International Students Travel Patterns Marketing Essay

Several research have been done on international pupils travel forms, behaviours, motives and outgos. In 2008 the Higher Education Ministry Marketing and International Education Division manager Dr Mohamed Nasser Mohamed Noor together with the in-migration section did an observation on Numberss of international pupils that came to Malaysia and found that the Numberss has increased 30 % from the old twelvemonth which is 65,000 compared to 48,000 in twelvemonth 2006. The entire figure is the amount of international pupils that enrolled in both of the populace and the private international establishment of higher instruction. Harmonizing to Ahmad Nazri ( 2005 ) “ by the twelvemonth 2010 the authorities expected and targeted 100,000 international pupils further their surveies in Malaysia ” and since so, legion of survey either on the travel forms, behaviours, motives or outgos of the international pupils in Malaysia had been done by public and private university pupils.

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Dato ‘ Sri Ng Yen Yen, ( 2009 ) concludes that “ Malaysia ‘s touristry industry is the 2nd ( 2nd ) highest subscriber to the state ” and it contributed significantly to the Malayan economic system. By importing and having more international pupils they will play the function as a domestic tourer and besides a host to sing friends and relations ( VFR ) who came down sing Malaysia. Surveies have proven that the international pupils and their VFR spends a batch in domestically which will give an impact towards the state economic system. For 2005, the Malayan authorities estimated that the international pupils have contributed RM1.5 billion to the Malaysia economic system. Tourism has a assortment economic system impacts. Either direct or indirect parts. The most direct part towards the economic system is utilizing local transit like coach, train or domestic flight and housing to local adjustments. Other than that, tourer outgo towards the attractive forces such as amusement park, museum, shopping composite and eating houses besides been categorized as a direct part. All in all, Malaysia is still missing of observation on this issues because other than advancing and spread out the information on Malaysia being the international high instruction, the authorities did n’t put in anything to keep and prolong the fact that there will be more than 100, 000 international pupils that traveling to inscribe in local and international establishments from public and private universities to public and private colleges.

Table 1

Top 10 states of international pupils in Malaysia.

Rank

State

Numberss OF Students

1

China

6423

2

Nigeria

5821

3

Iran

5550

4

Indonesia

5358

5

Yemen

2218

6

Bangladesh

1992

7

Sudan

1845

8

KOREA

1718

9

Pakistan

1310

10

Thailand

1213

Entire

33448

Beginning: Department of Immigration, Malaysia ( as of 31 October 2010 )

Table 1 as stated above shows the top 10 states of international pupils in Malaysia in 2010. A complete bill of exchange of the top 10 states of international pupils in Malaysia will be attach as Appendix A for future mention. From the tabular array, it shows that, bulk of the international pupils are from China. International pupils have their ain motive or purpose on why they study abroad on certain state. These motives can be clarified as multi dimension where it may pull by assorted factors. One of the assorted factors may affect push and pull motivations in conveying them or taking them out of their comfort zone. It may non be the instruction factors that attract the international pupils to analyze abroad it possibly the finish itself. The attraction of a finish harmonizing to Metin Kozak on his “ comparative analysis of tourer motives by nationality and finishs ” article is an of import component that pulls the tourer in their determination devising towards the finish.

On the planetary graduated table as per reference by Weaver and Oppermann, domestic travellers is one of the biggest subscriber to the state where there pass a batch compared to the international travellers. International pupils who stays in a peculiar state for more than a twelvemonth and have still have their pupil license is consider as domestic tourer. Therefore, whenever they are out holiday or disbursement in the state ( 40kilometers off from their occupant ) itself, there are call domestic tourer. There are legion of factors in why the international pupils travel domestically during their survey in a peculiar state. To add up, the Malayan authorities has come out with vacation ‘s interruptions or vacation seasons throughout the twelvemonth non merely for school ‘s but besides for working labours. This vacation interruptions and vacation season more or less a direct and indirect motive to all occupants of Malaysia to travel out and hold their holiday and spend. Table 2 as stated below is the vacation interruptions and vacation season in Malaysia throughout the twelvemonth.

Table 2

Holiday interruptions and holiday seasons in Malaysia.

Name OF HOLIDAY

Date OF HOLIDAY

New Year

01.01.2010

THAIPUSAM

30.01.2010

CHINESE NEW Year

14 – 15.02.2010

MAULIDURRASUL ( PROPET MUHAMMAD ‘S BIRTHDAY )

26.02.2010

LABOR DAY

01.05.2010

WESAK DAY

28.05.2010

KINGS BIRTHDAY

05.06.2010

ISRAK MIKRAJ

10.07.2010

NUZUL QURAN

27.08.2010

NATIONAL DAY

31.08.2010

HARI RAYA AIDILFITRI

10 – 11.09.2010

DEEPAVALI

05.11.2010

HARI RAYA QURBAN

17.11.2010

AWAL MUHARRAM

07.12.2010

Christmas

25.12.2010

Beginning: Department of ( as of 31 August 2010 )

1.1 Problem Statement

Based on the Ninth Malaysian Plan that Malaysia is going the hub of instruction due the alone instruction system, Malaysia has a scope of makings and classs that has been provided in legion establishments from public and private universities to public and private colleges. Presently more and more international pupils all over the universe interested in analyzing in Malaysia. The chief attractive forces that attracts the international pupils to analyze off from their place may be because of the low-cost life cost and tuition fees. Other than that the well planned substructure and civilization, linguistic communication and heritage. There is a batch to inquiry in the affair on why or what influenced them to come and analyze in Malaysia.

Majority of the international pupils that enrolled in the Malayan establishments are from China and Indonesia and followed by the Middle East and the African states. Other than that, Malaysia besides received great feedbacks from Japan, India, the United States and the United Kingdom. Other than the state that listed, Malayan authorities had planned to advance and spread out Malaysian international High Education at more than 70 finishs worldwide. The impact that Malaysia will acquire based on the hub higher instruction is monolithic growing on touristry economic system. The more international pupils that came for instruction are effort to remain longer and at one time doing them a domestic tourer which have more disbursement power than the local occupants that are besides known as domestic tourer. For that ground, a findings should be compile on the international pupils outgo, travel behaviours, travel forms and motives during their survey period in Malaysia so that the authorities understand the tendencies, demand and demand of the international pupils for future intents.

1.2 Research survey aims

This survey is aimed to accomplish the undermentioned aims:

To look into why the international pupils chose Malaysia on prosecuting their surveies off from their place state

To place the motives that persuades the international pupils to go and pass in Malaysia during their survey period.

To reexamine how frequently the international pupils travel ( domestically ) during their survey period in Malaya

To make a research in what are the chief activities and attractive forces were visited by the international pupils during their travel in Malaysia.

To look into how much do the international pupils spends during their travel in Malaysia ( domestically )

To place on what did the Malayan authorities did to keep or to advance this blooming activity of absorbing international pupils to their state.

1.3 Research survey inquiry

Based on the statement stated before, as per follows are the research inquiries:

Why the international pupils chose Malaysia on prosecuting their surveies off from their place state?

What are the motives that persuade the international pupils to go and pass in Malaysia during their survey period?

How frequently the international pupils travel ( domestically ) during their survey period in Malaysia?

What are the chief activities and attractive forces were visited by the international pupils during their travel in Malaysia?

How much the international pupils spend during their travel in Malaysia ( domestically ) ?

What did the Malayan authorities did to keep or to advance this blooming activity of absorbing international pupils to their state?

Scope of survey

This survey will merely concentrate on the travel forms, behaviour, motive and outgo of international pupils in both of local and international establishments from public and private universities to public and private colleges in Selangor. The aggregation of informations will be conduct at four ( 4 ) good known local and international establishments in Selangor, KDU University College ( Damansara ) , Segi University College ( Damansara ) , University Malaya ( UM ) and University Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia. The four ( 4 ) listed establishments were picked out from a list of public and private local and international establishments in Selangor provided by the Ministry of Higher Education ( www.jpt.mohe.gov.my ) . The four ( 4 ) listed establishments were picked out for this survey is because of the location convenience and these four ( 4 ) establishments were believe as they are good set up establishment in Selangor and were believe to increase the Numberss of international pupils in Malaysia in the hereafter.

1.5 Important of survey

Malaysia is going the hub of instruction as the Ministry of Education is taking for the best and excellence instruction to pull the international pupils from all over the universe to come and analyze in Malaysia. The purpose of this survey is to analyze the part of international pupils towards Malaysia economic system. By analyzing on the international pupils going forms, behaviours, motives and outgo is of import for the authorities and state where the authorities will cognize where the direct and indirect economic parts came from and who or what are the major subscribers to the state. By look intoing the parts and the subscriber, non merely the authorities but besides the industry and the academic or instruction sector will try to understand the economic impact of the state that they had been brought in. Education sector for some state play a really of import function on keeping on their state economic system. Generally instruction activities will take to tourism activities and indirectly benefits the state economic system. However, by analyzing the motives and the feature of the international pupils we could analyze what are the “ cardinal points ” of the attractive forces that attracted them so the authorities or the state could upgrade and keep the attractive forces for future intents. This is really of import for Malayan Tourism board to understand the international pupils markets towards Malaysia. With this survey it will convey equal benefits to the Malaysia instruction and Malaysia touristry sector. This survey will besides assist the authorities maintain path on the Numberss of the international pupils that came in accomplishing the mark 100,000 international pupils by the twelvemonth 2010.

Chapter TWO

Literature reappraisal

2.0 Introduction

Literature reappraisal is needed in order to do this survey relevant and applicable. Most of the literature reappraisal is from old research and surveies on international pupils travel forms, behaviours, outgo and motives. In clear uping the research aims and research inquiry that was reference in chapter one, literature reappraisal is the extreme of import constituent in this survey. Assorted different beginnings were used in turn uping relevant information on this survey. These includes library catalogue ( Elib.kdu.edu.my, webpac.kdu.edu.my and elsivier-ebooks.com ) , on-line informations based ( bibliography, abstracts and thesis, magazine and intelligence ) and most of related diary articles were reviewed from Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Journal of Tourism Studies, Journal of Travel Research, Journal of Vacation Marketing and other relevant diary articles that are related to the surveies. After reexamining most of the diary articles, it seems that literature reappraisal on this survey is limited here in Malaysia which means this survey was non taken into a serious treatment.

Theoretical and conceptual model is been analyzed in this survey in order to place the chief theory or factors and besides to place restriction of the survey. As per listed are the findings from all the literature and it has been summarized consequently. The literature that related to international pupils travel forms, behaviours, outgo and motives were put into 1 ) Push and Pull factors: Motivation on survey abroad, 2 ) Push and Pull factors: Motivation on going domestically, 3 ) Pull factors: motive in passing 4 ) Most of the theories were found assist us to understand the research inquiry that have been stated in chapter one as per below.

The research inquiries:

What motivates international pupils choose Malaysia on prosecuting their surveies.

What are the motives that persuade the international pupils to go and pass in Malaysia during their survey period?

How frequently the international pupils travel ( domestically ) during their survey period in Malaysia?

What are the chief activities and attractive forces were visited by the international pupils during their travel in Malaysia?

How much the international pupils spend during their travel in Malaysia ( domestically ) ?

What did the Malayan authorities did to keep or to advance this blooming activity of absorbing international pupils to their state?

2.1 Push and Pull factors: Motivation on survey abroad

A figure of theory that been studied on the motive on pupils study abroad. Push and pull factors are the chief factors in driving pupils to analyze abroad. Push factors is a intangible factor where it ‘s forcing the pupils to travel out from place and survey abroad and traveling out from their comfort zone due to the socioeconomic, economic, political and other fortunes that involved in their place state while for pull factors is a touchable factor where a finish is drawing the pupils to analyze at this peculiar state possibly because the stable economic system, political relations, substructure and other benefits of the host state. In simple words, the relation of pull and push factors are link to the finish pick of the international pupils depending on the finish attraction, influence and satisfaction of the finish.

The international pupils market in coming to a peculiar state will bring forth direct or indirect economic system impact as it a turning planetary market tendency today. An probe made by Jianvittayakit on “ the travel motive as the factor of international pupils chose foreign university ” in prosecuting their survey stating that educational factor in peculiar state is the chief motive to the international pupils to come to that finish and non the finish attraction. With the 88.63 per centum response rate on the research study, it shows that the travel and academic push motive are of import for the pupil societal life where these pupils have desire to go to other state and see a new life in larning a new civilization, heritage and linguistic communication and fundamentally will derive more life and work experience. The consequences of the survey besides shows that the pull factors of the finishs and as following are the chief motives on why pupils are motivate to travel to a peculiar finishs. The first 1 is the fiscal issues is where the economic system of the state is stabilize and followed by tourer attractive force and safety security of the finish. The findings show that both pull and push factors does hold its ain factors in influence and actuate the pupils to analyze abroad. Table 3 as stated below are the model on the survey of push and pull factors.

Table 3

Travel and academic Pull and Push factor motive

Beginning: Jianvittayakit, L ( 2010 ) An probe of travel motive as a factor in international pupils pick of a foreign university: A Thailand instance survey

In order to understand tourer pick of leisure finish, an analysis on the motive factor on what draw the tourer to the finish is needed. From the survey of Zhang, J. & A ; Marcussen C. ( 2007 ) on “ Tourist motive, market cleavage and selling schemes ” stated that the pull factors of a peculiar finish is chiefly about the cultural, heritage and the natural attractive forces of the finishs. The tourer features besides play the function in taking a finish. Example “ metropolis ledgeman ” is a term for tourers that like to go in the metropolis compared to “ nature beach ” is a term for tourers that like to go where beach are involve. It will besides affect the activities and the travel and disbursement forms due to important different between the two ( 2 ) feature. In the analysis besides reference that the finish developer demand to understand the demands, wants and demands. The pull and push factors that been highlighted in the survey in demoing what makes the tourer chose the finish is fundamentally every bit same as the tabular array that shown above.

A survey by Mazzarol, T. & A ; Soutar, G. ( 2007 ) on the “ Push-Pull factors act uponing international pupil ‘s choice of instruction finish ” stated the consequences on why the international pupils chose peculiar finish on prosecuting their survey. The chief push factors stated that, due to miss of higher educational plan in their place states made the international pupils study abroad. Other than that engineering development and linguistic communication besides play a function in push factors. For the pull factors, Mazzarol, T. & A ; Soutar, G. ( 2007 ) stated that there are six ( 6 ) chief factors that truly pull the international pupils. Information on the host state is needed where the international pupils may hold more cognition and consciousness on the host state. If the host state already been recognize with good repute, it easy can be recommend by the household, equals and instructors. The cost issues are besides one of the chief pull factors. The cost issues include the life disbursals, the travel cost, tuition fees and others. A cost issue is of import to the international pupils because there have restriction on money. The following factor is the environment and the geographics factors. Environment and geographics factors cover the clime and safety and security of the finish. No 1 wants to travel to a finish where there are natural catastrophes. Basically the push and pull factors can be define same as the tabular array 3 shown supra.

To sum up the push and pull factors on pupils study abroad, it looks like the push factor may be the chief ground or motive for pupils to analyze abroad. The analyze shows that, the restriction of the place state such as higher instruction plans and economical and political wise makes them travel and spread out their skyline to another state where it is more chance for them.

2.2 Push and Pull factors: Motivation on going domestically

Peoples travel to full make full their demands, want and demand such nutrient, clime, household, wellness, instruction and others and traveling may be domestically or internationally. Peoples have assorted and different ground on why they travel domestic or international.

A survey by Kozak, M ( 2000 ) on “ Comparative analysis of tourer motives by nationality and finishs ” is chiefly about researching the differences between the motives of those who are from different states going to the same finishs and 2nd, between the motives of those who are from the same states and going to two different finishs

2.3 Pull factors: Motivation on disbursement

Chapter THREE

Methodology

3.0 Introduction

This chapter will hold a clearer position on the travel forms, behaviours, motives and outgos by the international pupils in Malaysia. This chapter will cover the research design, the research instruments, the population and sample and informations aggregation. The clip skyline that will be use in this survey is transverse – sectional design where this survey will take topographic point merely in twelvemonth 2011. Cross – sectional design is different from longitudinal design where cross – sectional design merely collects informations at one individual clip compared to longitudinal design where the period of roll uping the information is a more small longer.

3.1 Research Design

In sing the research aims and inquiry, the quantitative methods will be utilizing in this survey in understanding the travel forms, behaviours, motives and outgos by the international pupils in Malaysia. This survey is utilizing study research method to acquire more understanding about the respondents. On the planing the survey research, these undermentioned stairss were involve. First is garnering all the literature that is strongly related and relevant to the survey to acquire understanding about the topics and to educate ego. Following measure is place the research objectives together with coming out with the research inquiry on the topic. After placing both of the research aims and inquiry, the right research methods were selected to transport the survey. Research and analyse on the research instruments will be develop as the online questionnaire study. Traveling on is the measure where choosing the population and sample of universities and respondents who will affect in this survey. When the population and try together with the questionnaire has been approved, administering of the online questionnaire study to the sample phase will be managing. The consequences the on-line questionnaire study will be cod and analyze for its dependability and serviceability. And the terminal phase of the research design is analysing the information that have been cod and to construe the consequence.

3.2 Research Instruments

Online questionnaire study and normal study documents will be used in this survey because it is more appropriate compared than interviews session. Using on-line questionnaire study will salvage clip and cost due to this study will take topographic point in four ( 4 ) local and international establishments in Selangor, KDU University College ( Damansara ) , Segi University College ( Damansara ) , University Malaya ( UM ) and University Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia ( UIA ) in short period of clip. And the advantage of online questionnaire study is, the respondents which are the international pupils will hold ain clip on replying the study.

A structured online questionnaire study will be given to respective lectors for all four ( 4 ) establishments. The lectors will be ask to give out the online questionnaire to the international pupils. The questionnaire was developed to roll up informations on international pupils travel forms, behaviours, motives and outgos in Malaysia. The online questionnaire study is in English where English is the linguistic communication that be easy understand by the international pupils in Malaysia. The online questionnaire study Begin with a briefly debut on the intent of this survey informing the respondents that all the study information is will be merely usage by this research and all information that been portion will be wholly confidential.

The online questionnaire study is a stopping point ended inquiry and intentionally made in three parts to avoid confusion during the studies. Demographics characteristic inquiry such as gender, age, state of beginning, plan perusal in Malaysia is in portion one of the online questionnaire study and on the 2nd portion of the online questionnaire study is mensurating the on why the international pupils chose Malaysia in prosecuting their surveies, what motivates the international pupils to go, how much the international pupils spend during their travel. Both were in stopping point ended questionnaire. The last portion of the questionnaire is scaling inquiry. Five point graduated table scope from 1 – strongly disagree to 5 – strongly agree which requires respondents to circle one ( 1 ) point for each inquiry

3.3 Population and Sample

This survey will be conduct at four ( 4 ) good known local and international establishments in Selangor, KDU University College ( Damansara ) , Segi University College ( Damansara ) , University Malaya ( UM ) and University Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia ( UIA ) which will affect their international pupils. As per reference in chapter one ( 1 ) , the four ( 4 ) listed intuitions were picked out from a list of public and private local and international establishments in Selangor provided by the Ministry of Higher Education ( www.jpt.mohe.gov.my ) . The four ( 4 ) listed establishments were picked out for this survey is because of the location convenience and these four ( 4 ) establishments were believe as they are good set up establishment in Selangor and were believe to increase the Numberss of international pupils in Malaysia in the hereafter.

Majority of the international pupils from each establishment that stated above will be affect for this survey. And from the list, 100 international pupils from each establishment will be selected by utilizing the random trying method. Random trying method were chosen because to avoid prejudice during the whole survey. The 100 international pupils will be choose via the computing machine utilizing the SPSS version 17 out from the sample frame which will be provide by the establishments. By executing this, each pupil will hold the same opportunity of being selected significance there will be no biased. The sample frame consists of all the international pupils that are analyzing in the establishment. A transcript of the online questionnaire study will be attach as Appendix B for future mention.

3.4 Data Collection

The informations aggregation for all four ( 4 ) establishments will take topographic point in early March 2011 where new semester will take topographic point. In order to do the informations aggregation of this survey flawless, a visit to the disposal office of all four ( 4 ) establishments will be made in order to procure permission in making the online study. An official missive besides will be given to do it official. A transcript of the official missive of executing the online study will attach as Appendix C for future mention. Harmonizing to all four ( 4 ) disposal officer, the easiest manner to make for the international pupils in finishing the study is during their computing machine categories. The site or the URL of the online questionnaire study will be given to the several lector and the site or the URL will be given to the respondents at the terminal of their category.

3.5 Data Analysis

In analysing the information that will be cod, frequence analysis will be usage in sum uping the information. Frequency analysis is one of the descriptive statistic constituents where it merely can be computed by the computing machine. Analyzing by utilizing the SPSS version 17, the sum-up of the informations will be shown in histogram signifiers. Other than the frequence analysis methods, the qi – square trial besides will be usage to prove the relationship between the demographics and the travel forms, behaviours, motives and outgos of the international pupils. Correlation and arrested development besides will be use in this information analysis. Both methods will be use in order to analyse two ( 2 ) variables whether they associated with each other or otherwise.

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