International Expansion Of The Operations Of Mcgregor Bfa Economics Essay

The study contains inside informations of London as one of the universe ‘s fiscal and concern capitals and focuses upon relevant issues within the managerial environment.

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McGregor BFA

This study has been produced in response to the Chief Executives request that we investigate the possibility of set uping an International operation. The study establishes an apprehension of the environment and discusses chances for successful enlargement of the concern.

McGregor BFA was established in 1998 as a consequence of Naspers ‘ acquisition and amalgamation of BFA-Net and McGregor Information services. McGregor BFA supplies real-time and historical cardinal Investment information on South African listed companies.

The amalgamation realigned the resources of both companies and resulted in the sweetening of informations and merchandises. The combined companies have over 25 old ages of operating experience in the South African Market

Since so, McGregor BFA has become an information spouse to a cross subdivision of clients in South Africa.

In 2000, M-Web acquired 50 % of McGregor BFA from Naspers. The involvements in McGregor BFA held by Naspers and M-Web, means that the company has the backup and support of one of the largest media companies in the state.

Why London?

The Management squad researched a figure of possible locales for the enlargement of the concern. There are important grounds that led us to the determination that London presents the concern with the best possible chances for future enlargement.

Harmonizing to London First Centre, The Inward Investment Agency for London ( December 2003 ) , London is Europe ‘s taking fiscal Centre and is one of the top three Centres in the universe alongside Tokyo and New York. In footings of International Financial Markets, London holds the largest market portion in many countries.

London is the largest International Banking Centre in Europe and is estimated to hold a 50 % portion of all European Investment Banking Activity. Most International Banks either have central offices or offices in London. There are soon 468 foreign Bankss in London, which is significantly more that other European Centres like Frankfurt with 267 and Paris with 266 or even New York with 253. This presents McGregor BFA with a important mark client base.

Figure 1: Economist Intelligence Unit ( EIU ) Business Environment Rankings ( Source: hypertext transfer protocol: //, 2003 ) .

The EIU planetary concern rankings step the quality of attraction of the concern environment. The theoretical account considers 70 factors, across 10 classs, which affect the chances for, and hinderances to, the behavior of concern. The theoretical account is used to bring forth tonss and rankings for the following five old ages. The UK holds 4th place in the ranking and tonss good across a whole scope of concern classs. The study predicts that it will stay an attractive concern location. ( Economist Intelligence Unit ( EIU ) , 2003 )

The Competitive Environment

Industry Analysis

Harmonizing to Porter ( 1998 ) there are five competitory forces that determine industry profitableness. These forces influence monetary value, costs and the investing required by the houses in an industry.

Potential Entrants

Menace of New Entrants

Dickering Power of Suppliers

Industry Rivals

Rivalry among Existing Firms



Dickering Power of Buyers

Menace of Substitute Products or Servicess


Figure 2: The Five Competitive Forces that Determine Industry Profitability ( Source: Porter, M.E. ( 1998 ) : Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, New York: Free Press ) .

Potential Entrants

New Entrants to the London market by and large have to follow a specializer attack. The presence of the Global information sellers such as Reuters, Bloomberg and Moneyline Telerate ensures that following a ‘One halt store ‘ attack is unachievable. The initial capital costs are really high and the Investing Market is loth to utilize the services of an unknown or new seller. This is an highly strong force in the analysis of this industry.

The Information Technology substructure required to run and keep the information systems is highly of import. Information users demand fast, accurate and dependable informations beginnings and they need to entree the information in the quickest possible manner. Issues such as waiter capacity and Internet bandwidth must be managed on a day-to-day footing. The nature of fiscal market information and trading requires, as a concern necessity, the execution of Disaster Recovery sites. This has become more prevailing in recent old ages given the current Terrorism Menace that the universe faces.

As a new participant in this market, we will hold to concentrate on our specializer accomplishments in analysis of the South African Equity market. Additionally, our merchandise scope and Internet bringing methods will stand us in good position. New entrants to this market topographic point must supply a merchandise or service that offers a important ‘value attention deficit disorder ‘ to the information user before they are considered.

“ If the marketer can plan typical goods or services unambiguously suiting purchasers ‘ activities, equipment and processs, a reciprocally good relationship will germinate. ” ( Lamb, Hair, McDaniel, Boshoff & A ; Terblanche, 2000 ) .


The information user ( purchaser ) in London has myriad options in footings of information beginnings. The London Stock Exchange entirely publishes a list of 26 registered informations sellers ( The London Stock Exchange Website, 2003 ) . This has a important consequence on the information sellers, as the Investing companies are cutting out the sellers who can non offer holistic or market specific content services.

The purchasers sit in a really strong place in that they have the power to shop about and travel to one of the other sellers should the demand arise, although this can be a dearly-won exercising. This state of affairs is compounded by the fact that purchasers are bespeaking shorter contract periods for the seller ‘s service and hold coupled this with more rigorous Service Level Agreements. This does hold a negative consequence on the direction of budgeting and calculating the rente income base, nevertheless the state of affairs is no different to what is soon being experienced in South Africa.

Porter ( 1998, p8 ) states that “ It has frequently been said that fulfilling purchaser demands is at the nucleus of success in concern enterprise ” . As a information seller we have to continually accommodate to the markets demands and make new merchandises or get new informations sets to run into the demand of the purchasers.

This force is closely related to new entrants as it highlights the costs that information sellers are faced with.


The menace of replacement merchandises or services is the weakest of the five forces that McGregor BFA has to postulate with. Although there are many sellers in the market, McGregor BFA is good placed to pull off this hazard. As a market specializer, the company has an advantage in that the merchandises and content focal point on a specific Emerging Market. The Competitive Advantage of the concern lies in the fact that the merchandises are alone in the South African and Global markets.

Best ( 1997, p143 ) states that “ The more utility merchandises available to clients, the easier it is for them to exchange. ” This intensifies competition and lowers profit possible and industry attraction. ” McGregor BFA is fortunate in that the alone nature of the merchandises negates the consequence of replacement merchandises

In some instances permutation of merchandises is a positive competitory force as users become accustomed to the workings of a peculiar sellers system. It is hard for them to alter to new merchandises as these merchandises frequently involve developing and devour a batch of the users clip. In the larger corporate environments where many users, across multiple sections, use the same system this is platitude. This type of state of affairs will go more evident if the concern is able to construct a strong user base before new rival merchandises are introduced to the market.


The providers to McGregor BFA have strong bargaining power, in peculiar the fiscal exchanges and market shapers who are the primary informations Godheads. Rosen ( 1995, p88 ) states that “ the power of providers becomes a powerful beginning when there are few dominant 1s and when the merchandises they sell are alone or differentiated ” . The providers have the power to bear down a premium for their information, as there is nowhere else for the sellers to get the content.

The providers besides dictate the mode in which information is sent to the sellers. This is dearly-won for the sellers, as they have to be able to provide for many different informations formats ( SQL, HTML, and ASCII ) and bringing mechanisms ( Cadmium, End of Day download, unrecorded [ real-time ] bringing ) .

The London Stock Exchange signed an confederation understanding with the Johannesburg Securities Exchange in April 2001. This understanding chiefly allows the two exchanges to leverage the bing client relationships of the other to increase grosss and to advance trade on each other ‘s market. This new venture has been a cardinal factor in the determination to urge London as the finish for international enlargement. This venture opens the door for McGregor BFA to aim fiscal establishments and other corporations who have present or future involvements in South African Equities.

McGregor BFA can leverage off its bing relationship with the Johannesburg Securities Exchange SA to have London Equity informations. This could be used to heighten our bing informations offering and better our viability in London.

Industry Rivals ( Rivalry amongst bing houses )

Porter ( 1998, p9 ) states that “ Finally, the strength of competition Acts of the Apostless likewise to the menace of entry. It determines the extent to which houses already in an industry will vie away the value they create for purchasers among themselves, go throughing it on to purchasers in low monetary values or dispersing it in higher costs of viing. ”

This was the most hard of the forces to mensurate and understand. However, the concern must go on to be cognizant of the fact that the markets are acquiring tougher to run in, with many sellers reconstituting operations and some implementing retrenchments to cut costs.

Other sellers have realised that traveling their concern globally would be the lone manner to spread out. Leo Swiontek, laminitis of Market Data Professionals, based in Chicago said that “ We ‘re at a stage where we ‘re functioning a peculiar market and if we do n’t desire to acquire passed up, we ‘re traveling to hold to get down spread outing into a more planetary presence. ” ( Inside Market Data, December 2002 ) .

The Managerial Environment

The Political Environment.

The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy. The democracy is entrenched and is sustained by free elections, freedom of address and unfastened and equal intervention through the legal system. These rules are common with the fundamental law and democratic ends of South Africa.

The rule behind Britain ‘s democracy is process whereby a general election is held, a maximal period of 5 old ages apart, when the people elect representatives ( the MP ‘s or Members of Parliament ) to the House of Commons. The House of Commons is formed from 659 constituencies and is the Legislative Authority for the United Kingdom (, 2003 ) .

The present opinion party is the Labour Party who soon holds 412 seats which equates to a bulk of 166. The chief resistance party is The Tories. 15 other parties hold the balance of the seats.

In the Labour Parties General Election Manifesto ( 2001 ) , they highlighted 10 cardinal ends for the period to 2010. The following four points from the 10 defined ends were positive influences on the determination to take London:

Long-run Economic Stability.

Full employment in every part.

A modern Criminal Justice system

Strong and Accountable local Government

The Economic Environment

The British economic system has performed good over the last few old ages and has continued to avoid recession. Over the past 20 old ages the authorities has reduced public ownership and has contained the growing of societal public assistance plans. Servicess, peculiarly in the banking, insurance and concern service countries account for the greatest part of the UK ‘s GDP.

The Governments Contribution

“ Economic Stability: We have the lowest rising prices since the sixtiess. We have lower unemployment in Britain than at any clip for 25 old ages – lower than Japan, America and the euro country. We have the lowest long-run involvement rates for about 50 old ages.

Strong Public Services: We ‘re presenting strong and reliable public services through sustained investing and reform. Investing in public services is turning by ?61 billion over the following three old ages. Of this, 75 per cent will travel on Labour ‘s cardinal precedences of instruction, wellness, conveyance, lodging and the battle against offense.

Growth: The British economic system has continued to turn uninterrupted in every twelvemonth of the past six old ages and has had the longest period of sustained growing for 50 old ages.

Public fundss: The public fundss remain sound and on path to run into the Government ‘s financial regulations, with borrowing under control and debt lower than in any other G7 major industrialized economic system. ” ( )

The British economic system is one of the strongest in Europe with rising prices, involvement rates and unemployment staying low. The good public presentation of the economic system continues to perplex the Labour Governments statements for fall ining the European Economic and Monetary brotherhood ( EMU ) .

“ The development of the UK economic system following the debut of the Government ‘s

pecuniary and financial policy models since 1997 shows how stableness has provided a

foundation for a long-run betterment in the UK ‘s economic public presentation. This

demonstrates why the Government ‘s determination on EMU rank focuses on what is right

for the UK economic system in the long term. A long-run attack is necessary because of the

typical nature of the UK economic system – a big economic system in the EU with a planetary mentality – and

the stop-go nature of the UK ‘s economic history. ” (, 2003 )

Foreign Direct Investment in the United Kingdom

Figure 3: Foreign Direct Investment Confidence Index ( Source: A.T. Kearney. ( 2002 ) . “ Annual Survey of 1000 companies ‘ positions of 60 states. ” )

The one-year study of top decision-makers from the universe ‘s largest houses, seeks sentiments of assorted FDI finishs, purposes and penchants for future investings. It reveals likely FDI investing flows and factors that drive corporate determinations to put abroad.

The UK holds 3rd place in the index. Global investors consider the UK the most competitory European market for concern over the following three old ages. More than tierce of planetary executives interviewed expect to perpetrate investings for the first clip in Europe of the following three old ages.

The EU, Economic and Monetary Union and the individual currency.

The United Kingdom has embraced the ideal of regionalism through its engagement with the European Union. The UK joined the EU in 1973. The European Union promotes a civilization of integrity while ever esteeming the singularity and individualism of the member provinces and its citizens.

Many Britishers remain opposed to the construct of the Single Currency ( the Euro ) . To counter this, the authorities commissioned research to find whether a clear instance can be made to the public foregrounding the benefits of fall ining the EMU. The study was released in June 2003 and high spots five trials which the UK Economy must run into.

The five trials Convergence, flexibleness, investing, fiscal services and growing, stableness and employment. An account of these trials follows foregrounding the issue and supplying a position at June 2003: (, 2003 )


Issue: Are concern rhythms and economic constructions compatible so that we and others could populate comfortably with euro involvement rates on a lasting footing?

Status: at the present clip, while the extent of convergence with the euro country has significantly increased, the convergence trial is non met.


Issue: If jobs emerge is at that place sufficient flexibleness to cover with them?

Status: At the present clip, we can non be confident that UK flexibleness, while

improved, is sufficient. Reflecting this, at the present clip, the accomplishment of sustainable

and lasting convergence has non been demonstrated.


Issue: Would fall ining the EMU create better conditions for houses doing long-run determinations to put in Britain?

Status: If sustainable and lasting convergence is achieved, so we can be confident

that the measure and quality of investing would increase guaranting that the investing trial

was met.

Financial Services

Issue: What impact would entry into the EMU have on the competitory place of the UK ‘s fiscal services industry, peculiarly the City ‘s sweeping markets?

Status: The Financial services trial is non met.

Growth, stableness and employment

Issue: In sum-up, will fall ining the EMU promote higher growing, stableness and a permanent addition in occupations?

Status: Overall, we can be confident that the growing, stableness and employment trial would be met one time sustainable and lasting convergence has been achieved.

“ Overall the Treasury appraisal is that since 1997 the UK has made existent advancement towards

run intoing the five economic trials. But, on balance, though the possible benefits of increased

investing, trade, a encouragement to fiscal services, growing and occupations are clear, we can non at this

point in clip conclude that there is sustainable and lasting convergence or sufficient

flexibleness to get by with any possible troubles within the euro country. So, despite the hazards and

costs from detaining the benefits of connection, a clear and unambiguous instance for UK rank

of EMU has non at the present clip been made and a determination to fall in now would non be in the

national economic involvement. ” (, 2003 )

The SocioCultural Environment

The UK has long subscribed to United Nations and Council of Europe conventions which protect human rights and cardinal freedoms.


In October 2000 UK citizens ‘ cardinal rights were embodied in jurisprudence in the Human Rights Act. This places a codification of values at the bosom of UK civilization and disposal and contains 14 articles covering cardinal rules such as the right to life, the right to freedom of look and the right to an instruction.


The voice of civil society in the UK is made up of non-government administrations ( NGOs ) that represent the countless cultural, cultural, spiritual, environmental, academic and other involvements of single citizens. The European Union besides plays a important function in civil society and EU citizens enjoy many societal benefits runing from health care to working environment.

Some cardinal issues impacting society in the UK, which has been dealt with at legislative degree, are discussed below.

Using Abroad Workers.

Harmonizing to the fact sheet produced by Business Link for London ( 2003 ) , there is an on-going deficit of accomplishments in the United Kingdom. This has forced many concerns to enroll abroad workers for cardinal places.

Nationals from the EEA ( European Economic Area ) are free to work to work in the United Kingdom, but there are certain limitations when it comes to workers from outside the EEA. At present many employers are non cognizant of these limitations and are interrupting the jurisprudence. Further legislative alterations are pending and it is going progressively of import that employers know how to run within these regulations. This clearly has an consequence on the new venture planned by McGregor BFA. It is nevertheless a procedure that can be managed.

The most basic ordinance is that it is illegal to use anyone who does non hold the right to work in the United Kingdom. The Asylum and Immigration Act ( 1996 ) requires employers to obtain and look into certain paperss before engaging new staff. The employer is non required to verify the cogency of the papers but must maintain a transcript on record.

There are several licenses that can be obtained from the British Government that allow Non EEA subjects to work in the United Kingdom and these paperss must be presented by possible campaigners.

Health and Safety.

Every company in the United Kingdom has Health and Safety duties. Harmonizing to Business Link for London ( 2003 ) every employer has 5 cardinal duties in footings of Health and Safety:

The employer must register with an appropriate authorization, normally the Environmental Health Department of the local council.

The employer is responsible for the wellness and safety of everyone affected by the concern. This includes employees, people sing the concern and people who may be affected by merchandises or emanations merchandises by the concern

The employer must transport out Risk Assessment.

The employer must do suited agreements for employee public assistance. E.g. the employer must supply good healthful installations, quality imbibing H2O, equal lighting and airing in the workplace.

The employer must hold Employers Liability Insurance.

The local Environmental Health Department enforces Health and Safety ordinances for all service companies within it ‘s legal power.

Congestion Charging.

This is a construct that is alone to London. The congestion charge has been introduced in a command to relieve traffic congestion and traffic pollution in cardinal London. Business Link for London notes in it ‘s Fact Sheet ( 2003 ) that mean traffic velocities in London have dropped below 10 stat mis per hr and congestion is estimated to be the people and concerns in London between two and four million lbs every hebdomad due to late reachings.

The Technological Environment.

“ Over the following five old ages, enlargement in consumer and SME Internet take-up will do e-commerce a fact of life that no concern can disregard. All SMEs will necessitate Web sites, chiefly as a selling tool.

Broadband take-up, though slow, will be boosted by BT ‘s ( British Telecom ) late announced monetary value cuts and public sector demand collection, and will alter our construct of how administrations are structured and run as location and propinquity of direction lose their importance.

The cost of informations storage will fall, and scaled down versions of concern procedure package will go available, enabling more SMEs to utilize supply-chain direction techniques. The development of nomadic communications is unsure because of the complexness of 3G webs, but concerns with a nomadic work force will happen themselves profiting by 2004. ” ( Business Link for London, 2002 )

The United Kingdom is rapidly going the dominant market topographic point in the European Union for electronic concern solutions and research. “ The UK is by far the most mature online market in Europe, thanks to early denationalization of telecommunications ands the rapid growing in Cable companies ” ( Haverbuch, 2000 ) .

By 2002 good over one million UK little and average endeavors were digitally connected, seting them good in front of their EU opposite numbers. Companies and research establishments in the UK are at the head of development in the convergence of information engineering, telecommunications and content industries. This is of peculiar involvement to McGregor BFA, as close propinquity to taking developments in the content industry will greatly help the company ‘s future technological promotion.

Business Link for London conducted a study with 5000 concerns in London in 2002. This study produced some really interesting consequences sing the current acceptance of primary e-business Information Communication Technology. Some of the most pertinent consequences are:

“ 81 per cent of concerns have and use computing machines

70 per cent of concerns have and use internet entree

17 per cent of concerns have a broadband Internet connexion

65 per cent of concerns have and use external electronic mail

51 per cent of concerns have a web site ” ( Business Link for London, 2002 )

Globalization from a United Kingdom position.

“ The term “ globalization ” has acquired considerable affectional force. Some position it as a procedure that is beneficial-a key to future universe economic development-and besides inevitable and irreversible. Others regard it with ill will, even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between states, threatens employment and life criterions and thwarts societal advancement. ” ( International Monetary Fund, 2000 ) .

Globalization is a historical procedure, ensuing from human invention and technological advancement. It refers to the increasing integrating of economic systems around the universe, peculiarly through trade and fiscal flows. London ‘s place as the major fiscal Centre in Europe and the host to a battalion of international corporations defines it as a metropolis and society that has, for the most portion, embraced the benefits and ideals of globalization.

Terrorism from a United Kingdom position.

Britain is used to the altering nature of the terrorist menace. For a figure of old ages there was a heightened province of menace from Irish Republican terrorist act. More late, the menace from international terrorist act has increased, notably since the September 11 onslaughts. As one of the universe ‘s prima fiscal Centres and a spouse to the US in the War against Terror, London and the UK is invariably at hazard

The menace now comes non merely from established groups with clearly defined marks, but besides from unaffiliated, loose-knit webs of persons with a much broader docket. At present the British Home Office has outlawed 25 international terrorist administrations under the Terrorism Act 2000. Terrorism both from within and internationally is invariably monitored by two authorities groups, The British Home Office and the Civil Contingencies Secretariat at the Cabinet Office.



London presents a host of chances to McGregor BFA. The metropolis provides the concern with a big possible client base, first-class concern trading environment and political model that provides entree to a wider audience in the European Union. London forms an built-in portion of an economically stable environment and is host to a technologically advanced concern community.

As portion of the NASPERS Group, McGregor BFA has the chance to leverage off the presence of the MIH Legal division in London. This offers the company entree to premises, telecommunication installations, computing machine webs, legal services and paysheet installations that would normally hold been expensive start-up costs. Additionally, the offices are based in cardinal London, so entree to the nucleus mark market is enhanced.

Many investing houses in South Africa have Headquarters in London and they receive their research from these offices. The South African concern has lost these clients locally, but the enlargement presents the possibility of geting these clients back and holding them pay for services in GBP.


There are some clear menaces to this enlargement program.

The rival sellers in London have entree to huge resources and may hold the ability to retroflex some of our content offerings.

The South African Rand is reasonably volatile so exchange rate fluctuations will hold an consequence on the costs associated with an enlargement of this nature. A important negative motion by the Rand will impact costs to a great trade and may, at a point in clip, harm the viability of the venture. Of class, solid gross revenues and a GBP rente income will contradict this.


London is a feasible finish for International enlargement of the McGregor BFA concern. The chances are positive and come-at-able. There are menaces, but these can be managed.


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