempt in converting the censoring board in China but it came down to no help.

Apart from that, Chuah besides gave his two cents on being in the movie industry – the good and the bad. The bad is force per unit area will ever be on his shoulders and there will ever be struggles behind the scenes, whether affecting the dramatis personae or the crew. The good is every attempt that was put out will be paid in the terminal and everything will be worth it.

Other than soldierly humanistic disciplines, Chuah implemented horror and comedy elements in his movies as he has ever wanted to give fluctuations to his audience.

Week 9 – Asiatic Film Analysis ( Malaysian Cinema )

In the 9th hebdomad, our category was introduced to the background and rudimentss of Asiatic Films and peculiarly, Malayan Cinema. It was shown that dozenss of application of western movies that were developed had been a factor in the growing of our local independent film makers.

Many originative film makers have contributed in set uping Malayan Cinema. For illustration, the great late Tan Sri Datuk Amar Dr. P. Ramlee was the best all-around our state has seen in so many old ages. This movie manager semen histrion were featured onSeniman Bujang Lapok( 1961 ) andThe Legend of Hang Tuah( 1956 ) . Besides that, Yasmin Ahmad was another unbelievable manager and film writer who ever put a touch of sensitive issues in her movies. Furthermore, a Malaysian-Australian popular manager named James Wan won legion awards on his worldwide acclaimed movies likeThe Conjuring( 2013 ) andFast and Furious 7( 2013 ) .

Thomas Schatz one time said that use of generic usage goes on if genres’ cultural significance is preserved and it will allow the audience to be interested when the film makers allow their films to include an extended exposure of genres. Robert Warshow supported the statement by saying that the audience are tired of seeing the same things presented by film makers repeatedly.

Besides that, harmonizing to Barbara Creed and her survey in Film and Psychoanalysis, she believed that non all theoreticians took Sigmund Freud as an illustration. In fact, many paid more attending on Carl Gustav Jung and his guess on originals to hold better comprehension of films. The original that is being studied is a construct that concludes the underdeveloped of consciousness, which is anima that represents the feminine features in work forces and animosity that represents the masculine features in adult females.

Week 10 – Film Spectatorship, Psychoanalysis and the Audience

Taking a expression at Linda Williams’ theory on organic structure genres, it is divided into three different genres, which are erotica, horror and melodrama. Pornography happens to be in the lowest degree of cultural regards while horror is placed following to lowest. Despite that fact, melodrama is considered as a wider class of movies that contains a bigger system of surplus than erotica and horror.

There are a twosome of relevant features of bodily surplus of these three genres. There is ever a show of person being seen in an exceeding strong sight of emotion and feelings. Just like how Lisa Fremont from Alfred Hitchcock’s Rear Window was shown to be ever showing herself with high strength. Besides that, elements of sexual exhilaration exist to show the pathos side of melodrama that are able to do sexual pleasance, sadness or even fright.

Journal Week 11 – Film Stars

The movie showed how Bill, an upper-class adult male ever tried to manage issues with the low-class people by money such as rupturing the hundred dollar hard currency into half in petition for the cab driver to wait for him outside the sign of the zodiac. In symbolism wise, the invitees who appeared in the Sommerton castle were seen have oning Venetian masks that have ever been stand foring promiscuousness. Besides that, the Ishtar star that was put as ornament in Mr. Ziegler house symbolized sex and birthrate. Christmas visible radiations and ornaments were seen everyplace throughout the movie except in Sommerton castle as it is considered as a topographic point “where the rainbow ends” as colorful points are non seen.

The marks of boding were showed in “Eyes Wide Shut” . First, two theoretical accounts who seduced Bill by ask foring him to “where the rainbow ends” that was mentioning to the dark ritual Acts of the Apostless that took topographic point in Sommerton castle. Furthermore, the adult male who seduced Alice during the party was from Magyar and it was known that Hungarian’s civilization involved work forces moving as Masterss and handling adult females as slaves ; merely like how Ziegler saw Amanda as a hooker/slave.

Film Stars

Nicole Kidman has been found moving in a few other thriller movies. This portrays her influence on the artistic determination on her pick of movie playing, which represents her auteurship. Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman represented an image of comfortable and the elite in movies as they were the “It” twosome back when the film was filmed. The mark of paradox was shown where the histrions gave an image of what we can merely woolgather and desire of but can ne’er be a portion of it ; a sense of extraordinary where we all know that such things do be.

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PangYuenTheng_004074_FilmTheory ( w11 )

Journal Week 12 – Film Commerce Blockbuster

The manufacturers and distributers of every movie barely put themselves as makers of film-related merchandises as merchants. However, they are responsible to licence the right in order to hold other companies selling these goods (, 2014 ) . Nevertheless, many losingss were occurred that resulted to many studios and licensees being excess heedful and attentive towards making and bring forthing wares. As an illustration, plentifulness of people concurred that points related with Star Wars: Episode I-The Phantom Menace ( 1999 ) were undeniably bootless.

Merchandise invented that were inspired by Hollywood blockbusters were non given sufficient clip to turn out and be presented to the universe and the following thing, a new scope of merchandises were already hotfooting in. Many of people see the result of ware being associated with how successful the blockbuster is because the consumers will likely non be interested with merchandises that are linked to movies that they hold in disfavor. Examples of great movies that attract extra grosss are movie franchise such as Harry Potter, Marvel movies and Star Wars because they systematically and continuously to actuate excess net incomes.

Journal Week 13 – Filming the Real – Documentary, Non-Realism and the New Aesthetic Realism

Andre Bazin mentioned that certain constructs that showed a neorealist movie in his articled called, “Bicycle Thief” . Harmonizing to him, a neorealist movie ever portrays a narrative that revolves around low-class people. For illustration, the movie directed by Vittorio De Sica’s “Bicycle Thief” told a narrative about a hapless worker posting advertisement measures around the metropolis that got his bike stolen. Furthermore, the worker, Antonio Ricci will shortly be fired if he did non happen his bike. Almost all the elements in this movie suited the descriptions of a neorealist movie. In order to wholly understand a movie, every scene has to be placed together to hold a significance established because they are non strong plenty to be stand-alone.

Vittorio De Sica’s “Bicycle Thieves” was outstanding illustration of neorealist movie because it had no mise-en-scene. There was non built-up sets and every scene was existent. Camera angles and lightings were non the primary concerns of the manager. Everything was shot in broad shootings because we could see different things happening in a image at the same time. Some people might happen the other things shown in the image were unneeded but these small things were cogent evidences of this movie. For illustration, a scene showed kids were inquiring money from a adult male proved that they were traveling through post-world war II and under despairing times. With different things in a image, viewing audiences get to take what is of import and what is non.

Journal Week 14 – Filming Movements and Manifesto

Normally daring and experimental, these two words are oftenly used to depict the term “underground films” . Historically back in 1957, a movie critic named Manny Farber coined this term in a magazine namedCommentto stand for the under-rated and under-appreciated managers such as Raoul Walsh and Howard Hawks. Four old ages subsequently, Stan Vanderbeek, an unconventional, American energizer semen film maker used the term once more inFilm Quarterly( Everleth, 2010 ) . This belowground movie motion did non truly earn much attending until 1961 was over with the release of a movie,Flaring Animalsby Jack Smith. In the approaching old ages, many followed Smith’s footfalls and strived to make more belowground movies including celebrated a popular American creative person named Andy Warhol who directedChelsea Girls.

Lars von Trier successfully directed an unbelievable and alone movie that someway seems like he was being contemptuous at what is traditionally thought as something morally wrong to do merriment of those mentally-challenged people. The characters appeared to be abandoned with their guiltless hopes and disenchantments by non leting them to manage the isolation that they feel ( Schwartz, n.d. ) .

List of Mentions

Allen, J. n.d.See It Big: Rio Bravo | Reverse Shot. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 14 Jan 2014 ] .

Chandler, Daniel. 1997. An Introduction to Genre Theory. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on: 4 December 2013 ]

Cindytsutsumi. n.d. 1940s American Film Noir [ online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on: 13 December 2013 ]

Ebert, R. 2009.Rio Bravo Movie Review & A ; Film Summary ( 1959 ) | Roger Ebert. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 14 Jan 2014 ] .

Everleth, M. 2010.What’s An Underground Film, Anyway? | Underground Film Journal. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 13 Mar 2014 ] . n.d. Film Noir [ online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on: 13 December 2013 ] 2014.The selling procedure – Trading – movie, film, manufacturer, music, vocal. [ on-line ]

Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 28 Feb 2014 ] . n.d. Western movies. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on: 5 December 2013 ] 2007.Neorealism and Pure Cinema: The Bicycle Thieves | theory kit. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 4 Mar 2014 ] .

Lim, D. 2007.`Rio Bravo ‘ deserves a hallelujah. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 14 Jan 2014 ] .

Malcolm, D. 1999.Howard Hawks: Rio Bravo. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 14 Jan 2014 ] .

Mooney, J. 2013.The Bicycle Thieves and Italian Neorealism. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 4 Mar 2014 ] .

Nixon, Rob. n.d. Red River ( 1948 ) . [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on: 5 December 2013 ]

Schwartz, D. n.d.Full Alert Film Review: The Idiots. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 13 Mar 2014 ] .

Williams, L. 1991.Film Bodies: Gender, Genre and Excess. [ e-book ] California: University of California Press. pp. 2-13.

Available through: hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed: 13 Feb 2014 ] .



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