International Economics And Trade In Australia Economics Essay

Over a decennary, Australia is one of the states which is confronting uninterrupted current history shortage. This shortage may go conspicuous when the foreign debt will maintain increasing and the trade instability between the sum of imports, investing dividends paid and transportations paid exceed influxs from exports. This job will take an unstable to equilibrate of payment in Australian. Obviously is originating on the current history shortage. Furthermore, many factors such as unemployment and rising prices may besides act upon the economic growing. Thus, Australia was presenting a batch of macro and micro policies in order to command those jobs. Monetary financial, pecuniary and trade policies will assist the Australia ‘s authorities to increase the employment, lower the rising prices and increase the volume of export that will diminish the shortage occurred.

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Australian economic system is considered as a strong economic system in the universe. Harmonizing to ABS ( Australian Bureau of Statistics ) , Australian has become the 13th largest national economic system stand foring 1.7 % of the planetary economic system (, 2010 ) . Nowadays, Australia is a member of many organizational trades such as WTO, APEC, G20, OECD, etc. and besides entered into free trade understandings with ASEAN, Singapore, US and many other states in order to take all duty and nontariff barriers among themselves. The Australian chief sector economic system is focused on services industry, natural resources, agribusiness, etc.

Australia today still got jobs with the Balance of Payment ( BOP ) , fundamentally is appreciating in Current Account Deficit ( CAD ) and foreign debts. Although Australia ‘s current history shortage has exceeded about 3 per cent of GDP for approximately 20 back-to-back old ages ( Sighvatsson, 2001 ) , nevertheless, this job has non wholly affect to the Australia ‘s economic system in the short term. This is because the authorities has a many policies in order to command and suppress this job. This appraisal is traveling to place and discourse the grounds why it occurs, what are the effects and how the authorities has controlled it.

The balance of payment ( BOP )

“ The balance of payments is a record of the economic minutess between the occupants of one ‘s state and the remainder of the universe ” ( Carbaugh, 2007 ) . It includes minutess in goods and services, capital, transportations, income flows and fiscal flows as good. The BOP consists of two chief histories. First is the current history and another is the capital and fiscal history. The current history record minutess associated with trade in goods and services such as imports or exports etc. The capital and fiscal history records capital flows which include international adoption and loaning flows by the private sectors and authorities of the state.

The present wellness of the Australian economic system

Inflation rate

Over the old ages from 2008 to 2011, during the WFC period, the rising prices rate of Australia reached extremum at 4.4 % in 2008. However, it highly went down to 1.8 % in 2009. After that it increased bit by bit to 2.8 % in 2010 and go on increasing to 3.3 % on March 2011 ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) , ( figure 1.0 ) . By and large the consumer monetary value rises because of the addition in rising prices.

Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate of Australia fluctuated in the twelvemonth of 2010. The highest rate was 5.3 % in 2010 ( figure 1.1 ) . However, it decreased to 4.9 % in March 2011.

Figure 1.0: Australia ‘s rising prices rate Figure 1.1: Australia ‘s unemployment rate

Adapted from: hypertext transfer protocol: // Adapted from: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Economic growing

In December, the GDP increased 0.7 % , non-farm GDP rose 0.8 % . Therefore, through the twelvemonth GDP growing was 2.7 % . The industry that drove growing was professional, scientific and proficient services, finance and insurance services.

Figure 2.0: Australia GDP growing rate

Foreign investing in Australia

Harmonizing to ABS statistics, the stock of foreign investing in Australia at the terminal of June 2010 was $ 1,960.8 billion. This represents an addition of $ 168.4 billion over the degree at the terminal of June 2009. At the same clip, the stock of Australian investing abroad was $ 1,193.7 billion. This represents an addition of $ 105.0 billion over the stock at the terminal of June 2009. ( Foreign Investment Review Board Annual Report 2009-10 ) .

Figure 3.0: Foreign investing flows 2005-06 to 2009-10

Beginning: ABS cat. No. 5302.0 Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia, June Quarter 2010

The major FDI of Australia is Japan, EU, New Zealand, UK and USA. The US is Australia ‘s individual largest beginning of inward FDI and the most of import finish for Australian FDI abroad. ( Figure 3.1 )

Figure 3.1: Degree of foreign direct investing by state

Reason of Australia ‘s CAD

A current history shortage implies an surplus of imports over exports of goods, services, investing income, and one-sided transportation ( Carbaugh, 2009, p.348 ) . Australia ‘s CAD reflects the fact that imports and income paid to foreign occupants exceed exports and income received from abroad. Australia ‘s current history shortage has attracted considerable argument over the past three decennaries. The CAD was from the early 1980s until now. High CAD was seen as a beginning of macroeconomic exposure and a restraint on economic growing. Australia is sing a sustained current history shortage for many old ages could be due to the undermentioned grounds:

focused on exports of agricultural and minerals

high involvement rates of net foreign debt

high consumer disbursement and less national economy

deficiency of international fight

diminution in the fight of the local merchandises

Australia Current Account Deficit

Australia ‘s current history has been in shortage for most of its history. Australia reported a trade shortage equivalent to 205 Million AUD in February of 2011 ( ABS, 2011 ) .

Figure 4.0: Funding the current shortage

In the March one-fourth 2010, Australia ‘s CAD was $ 16.5 billion, compared to $ 18.5B in the old one-fourth. This is expected to deduct 0.5 per centum points from growing in the March one-fourth 2010 step of Australia ‘s GDP ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

Figure 4.1: Current Account Balances Figure 4.2: Net International Investment Position

( quarterly, seasonally adjusted informations ) ( quarterly, original informations )

Figure 4.3: Australia import & A ; export, Adapted from: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Harmonizing to ABS, the value of entire trade in goods and services decreased 8.7 per cent to $ 512.2 billion in past periods. The trade balance moved from a excess of $ 7.6 billion in 2008-09 to a shortage of $ 3.8 billion in 2009-10. Obviously, Australian ‘s import was at $ 258 billion and its export was at $ 254.2 billion in 2009-2010 ( figure 4.1 ) . This means that Australia ‘s import has exceeded its export, which is one of the factors that cause CAD. Australia exports are chiefly natural stuffs such as coal, Fe ore, gold, natural gas aluminium etc. and services such as personal travel, education-related travel, etc.

Figure 4.4: Australia ‘s chief exports

Another cause is the nest eggs and investings. A structural feature of the Australian economic system is that domestic investing exceeds domestic economy. The CAD is strongly correlated with off-shore adoptions by the Australian banking industry, proposing that the Bankss play a major function in financing the state ‘s surplus of investing over domestic economy.

Figure 4.5: Gross economy, gross investing, net loaning and the CAD

Figure 4.6: Degree of foreign debt – $ million Figure 4.7: Degree of foreign debt – % of GDP

Australia ‘s foreign debt has grown quickly. In the period from 1976 to 2008, the degree of gross foreign debt increased from $ 8 billion to $ 1072 billion. Net foreign debt has followed the same form, increased aggressively from $ 3 billion to $ 600 billion ( Kryger, 2009 ) . Foreign debt increased steadily from 1981 until now. Furthermore, between 1976 and 2008, gross foreign debt increased at an one-year mean rate of 16.7 per centum. This shows that Australian loaning abroad has non risen every bit fast as Australian adoption abroad. This occur mostly as the consequence of the accretion of high current history shortages and the enlargement of Australian equity investing abroad, portion of which was funded by increased adoptions.

Figure 4.8: Interest liability on foreign debt Figure 4.9: Interest liability on foreign debt

– $ million – % of GDP

Government policies

Harmonizing to “ The Great Depression ” in 1930s, there are two chief aims for the authorities to accomplish economic stableness. Firstly is a to the full employed economic system and the 2nd is to hold no rising prices at all. However, there will ever be an economic rising prices, hence, the authoritiess should seek to diminish the rising prices every bit minimal as possible ( Carbaugh, 2007 ) .


Australia over recent decennaries has traditionally aimed at three major aims of economic growing, internal balance and external balance within the state ‘s economic system ( Lim, 2009 ) . In recent old ages, the Australian Government has planned the new financial stimulation bundles worth over US $ 50 billion to countervail the consequence of the decelerating universe economic system, in order to better the employees ‘ quality and productiveness, substructure, back uping occupations, etc. and it is delivered this within five old ages ( 2008 – 2012 ) . Furthermore, it helps to heighten and develop the quality and measure of the manufactured merchandises. In short, the economic system is protected from the WFC in general and the causes of CAD and foreign debts are fundamentally solved in peculiar.

In order to pull off economic instabilities, the authorities was used two schemes. There are financial policy and pecuniary policy.

Figure 4.8: Fiscal stimulation bundles delivered by the Australian Government

Adapted from: hypertext transfer protocol: //

The Reserve Bank of Australia ( RBA ) has given a batch of pecuniary policies in order to accomplish “ the stableness of the currency of Australia, the care of full employment in Australia, and the economic prospective and public assistance of the people of Australia ( Reserve Bank Act 1959 ) ” . Monetary policy involves the usage of involvement rates to command the degree and rate of growing of aggregative demand in the economic system ( Carbaugh, 2007, p.499 ) .

The pecuniary policy can be utilised by controling the demand and cut downing imports and besides raising the export, followed by easier pecuniary conditions to help the economic system out of recession. Australia used the tight pecuniary policies in 1985 and 1986 to cut down the shortage straight by extinguishing the authorities disbursement through cutting the authorities outgo and increasing the revenue enhancement grosss and indirectly through effects on private disbursement ( Pitchford, 1989 ) .

Besides, pull offing the exchange rate is one of pecuniary policies as it straight influences the exports and imports. Last but non least, the Australian Government was besides control the rising prices rate. Generally, the pecuniary policies have been contributed to better the Australian economic system. This can be identified by the lessening in rising prices rate over the old ages, reduced the unemployment rate and keep the stableness of monetary values, etc.


The Australian authorities has go oning to present policies at bettering efficiency in order to increase the exports of the state, which will finally equilibrate out the CAD. There are a batch of microeconomic reforms in Australia such as alteration to ordinance of the authorities sector, reform of protection against international trade, reform of the revenue enhancement and public assistance systems, etc. ( Borland, 2001 ) .

There are several methods to cut down the current history shortage. For illustration, diminishing the financial shortage and raising the national economy. This is because the state has to trust to a great extent on foreign salvaging when it faces the big current history shortage. Therefore, increasing the national nest eggs can cut down the dependance on other beginnings of fund ( Fraser, 1993 ) .

On the other manus, microeconomic policies specifically involved steps to better the operation of houses, industries, and markets in order to act upon aggregative supply degrees ( Nguyen, 2004 ) . In recent old ages, many economic jobs in Australia are caused by structural factors unmanageable by macro-economic policies, such as deficiency of local fight, high unemployment, etc. Therefore the Australian authorities has decided to refocus concentrated on the histories for structural supply jobs hampered its microeconomic growing ( Nguyen, 2004 ) .

By bit by bit phasing out duties, resources have been allocated to Australia most efficient industries and therefore improved international fight by working on comparative advantages.


Although Australia has been confronting with the CAD for many old ages, nevertheless, the CAD does non impact Australian so much in the yesteryear every bit good as in the present. Obviously, Australian had economic growing for 17 back-to-back old ages before the GFC and even with the crisis in 2008. On the other manus, the CAD is ever under the Australian Government ‘s control.

Furthermore, the external adoption will increase the productiveness and acquire more advantaged in assorted facets if it is spent to the investing sector. Basically, a big of the capitals borrowed used for intent to upgrade and hike the domestic substructures and industries.

There are many methods utilizing to set the current history shortage, for case increasing in the national nest eggs, diminishing the authorities outgo, or utilizing other mechanisms such as financial policy and pecuniary policy.

Although international trade can supply benefits to domestic manufacturers and consumers, nevertheless, in some states such as Australia, a lessening in market demand for some primary merchandises that they export can significantly cut down export grosss and disrupt domestic income and employment degree. Therefore, the authorities should see for trade policies in order to maintain stable on export markets.


Although Australia has experienced BOP shortage and those jobs has non wholly affect to the Australia ‘s economic system in the short term. The macro and micro economic policies that Australia is executing hold shown its effectivity in economic growing. Even though with a CAD, a state can still come on and see economic growing. But in long term, the Australian Government should be carefully cognizant of the possible injury and set up the suited economic policies to work out the job and to hike the economic system.


Carbaugh J. R. ( 2007 ) “ International Economics ” , 12th Edition, South – Western Cengage Learning.

Sighvatsson A. ( 2001 ) “ The Current Account Deficit in an International and Historical Context ” , Central Bank of Iceland, Monetary Bulletin.

Kryger T. ( 2009 ) “ Australia ‘s foreign debt-data and tendencies ” , Retrieved on 3 May 2011, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Nguyen D. ( 2004 ) “ Microeconomicss in Australia ” , Retrieved on 3 May 2011, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Borland J. ( 2001 ) “ Microeconomic reform in Australia – An debut ” , Department of Economics, University of Melbourne, Retrieved on 3 May 2011, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Lim C. G. & A ; et Al. ( 2009 ) “ Review of the Australian Economy 2008-2009: Recession, Retrenchments and Risks ” .

Fraser, B. W. ( 1993 ) “ Some Aspects of Monetary Policy ” , Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin, April.

Pitchford, J. ( 1989 ) “ A Doubting View of Australia ‘s Current Account and Debt Problem ” , The Australian Economic Review.

Economic Brief ( 2010 ) “ Balance of Payments – March one-fourth 2010 ” , Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //


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