I have been working in the IT industry for the past 15 old ages and I have planned to bit by bit switch to another line of concern i.e. agribusiness a twosome of old ages after my MBA. The ground for this displacement is general disillusion with our current life style, exciting chances that I see for the agricultural industry in India and a personal and household desire to travel back to our roots. As a portion of this nonsubjective, I have been working towards placing chances and thoughts to get down off my new venture in the India province of Tamil Nadu. The research inquiry was mostly influenced by this determination as I have been working on my hereafter aims since the past twosome of old ages sing assorted farms, agricultural universities and husbandmans sing the apparatus of my agro concern.
In the class of my analysis and survey I have had the chance to really see a batch of farms and interact with many husbandmans ( a bulk of them traditional husbandmans for coevalss ) and a twosome of progressive husbandmans who have brought incorporated engineering, research and assorted inventions in their farm.
One of the cardinal experiences during this clip was the monolithic handiness of agricultural land in this province at throw off monetary values, I was funny on the grounds for this as Tamil Nadu is one of the largest agro-producers in the state. A elaborate probe revealed that most of these big balls of land had been brought by belongings collectors from little and fringy husbandmans to be sold as a ball to larger investors. The underlying ground was that the little and fringy husbandmans could non prolong production of harvests on their land retentions due to assorted grounds and were to a great extent in debt so they were selling of their land easy and traveling to the metropoliss to work as contractors or day-to-day laborers in building or other countries.
About all of the little and fringy husbandmans who had sold or were selling their land were traditional husbandmans and been practising conventional agribusiness for coevalss with the same rules i.e. heavy glandular fever cropping, excessively much dependability on external inputs ( fertilisers, insect powders and pesticides etc. ) . Slowly but certainly this pattern resulted in monolithic output decrease and increasing debt due to uninterrupted adoption for securing external inputs and to prolong their support
Surprisingly in the thick of all this lunacy I came across a little group of husbandmans spread across different territories who were making really good in malice of the same background they shared with the 1s who were selling their lands, on closer probe I realised that these clumps were making things otherwise and were non merely able to prolong themselves but their little land retentions were really more efficient and making net income. These husbandmans were practising cultivation utilizing the integrated agriculture attack and no affair on where they were within the province i.e. dry land, wet land and hilly land they were making good. This type of agriculture was besides being done by the non-traditional progressive husbandmans who were comparatively new to agriculture holding given up high paying occupations in the engineering industry and relocating back to the small towns
This is one of the chief grounds that led me to choice of this subject for my MBA undertaking as I had the chance to see things first manus, speak with the relevant stakeholders and associated people and really see the consequences in forepart of me in black and white. I have come to the decision that if little and fringy husbandmans have to prolong so they have to take up this attack or they will finally stop up selling their land retentions and travel out of agribusiness like their other equals
Literature Review & A ; Research Methodology
All of my research and survey for this undertaking has gone manus in manus with the analysis and probe for my ain agro concern. For the same of practicality I have confined the research to three cardinal territories in Tamil Nadu where I will be puting up my farm i.e. Sivagangai / Madurai / Ramanathapuram. In add-on to this the research is focussed on red-soil dry land as this is the geographic profile of these three territories.
The research is focussed on measuring the assorted theoretical accounts that can be used in the chase of a practical sustainable agribusiness attack utilizing IFS for little and fringy husbandmans. Almost all these theoretical accounts have integrated agriculture as their nucleus base
Input signals to the research are besides being sourced through beginnings on the cyberspace ( diaries, articles and books ) . I have besides collated database of little to average husbandmans who pattern autochthonal methods of incorporate agriculture and sustainable agribusiness. I have started interviewing and sing some of these farms to derive a first-hand experience of how the nonreader, semi-literate husbandmans achieve success utilizing the IFS attack every bit good as achieve sustainability, cut down operational costs with the focal point on developing ecologically friendly and sustainable agribusiness methods. The informations shared by them will be collated and discussed with the staff at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University who can give the “ scientific logical thinking ” for the success of these methods. There were challenges in the husbandman interviews as most of them idea of it as a uneconomical exercising that will non give them any economic benefit
As a portion of the research I am being helped by a progressive husbandman in carry oning experiments on his farm particularly with regard to sourcing low cost inputs for incorporate agriculture e.g. coir waste is abundant in south India, this was used to make low cost coir compost. The lone cost that was incurred is in transit and some labor for initial sieving, cleansing and film editing. The natural stuff was free residue from a coir mill. In three months utilizing merely lime and normal windrow based composting we were able to bring forth coir compost with an ideal CN ratio of 20. This is a wholly organic input that can be made by anyone or as a community attack. The cost came to about.40 paisa per kg of coir compost i.e. 0.00463588 GBP. If you go to buy comparable organic compost from the market it would be anyplace between 5 to 10 rupees a kg ( 1 rupee = 100 paisa ) .
I can loosely sort the design of my research into the undermentioned countries
2. Engineering & A ; Technology
3. Economics & A ; Finance
4. Environment & A ; Ecology
I have besides taken a rank in the Tamil Nadu Agricultural university which has provided me with quality research stuffs ( theory & A ; surveies ) , entree to experiment secret plans and entree to capable affair experts and scientists in assorted agro maps
At this phase, I have developed a web of people, establishments and organisations that can be used a beginning for any information that I need ( theory or practical via field visits ) , it was a pleasant surprise to detect that there do be likeminded persons that are seeking to make something to similar to mine ( MBA ‘s, some Engineers ) . I am hence now involved in this forum every bit good and have been made the planetary moderator
One of the chief subjects running through all of the above is that I am looking at low cost “ on-farm ” options that will suit into the incorporate farm theoretical account and generate employment in the rural sector for unskilled people e.g. I am believing of mass bring forthing enriched coir compost on-farm utilizing the windrows approach although this may necessitate more labor, the cost and quality of compost will more than compensate for it. Thingss like this besides guarantee that the full clip labor in the farm is skilled in multiple activities instead than merely conventional cultivation. Most of this research is qualitative i.e. it has been obtained by talking to husbandmans and the helpful folks at the Tamil Nadu agricultural university ; I have included qualitative informations where I am able to happen it to back up my findings. Obtaining quantitative informations for analyzing real-time benefits of IFS over conventional agrarian spread across a big figure of agriculturists has been hard and the information that is available is largely on pilot undertakings or sample secret plans that have been used by establishments as a presentation to fringy landowners
Aims of the survey
The aim of the survey is simple i.e. how can an integrated agriculture system aid prolong the support and continuity of little and fringy husbandmans in India. There will besides be extra environmental, societal and economic benefits of utilizing this attack. This undertaking is non focussed on the virtues and demerits of the regular conventional v/s organic agriculture argument. The focal point is on cut downing external inputs and accomplishing in-farm sustainability every bit much as possible. This survey merely briefly negotiations about the function of establishments and the authorities on the overall agricultural scenario nevertheless it is more focused on the IFS attack for sustainability of little and fringy husbandmans
The major aims of this survey can be classified into the undermentioned points
Security and continued support warrant for little and fringy husbandmans
Guaranting yearlong employment to these husbandmans so that migration of this work force to the metropolis and farther land atomization is reduced therefore forestalling farther shrinkings of cropping country otherwise we will stop up in a state of affairs where there will be no arable land left for the turning public and the 1000000s of husbandmans will be rendered landless and reduced to further poorness and societal destabilization caused by migration
Using the farm ecosystem as the footing for input and end product of resources e.g. end product ( manure ) from rise uping hogs goes as input for fertiliser and compost and thereby cut downing wastage and pollution
Reuse of farm waste and minimisation of sourcing external inputs
Conservation of natural birthrate of the dirt and resource base
Cost decrease and coevals of excess income
Improvement in criterion of life of little and fringy husbandmans
Improvement in societal, environmental, ecological and economic benefits to the rural public as a whole
Agricultural Scenario in India
To derive a better grasp of the research inquiry and the survey it is imperative to understand the current agricultural scenario and issues in India and how this really increase the importance of IFS
In our state most of the husbandmans own really little land retentions i.e. sometimes less than one acre of land, these husbandmans normally cultivate harvests with the primary purpose of survival i.e. nutrient for their household throughout the twelvemonth every bit good as doing some money to take attention of their other basic demands like medical specialties, family disbursals and other bare necessities of life. It is hence critical to develop a system for these hapless husbandmans as their whole household stands to be wholly uprooted and destabilized if there is a harvest failure or any natural catastrophe or unwellness or seasonal demand fluctuations particularly when most of these husbandmans pattern glandular fever cropping and individual harvest cultivation which is fundamentally a high hazard activity. Some of the cardinal high spots and issues in the Indian agribusiness scenario are as follows
As per the 2011 nose count conducted by the authorities of India, our entire population is 1.21 billion in 2011. Approximately 64 % unrecorded in the small towns. A bulk depend one or another on agriculture and agro related sector. [ commendation ]
The labour force part in agribusiness is about 55 % in comparing to the part of 15 % of the GDP by this sector [ commendation ]
Small & A ; fringy husbandmans dominate the agricultural demographics i.e. around 80 % i.e. ( & lt ; 1 acre = fringy husbandmans, 1 to 2 estates little husbandmans, 2 to 4 estates & A ; & lt ; 10 medium and & gt ; 10 big participants )
Based on the agro nose count informations available to my research, it is seen that there is close to 120 million land retentions in India out of which 99 million constitute little and fringy land holders and the mean land keeping size is besides declined, it can be seen that the state is mostly dependent on these little and fringy husbandmans for their beginning of agricultural green goods, majority of rural employment & A ; support and agricultural growing
The major harvests that are conventionally grown in these countries are cereals, cotton, horticultural green goods, maize, rice, wheat
60 % of cultivated country is rain-fed as merely 40 % of country is under irrigation.
Small and fringy husbandmans comprise of more than 80 % of entire sector with merely a 44 % portion.
The agricultural policies, ordinances and regulations of provinces are besides of import particularly since there are wholly different policies across assorted provinces which clash with each other and skews the amalgamate position of the sector as a whole
Cultivation forms: Small and fringy husbandmans try to turn harvests that will bring them the maximal returns, there is no scientific footing for harvest choice it is merely on the footing of seasonal demand or experiences from the old old ages or what their neighbours are turning i.e. largely based on guess than basicss.
India has seen a dramatic green revolution from 1980 onwards which helped in accomplishing nutrient sustainability and autonomy nevertheless we need to concentrate on the 1000000s of little and fringy husbandmans to accomplish comprehensive agricultural reforms that are straight linked to the support of 1000000s of such households who are wholly dependent on agribusiness for their very endurance
Challenges, Issues & A ; Problems ( Conventional Farming )
This subdivision highlights the major challenges that are faced by little and fringy husbandmans in India ; these are merely the most urgent issues that straight impact their support and the future sustainability of little and fringy farms & A ; ( households )
Ever increasing population doing great demand for land that is seting more force per unit area on little and fringy husbandmans to sell their lands to major existent estate investors or really big agricultural companies
A bulk of the land is non supported by irrigation and husbandmans have to depend on 4 months of rain as their primary beginning of H2O, in add-on to this there is batch of H2O taint and depletion of land H2O resources due to over use, irrigation installations / engineering and economic sciences are largely out of range for the little cat
Addition in the cost of external inputs like fertilisers, pesticides every bit good as vagaries in rainy season take a heavy toll on farming households increasing their debt and cut downing them to penury and straiten finally taking to a lifting instance of husbandman self-destructions
Dirts have become depleted due to mono cropping and over usage of man-made inputs ensuing in outputs acquiring lower every twelvemonth, natural birthrate of the dirt has gone for a flip as a consequence of consuming organic content i.e. uninterrupted usage of fertilisers and ensuing nitrate run-off. This besides is due to miss of bio diverseness because the same harvests are grown over and over once more merely to take attention of basic nutriment
Further division and decrease in land retentions have caused societal tenseness and violent offenses in the little and fringy husbandman community particularly because belongings relationships are quiet complex as a bulk of the little and fringy husbandmans are non-registered and there is sometimes no certification on the legal ownership / position or burdens of the land which consequences in trouble in availing local authorities or institutional strategies, credits or benefits
The focal point of establishments is mostly on high return countries of agribusiness where there is an copiousness of all natural resources, financess and engineering inputs, the bulk of the land mass does non bask this ensuing in worsening end product from rain-fed countries and countries where dry land agribusiness is practiced
Middle work forces exploit the little and fringy husbandmans supplying them least returns on their green goods, there is no centralised or regulated markets where these husbandmans can market their green goodss so that they get maximal and just reimbursement for their harvests
Lack of instruction in little and fringy husbandmans make them more inauspicious to alter as they see it as an alibi which will put them up for failure and finally holding to give up or sell their land retentions.
Conventional agriculture system – 500
Dairy, domestic fowl, agribusiness, gardening
Dependence on synthetics
Genetically modified seeds etc. high respondent / high surrenderer
India functions and challenges of little holder agribusiness slide 27, 28
Integrated Farming System ( IFS )
Organic agribusiness is one of several to sustainable agribusiness and many of the techniques used ( e.g. inter-cropping, rotary motion of harvests, dual excavation, , mulching, integrating of harvests and farm animal ) are practiced under assorted agricultural systems. What makes organic agribusiness unique, as regulated under assorted Torahs and enfranchisement programmes, is that:
1 ) about all man-made inputs are prohibited and 2 ) Dirt constructing harvest rotary motions are mandated.
The basic regulations of organic production are that natural inputs are approved and man-made inputs are prohibited, but there are exclusions in both instances.
Certain natural inputs determined by the assorted enfranchisement programmes to be harmful to human wellness or the environment are prohibited ( e.g. arsenous anhydride ) . As good, certain man-made inputs determined to be indispensable and consistent with organic farming doctrine, are allowed ( e.g. insect pheromones ) . Lists of specific approved man-made inputs and forbidden natural inputs are maintained by all the enfranchisement programmes and such a list is under dialogue in codex. Many enfranchisement programmes require extra environmental protection steps in acceptance to these two demands. While many husbandmans in the development universe do non utilize man-made inputs, this alone is non sufficient to sort their operations as organic.
Today ‘s chemical farms have small usage for the skilled farming which was one time the steering rule of working the land. The accent today is entirely on productiveness – high input in exchange for high returns and productiveness ( largely decreasing now nevertheless for husbandmans worldwide ) . Four of import considerations – what happens to the land, the nutrient it produces, the people who eat it and the communities which lose out – are overlooked.
Components of IFS 500
Integrated Farming System v/s Conventional Farming Systems
Now that we have read and understood the basicss and attacks of both conventional and the incorporate attack for cultivation, it becomes easier to see the differences between both of these for specific countries or positions in the agricultural sphere. It can besides been seen that even though this undertaking does non do expressed mentions to organic agriculture or the new sustainable agribusiness attack that is the new mantra, the basic fundamental of the IFS attack leans to a great extent towards both these modules i.e. greater credence and execution of the IFS attack over the conventional manner of turning makes the manufacturer and associated entities implement the greater aims of long term sustainability and reduction of man-made inputs
Conventional Farming System
Integrated Farming System
The chief and lone harvest is the “ Centre ” of the existence. All activities, determinations, impact and hazard revolves around the “ Centre ” . Typical illustration of seting all the eggs in one basket
The whole farm is taken as an ecological unit and out-put efficiency per pace is more than conventional attack. Multiple harvests, live-stock and other constituents have their single importance and are inter-dependent on each other for corporate success
There is deficiency of sharing and aid between agriculturists as the primary purpose is to guarantee that the harvest gets the maximal output without believing about the effects of what the consequence may be on the others e.g. heavy usage of pesticides contaminate land H2O, big doses of man-made fertilisers attract plagues and insects that may do harm to the whole fringe of the farm e.g. nitrate run-off
The nature of an IFS system promotes sharing of resources, labour & amp ; cognition. Farms can organize a corporate community where their cropping form / rhythms can complement each other. Residual and excess end product from one farm can move as an input to the other e.g. harvest residue from sugar cane is voluminous and this can be used for community composting where different alimentary beginnings can be utilized from assorted farms for a richer compost
Dependence or laterality of nature, vagaries in conditions e.g. heat / rain etc. can do the full standing harvest to neglect
Multiple constituents of the IFS attack cut down hazard and dependance on nature, it is really improbable that all the constituents spread across the full twelvemonth shall jointly neglect, cultivation is more in harmoniousness with nature
Mono cropping and concentration on merely on a specific assortment or type of harvest
Richer mix of diverseness with a combination of trees, fruits, veggies, harvests, farm animal
Small and fringy husbandmans are exploited by jobbers, big landholders, providers and anyone that can acquire some fiscal benefit by doing the agriculturist feel threatened about his endurance in instance of harvest failure
Small and fringy husbandman supports are more sustainable and have minimum impact in instance of external or internal environmental factors. This makes them less susceptible to exploitation
Focus more on right fertiliser and other man-made “ doses ” , high degree of preciseness required for inputs, seeding, turning and reaping. Small errors can take to major losingss
Focus is more on choosing the right combination of harvests, the right rhythms and seting all the constituents of the farm to work in synchronism with each other. The function of inputs are merely as amendments or accommodations that are done on the footing of observation, experimentation and feedback
Rising nutrient demand is the chief drift which is driving the conventional system to be more intensified and focussed on measure at any cost
Rising nutrient demand still remains a challenge due to atomization, deficiency of application of scientific research which would give this system a more organized construction and set up some sort of model which can be used a templet for little to really big land retentions
More focal point on use of man-made beginnings for addition in measure accordingly driving the demand for more man-made inputs to keep quality ( commercial class high strength insect powders and pesticides )
Man-made beginnings are kept to a lower limit as most of the inputs required are produced on the farm or in the community itself. The nature of experimentation and intercropping encourages husbandmans to intercede with each other and free authorities agro-clinics to custom-make doses based on demands and necessity merely
Preference for intercrossed or genetically modified seeds, tissue cultured saplings
Native assortments of seeds, species and strains are encouraged halting the loss in the natural familial diverseness that is alone to each geographical country
Labour and employment is seasonal with no work to make when the land is lying fallow
Work is available throughout the twelvemonth to the full household of the agriculturist therefore besides authorising adult females who would be largely idle during the off-seasons in the conventional farms
It is non surprising that a batch of research, surveies and findings highlight the fact that a husbandman or a community that passages from conventional to the integrated agriculture attack find it really easy and more profitable to travel towards utilizing more and more organic inputs in their farms. It is besides cheering to observe ( particularly in India ) that there seems to be really less attempt or about nil to convert the husbandmans to utilize organic inputs one time they already are practising incorporate agriculture.
As a effect of this, the IFS method of farming could take to gradual diminution to the chief issue that seems to be associated with pure organic agriculture ( doing non-acceptance of the organic frame of head by little and fringy husbandmans ) i.e. lower outputs than conventional methods as schemes like incorporate pest direction and a balanced fertilisation method that respects the natural balance along with a safe combination of man-made inputs may really take to higher outputs in IFS than conventional methods with the added benefits of organic cultivation.
It would possibly loosen up the apprehensivenesss associated with an overexploitation of man-made inputs and therefore pave the manner for a practical & A ; scientifically tested attack to bring forth nutrient in a safer and more sustainable manner with the added benefit of retaining or possibly increasing the output. This will besides supply better selling chances for the little and fringy husbandmans who at the minute lose out on the ‘organically adult or safely adult ‘ monetary value sets
Sample Flows & A ; Economics in an IFS 500 + 500
Benefits of IFS – 1000
After we have looked at the IFS theoretical account and its constituents, it is clear that they provide a batch of benefits over the conventional system of cultivation and most significantly this attack makes certain that the supports of the little and fringy husbandmans are unafraid. IFS has a batch of short, medium and long term benefits, some of the cardinal countries where immediate additions in short and average term additions can be seen are as follows
Productiveness Gains: The IFS attack makes land usage more efficient i.e. income per acre or guntha of land is more every bit compared to conventional agriculture because different factors are at work e.g. the cultivated primary harvest from the dirt, the intercropped veggie that non merely provides extra income but besides acts as a comrade harvest to the primary harvest thereby increasing the output and forestalling the happening of plague and
Profitableness Additions: Once once more waste is ne’er wasted in this system of cropping, all assorted waste originating out of assorted constituents e.g. farm animal manure, blood & A ; bone-meal, harvest residue can be composted and reused within the farm itself moving as a good beginning of organic fertiliser. The usage of such supports the dirt PH in cheque and of course increases the organic content in the dirt lending to higher outputs that are found to be more immune to pest and diseases. This besides translates into reduced disbursals to purchase man-made inputs in big measures ( though non wholly eliminated ) and husbandmans can organize a community to interchange excess stuff produced in their farms which can be used in other farms as natural dirt amendments or conventional pesticides. The decrease in dearly-won external input besides reduces the intervention of the jobber who largely supplies these to the little and fringy husbandmans and gets them hooked onto man-made inputs like a drug. End of the twenty-four hours the net net income benefit to be ratio is increased
Sustainability Gains: Decrease in use of external inputs and creative activity of a farm ‘eco-system ‘ easy but certainly increases the nutriment potency of the land for longer periods compared to secret plans cultivated utilizing merely man-made inputs and glandular fever cropping without any coupled constituents
Natural Balance: Different constituents of assorted natures are linked to enable to supply assorted beginning of foods to the dirt, harvests and the husbandman family e.g. veggies and fruits can be grown as comrade harvests that can be used for ingestion by the household and besides contribute to the growing of the primary harvests as a natural cultural benefit and addition in biodiversity. The assorted constituents can move as natural N fixators, supply biochemical plague control, create good home grounds for good insects and utilize diverseness to supply extra economic security
Recycling: Waste is recycled more efficaciously and if planned right no portion of the end product really goes waste and there is zero taint of the farm or the H2O beginnings as everything goes back either into the dirt or the market or as input to the farm animal or piscary. This besides minimized environmental pollution
Yearlong Gross: This is the most of import benefit that can be achieved utilizing the IFS attack, the husbandman is no longer constrained by the 4 months of monsoon, yearlong productiveness of the farm is attained utilizing a combination of rainy season harvests, dry season harvests, carnal farming, bee maintaining, dairy and domestic fowl merchandises as to utilize the cliche the husbandman does non set all the eggs in one basket
Embracing new engineering & A ; instruction: IFS needs to be planned and executed utilizing some traditional cognition and inputs from agricultural universities, authorities bureaus and establishments. This really educates the husbandmans on new engineering and the scientific discipline behind the harvest or attack doing them gain that instruction is every bit of import for their endurance. Entree to these establishments is easy if the husbandman himself is convinced of the benefits and attacks these bureaus with a positive frame of head and for this initial success demands to be actively demonstrated to them. An educated and engineering savvy husbandman is more successful, confident and self-asserting and is likely to move as the torch carrier for the community husbandmans as a whole with the capacity and resources to really show the benefits on his ain farm to the skeptics
Energy Savingss: Farmers can impart biogas from their farm animal to supply energy to run into basic family demands and besides cut down their dependence on fossil fuels, bio gas coevals has been one of the greatest success narratives of the IFS attack with more and more husbandmans holding this unit in their farm as the province provides the base unit free of cost and the inputs to the unit is provided by the waste generated in the husbandmans land
Fodder / Fuel / Timber Crisis: Most of the little and fringy husbandmans in India own some sum of live-stock i.e. cow, caprine animals, hogs or domestic fowl. In the IFS attack since the complete land retention is wholly utilised in the best possible manner, it provides an chance to turn fresh fish harvests for these live-stocks and this addresses one of the pressing issues that are being faced i.e. non handiness of quality fresh fish. The fresh fish crisis if farther compounded by monolithic countries traveling under glandular fevers cropping by big companies and devastation of arable land to do manner for non-agricultural activities. Similarly the varied constituents in an incorporate farm e.g. utilizing the agro-forest or agro-silvo- pastoral theoretical account enhances handiness of fuel beginnings for the husbandman family without doing a negative consequence on the harvest or the environment as the wood / lumber acquired is largely incidental and residuary and does non affect big graduated table cutting down of trees therefore avoiding big scale deforestation and saving of natural resources
Employment sustainability: Having a varied spread of different constituents spread across the land provides an chance for the household to be employed all the twelvemonth around alternatively of the traditional few months of the rainy season or the harvest season in a twelvemonth as there is an addition in cropping strength.
Challenges in an IFS 500
( credence, instruction, direction, ITK )
Impact of IFS
Social, economic & A ; environmental impact ( long term ) 1000
Community and Self-Help Groups
Community seed dorsums, documenting local cognition sustainetpublication india portion 1.pdf page 47