India Is Favoring Cross Border Mergers And Acquisitions Finance Essay

Amalgamations and Acquisitions frequently fail. Though the media is hallucinating about it and the newspaper headlines are full of M & A ; A activity the simple fact is that over half the trades do n’t run into their aims. Stockholders of companies that are acquirers normally lose money as a consequence of coup d’etats. Despite this, companies from India are really using M & A ; A as a cardinal strategic tactic towards globalisation. What ‘s more is that executives of these companies consider their M & A ; A to be successful about 9 out of 10 times. Notwithstanding the planetary recession a few illustrations of this tendency are TCS taking over Citigroup Global Services and Suzlon picking up REpower Systems.

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The paper shows an emerging tendency in India in the recent old ages wherein Indian companies are utilizing cross-border M & A ; A as their chief method of globalisation. Their attack and the outlooks are really different from the traditional point of view of Amalgamations and Acquisitions. Furthermore it confers as to how and why more frequently than non these acquisitions are run intoing their strategic concern aims.


The direction ‘s chief occupation is to maximise stockholder value and in order to make that in today ‘s of all time altering universe companies are faced with determinations refering M & A ; A really frequently. Through M & A ; A a company can increase stockholder value every bit good as develop a strategic and competitory advantage. Amalgamations and Acquisitions ( M & A ; A ) is a portion of corporate -strategy, finance and direction that that involves purchase, gross revenues and merger of separate companies to guarantee the growing of a company, financially and otherwise in a given industry. This enables rapid advancement without making another concern entity.

In really simple words, a amalgamation is a common determination of two companies to unify their assets and articulation to go one entity ; it is therefore normally seen as a determination of two “ peers ” . It is a tool that is used for the intent of spread outing a company ‘s operations with the aim of long term net incomes. `Mergers ‘ normally take topographic point by common consensus with the purpose of guaranting that the trade is moneymaking to the two parties. When a big company obtains the commanding involvement of a smaller company through purchase, it is coined as an acquisition. This is therefore normally a combination of two “ unequals ” , nevertheless it can bring forth the same benefits as that of a amalgamation. The cardinal difference here is that an acquisition is non needfully a common determination. Acquisitions can besides go on without the consent of the marks board, by a hostile coup d’etat, by purchasing the majority of the portions outstanding of a concern in the unfastened market.

Historically it has been observed that that the value added to the acquired houses portions is non really significant. A survey by Harvard Business Review over the past four decennaries showed that around 50 % of amalgamations do n’t accomplish their concern ends and aims, and acquisitions cause most of the stockholders to lose money. Yet, an emerging tendency is that big Indian endeavors are looking at Cross-border M & A ; A as their chief manner to globalisation. These companies are rewriting the order of things in M & A ; A.

The Benefits of M & A ; A:

The chief grounds believed to add to stockholder value by M & A ; A are:

Increased returns /Increased Market Share: Presuming that the company takes over its major rival it will augment its power to put monetary values.

Economies of Scale: refers to a method by which the cost per unit on an norm is significantly less through an addition in production, since the fixed costs are shared over a larger figure of goods. This is merely possible when the company ‘s combine/acquire/merge, as this can frequently eliminate similar sections or operation, thereby cut downing the cost of the company, therefore increasing net income.

Locational and Other variegation: this is calculated to smooth the earning gained from a company, which stabilizes the stock monetary value of the company in the long tally giving traditional investors more confidence in puting in that company

Better chances for Capital Generation: An merger can besides come on a company ‘s standing in the investing sector: the larger a concern is the easier it is to raise capital

Cross merchandising: This allows for a wider patronage base by supplying more maps.For illustration, if a bank bought a stock broking company it could pull off to sell its banking merchandises to the acquired stock agents ‘ clients and the stock agent could utilize the banking database to sing up the Bankss client to open a securities firm history with them.

Commercial Cooperation: Better usage of complimentary wherewithal. It may take the signifier of gross enrichment and outgo nest eggs.

Tax Decrease: A profitable company can even purchase a loss shaper to utilize the acquired companies ‘ revenue enhancement right off.

The common benefit behind M & A ; A is that it offers a constructive dais for the companies to develop, though a batch depends on how the agreement is implemented. It is a manner to hike market incursion in different countries taking the aid of an well-known base.

Advantages of M & A ; A:

Accessing new markets

Keeping escalation thrust

Possessing visibleness and worldwide trade names

Buying cutting border engineering as opposed to importing it

Competing on a planetary graduated table

Enhancing operating borders and efficiencies

Constructing new ware mixes

Provide chances for growing

Fulfils the demand for faster growing

Deriving complementary strengths

Emerging Economies new attack to M & A ; A

In developed states the range for growing is less as opposed to the emerging economic systems. Hence the M & A ; A scheme is to get companies to increase the client base. However in order to do these acquisitions successful as strategic concern determinations the companies need to concentrate on uniting the resources, man-power and so seek to cut down the surplus and lower the operating costs of the combined entity. Since the growing rate is non drastic in Western states and the chances for the same are fewer the focal point is on take downing costs and synergizing resources. This is the traditional attack towards M & A ; A.

However with a turning figure of emerging economic system companies taking over Western companies the regulations of M & A ; A have been changed. When these giants from emerging economic systems pursue cross-border companies they are neither interested in traditional synergisms nor in take downing their costs. These acquisitions are done entirely to derive complementary competences that they themselves are missing. The purpose is to larn to deploy assets such as engineerings, trade names and new capablenesss like invention accomplishments and different concern models-these assets would assist them to go planetary leaders.

Operating costs are non of much concern to these elephantine companies from emerging economic systems as they can easy cut down the costs and transform the acquisitions economic sciences by switching concern procedures to their ain state and therefore utilizing low cost resources. Furthermore these developing states will acquire entree to the acquired Western companies ‘ superior engineerings and merchandises. An of import effect of this is that many slow turning companies which run on really low borders in the West can be converted to fast turning with higher borders by the acquirers from the developing states.

In order to run into their aims, companies from emerging economic systems are utilizing many unique, new and comprehensive techniques to place marks and incorporate them. They get Western companies merely to run into their long term strategic ends. They besides do non interfere with the direction of the freshly acquired companies much ab initio and do n’t wholly assimilate acquisitions. The CEOs focal point is ever on the long term while doing M & A ; A determinations and measuring different consequences.

A Conducive environment

The concern environment in India has become progressively helpful to M & A ; A, in peculiar towards cross-border minutess.

In the past the barrier for cross-border M & A ; A has been in accessing fundss needed to buy big companies-sometimes even larger than themselves. As the domestic banking sector has become progressively refined these companies have turned to private equity, debt and foreign loaners for financing these coup d’etats. Though last twelvemonth saw recession hit the Western universe the M & A ; A impacts were apparent even in India. Still nevertheless hard currency rich companies like Suzlon and Bharti Airtel took advantage of the fact that command challengers had their ain fundss constrained and took over companies overseas. Besides as the figure of hard-pressed assets increased and became more low-cost for few Indian companies. The alterations made in the Indian regulative model have besides benefitted these companies and the new policies have relaxed the flow of capital non merely ‘IN ‘ but even ‘OUT ‘ of the state. These alterations were in fact made to equilibrate the immense influxs of capital to the state. India has the 4th largest foreign exchange modesty in the universe of about US $ 272 billion which give the RBI a much higher capacity to help big corporates in change overing domestic currency to abroad currency to assist them fund their cross-border M & A ; A. There is a heightened sense of assurance looking at the M & A ; A roar in India and the media has built on this and rewarded many CEO ‘s for their good judgement in M & A ; A. M & A ; A is therefore now seen as a really successful agencies for globalisation.

A “ string-of-pearls ” attack to growing

[ ‘STRING OF PEARLS ‘ : is a phrase now normally associated in M & A ; A with a scheme of geting a figure of little mid-size acquisitions ]

A cardinal distinguishing component to this new Indian M & A ; A flourish is the method in which most Indian companies have gone about it. They have acquired smaller bets in many different industries and companies and have built on these acquisitions. They have preferred to derive smaller bets in 4-5 companies than purchase 1 big one. Besides the focal point is on long term growing for these acquisitions and this ‘string of pearls ‘ attack permits companies to widen their planetary range every bit good as growing chances at a really rapid gait.

Many Indian companies follow the procedure of constructing a portfolio of reconciliation and complementary concerns as it is similar to the attack followed in India which has been really successful. A batch of Indian companies have foremost acquired companies in emerging markets before aiming mature and disputing markets like Europe and US. Bharti Airtel acquired and began concern in Seychelles and Sri Lanka after utilizing its trade with Singtel before seeking to get MTN in South Africa -though the trade fell through.

Figure 3 ( beginning: Accenture analysis of Thomsom fiscal information ) is a list of Indian companies holding made more than 10 acquisitions in recent old ages. In the last decennary or so houses like UB Group ( 7 acquisitions ) , Bharat Forge ( 6 acquisitions ) , Larsen and Toubro ( 9 acquisitions ) and Mahindra & A ; Mahindra ( 8 acquisitions ) have regularly made headlines. But even lesser known companies have used acquisitions to turn rapidly such as: I-flex ( 7 acquisitions ) , Amtek Auto ( 9 acquisitions ) , Helios & A ; Matheson InfoTech ( 6 acquisitions ) and Essel Propack ( 6 acquisitions ) .

This “ twine of pearls ” attack changes the outlooks that the CEO ‘s rich person of M & A ; A. The aims of these acquisitions are really specific and they have a individual well defined purpose as portion of a long term growing scheme. Since the ends are so good defined the success of these trades are measured with regard to them such as geting a new trade name, come ining a new market, geting a new engineering or a new production works to travel higher up in the value concatenation.

This helps in sing the M & A ; A trade with a more positive mentality as the intent is easy achieved. What makes this attack stand out from the traditional attack is that traditionally the success of an acquisition was measured against its impact on stockholder value which is really hard to determine when multiple trades are conducted and the impact is non really clear in the long term. Thus this new attack additions assurance and supports such a ‘string ‘ of acquisitions. A study conducted by Accenture CII showed that 89 % of Indian senior executives said that their recent M & A ; A trades were successful as opposed to the planetary norm of 33 % . This high per centum clearly shows that in Indian executives ‘ heads the aims and assurance plays a major function in the M & A ; A experience.

The cost of disregard

As markets liberalize and endeavors globalize, the aggressive fluctuations of some industries can be chiefly affected by participants that govern the planetary market through sheer magnitude. This may go an progressively widespread incidence as big state-backed corporations from emerging economic systems like Russia and China continue their planetary extension. In these industries, Indian companies with unequal planetary entree may non hold much pick but to postulate at that larger graduated table. In a recent interview, The Executive Director of Bharat Forge, Amit Kalyani, stated ” there is non a pick whether you go planetary or non. It ‘s a necessity because your clients, your providers, everybody is planetary. If you are non in the same conference or degree or have the same advantages, you will be in problem. ” This is a facet that is non frequently considered in conventional M & A ; A ratings: the chance cost of non carry oning the trade. The hereafter of Tata Steel could non hold been foreseen if they had non acquired Corus in this scale driven industry. As planetary competition additions, even more industries will see scope and fusion as a necessary path to their continued being

Equally long as India continues to see a hardy domestic state with tendencies that facilitate increased globalisation, we can expect audacious growing chances for Indian endeavors. Amalgamations and acquisitions will go on to supply an chance to come in the markets and tools required for sustainable growing. successful amalgamation puting up and execution will demand greater consideration as trades are quickly going more cross-border in nature, affecting unfamiliar market terrain, changing regulative subjects and a combination of civilizations and linguistic communications. This will besides set a measuring on edifice accomplishments in countries like corporate authorization, cross-cultural supervising and leading way. Indian companies are already act uponing overall M & A ; A tendencies through their longer-term, joint political orientation that aims to construct world-wide leaders, one by one.

A critical aspect of this method is the blessing of the value of the intended company, preponderantly the perceived of worth its endowment. The capableness of Indian companies to bring forth an ambiance that keeps their acquired endowment on board will be a important trial of the victory of their M & A ; A planning.

All excessively frequently, supply concatenation promotions are seen as a post-merger actions related simply for cost-cutting. The truth is that enhanced supply concatenation schemes have a much broader influence on the success of M & A ; A, conveying advantages to gross revenues, runing costs, capital escape and working principal. Furthermore, deficient idea to the supply concatenation affects the companies lucrative, consumer satisfaction and superior growth.It has been normally observed that, the supply concatenation is where much of the worth that drives M & A ; A trades is lost or captured. In this circumstance, there is a demand to raise the premeditated significance of operations-particularly of the supply chain-through the engagement of pertinent counsel and experts throughout the M & A ; A process. It is besides imperative to construct the constellations and procedures to relieve hazard by often be aftering and following advancement during executing. Ultimately, it is of import to determine that the mounting complexness in planetary M & A ; A assimilation requires an adaptable set of operating processs, built upon a forceful engineering substructure. As supply ironss develop across boundary lines and go more technologically sophisticated, they will go increasingly more unfastened to the elements such as environmental and terrorist harm, cyber-threats and come uping geopolitical threat. Pull offing such hazards will add extra load to the supply concatenation skill-set. Indian high-performance endeavors of the hereafter will hold developed expertness in cross-border acquisitions and incorporation, every bit good as a strong, suiting runing supply concatenation with its cardinal focal point at glare and excellence.

Facts and Figures:

In 2007, 543 M & A ; A trades amounting to a sum of US $ 30.4 billion were completed by Indian companies in India and abroad. This shows a CAGR of 28.3 per centum in trade value over the period 2000-07

If mega-deals like the Tata – Corus, are non counted, the sum of trades by Indian companies in the 5 old ages up to 2008 has increased at 20 per centum ( CAGR ) , and the value of these trades has still increased by over 15 per centum. Indian trade sizes are comparatively little as compared with the planetary criterions and therefore mega-deals make a big impact on India ‘s M & A ; A tendencies. Cross-border acquisitions constituted about 75 % of the entire value of M & A ; A trades by Indian companies in 2007, and most of those minutess were in developed states instead than in developing economic systems.

At present India does non hold a autonomous wealth fund, although considerations are now ongoing to measure this option earnestly. For the state to hold

a better influence on planetary determinations and kineticss of amalgamations and acquisitions, India must consciously do the pick to fall in the universe ‘s bing crowned head wealth financess.

The top 10 acquisitions made by Indian companies worldwide:


Target Company

State targeted

Deal value ( $ milliliter )


Tata Steel

Corus Group plc

United kingdom









Daewoo Electronics Corp.




Dr. Reddy ‘s Labs





Suzlon Energy

Hansen Group





Kenya Petroleum Refinery Ltd.



Oil and Gas

Ranbaxy Labs

Terapia SA




Tata Steel






Thomson SA









Case Study: HINDALCO

Global Ambitions

Hindalco, the flagship company of the $ 28 billion Aditya Birla Group, has late entered foreign terrain. Boasting of a diversified portfolio and taking with a standing of India ‘s oldest concern houses. Hindalco by 1999 was reputed to be in the head of the C black, viscose basic fibre and cement fabrication concerns. In add-on to all of this with 40 % portion in the aluminium market it was, but of course, India ‘s largest manufacturer of the same. With the purpose to go a cosmopolitan leader in the aluminium concern, initiated by in-depth reappraisals, Hindalco decided to make its aluminium tentacles further by enlargement, fabricating more commercially feasible goods and by selling aluminium merchandises every bit good as aluminium globally. They followed a simple yet effectual scheme of engendering economic systems of graduated table by puting up aluminum undertakings in India. Simultaneously to perforate the planetary market, it would use cross boundary line acquisitions.

Climbing the M & A ; A Competency Stairway

By taking little stairss in the signifier of minor acquisitions, Hindalco was be aftering to works itself steadfastly in the planetary market. When in 2000 Canada ‘s Alcan a planetary leaders in the aluminium industry decided to draw out of its 55 % equity interest in Indal – the longtime leader in the Indian market a command rage arouse with Hindalco successfully having the much desired Indal for a sum of $ 230 million. This ensured that Hindalco was now the biggest in the aluminium sector in India. Annapurna Foils, was a portion of the coup d’etat and by fostering demand for foil packaging and by put ining the latest equipment Annapurna was revamped. This experience helped them to cover with sensitive issues associating to integrating after the amalgamation. The attack which helped do them the thinking power they are today, involved using the best adult male for the occupation at all times. This can be substantiated by its net income studies which were multiplied 5 times from 1999 to 2006.When after 3 old ages, Hindalco felt it had gained sufficient experience in M & A ; A it decided to come in the planetary market. Nifty and Mount Gordon Cu mines acquisitions, thereby, became their first acquisitions in the Australian Securities Exchange. To supply for its fibre workss in India, Indonesia, China and Thailand, the group bought a mush factory in Canada. , in 2005.This facilitated in better apprehension of the hazards and assorted methodological analysiss of working in different states. The following twelvemonth, the group ‘s outsourcing services unit, , bought a Canadian company, The subsequent twelvemonth Minacs Worldwide, was purchased by TransWorks Information, the groups outsourcing unit to guarantee their partial laterality in the field.

After larning from these experiences Hindalco was convinced that it was good experient to travel after a immense company. By the terminal of 2006 Hindalco had acquired 6 new companies in a span of 6 old ages. They so bid for Novelis-which was one of the largest manufacturer of aluminum merchandises and rolled aluminum in the universe. The company had new installations and had earned a repute across the universe for its technological invention ; among its patronages were companies like ThyssenKrupp, Coca-Cola and Ford. By the 2nd one-fourth of 2007 Hindalco had succeeded in geting Novelis for $ 6 Billion-which made it the 2nd biggest coup d’etat in the US by an Indian company.

Policy of Prevailing with Strategic Acquisitions

Hindalco went after Indal and Novelis merely when it was really clear to them as to what these acquisitions would assist it accomplish. They began with placing their ain failings and so they began aiming companies which would assist stop up them. Much before the Novelis command they divided the aluminum industry into different classs: Miners like BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto that convert and extract bauxite to aluminum. Manufacturers like Rusal and Dubal that produce aluminum as they have cheaper entree to the energy required. Finally downstream manufacturers like Sapa and Novelis which purchase aluminum from the London Metal Exchange and so change over this into aluminium merchandises.

Hindalco began as being an upstream participant, hence it had changing net incomes. In order to do the net income watercourse steady it decided that it needed to get a downstream participant. This would besides assist it travel off from the trade good market and go a planetary participant. In order to derive competences such as attending to quality, brands an service every bit good as doing good relationships with clients and utilizing the economic systems of graduated table along with cheaper natural stuffs Hindalco decided to get of import downstream companies. These were identified as Indal and Novelis one each in India and abroad. The chief aim of these acquisitions was non to cut down costs or turn fast but alternatively to derive new competences. Without worrying excessively much about the stock market ‘s reaction and doing long term ends cognizing that in due clip these acquisitions will greatly heighten stockholder value they go frontward with these. This doctrine has so far helped Hindalco grow and will go on to make so in future.

Hindalco Allows the Integration to Evolve

Hindalco follows a typical policy of leting the procedure of integrating after a amalgamation to germinate of course.

Its direction seldom intervenes. Using all the experience gained from its old M & A ; A, when the clip came to get Novelis Hindalco had already perfected a 4 measure procedure which would assist it accomplish its initial ends post amalgamation. Though the stairss are about the same as those followed elsewhere, they are prioritized really differently-in a mode that helps in deciding issues faster.

Fiscal Integration

This measure involved comparing the patterns of both companies ( Novelis and Hindalco ) to happen out the best patterns. And eventually implementing these best patterns with common understanding from both sides.

Organizational integrating

Hindalco allows the acquired companies direction systems, constructions and people to be the same and does n’t interfere much in this facet unless perfectly necessary. Hindalco sent 2 of its best executives to Novelis which made a positive impact with the Novelis direction.

Business procedure integrating

Hindalco uses a scheme of implementing the painless and easy methods of integrating in the short tally. For illustration it used the comparatively cheap IT skills of India and setup a company which could pull off the IT systems for Novelis in India. It stopped engaging the advisers that Novelis used but restrained itself from taking Novelis employees. In all the facets that Hindalco found that Novelis had procedures far superior to its ain, Hindalco implemented alterations following the Novelis theoretical accounts.

Market integrating

Hindalco being a company based in India- which is turning at a rapid rate, can utilize this growing to increase the demand for merchandises of any company it acquires abroad in India. If India ‘s ingestion degrees can make even a one-fourth of China ‘s so India entirely will be able to devour the full production coming from Novelis. It may take a piece boulder clay Hindalco can recognize the true benefits obtained by geting Novelis but they are cognizant of this and they already developed a clear long term scheme to do this acquisition a success.

M & A ; A Statistics in times of Global Recession:


There was an addition in the billion dollar trades from 2007.Nine such trades were proclaimed in 2009 as compared to the seven of the twelvemonth 2007. The most of import cross-border outbound trade being- TATA Motors geting Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford motors at a monetary value of US $ 2.30 billion. The amalgamation of Daiichi Sankyo Co and Ranbaxy was the top cross-border inbound trade and the top M & A ; A trade in footings of value in 2008.

Top M & A ; A 2008



Value ( $ Bn )

Ranbaxy Labs

Daiichi Sankyo Co


Imperial Energy

ONGC Videsh Ltd


Tata Tele



Centurion Bank of Punjab



Jaguar & A ; Land Rover

Tata Motors Ltd


SeaDragon Offshore

Great Offshore


Unitech Wireless



InterGen NV

GMR Infrastructure


General Chemical

Tata Chemicals


Swan Telecom




Despite the planetary lag, the twelvemonth 2009 has seen some important trades in India. Over the past few old ages, India has shown resiliency by non merely being an of import finish for M & A ; A ‘s but besides by being active in geting international companies. The twelvemonth Indian investors and corporates were faced with menaces and chances likewise in the M & A ; A field. India witnessed 371 trades in 2009 at a disclosed value of $ 12.52 billion. Suzlon purchasing German Repower Systems AG was the top outbound cross-border M & A ; A trade of the twelvemonth valued at $ 499 million.


2010 has already started on a positive note from a cross boundary line M & A ; A point of view as Bharti Airtel acquired Abu Dhabi Group ‘s Wadrid Telecom in Bangladesh for $ 300 million and Reliance mediaworks purchasing Ilab in UK. Besides with negotiations of Godrej board the buyout of SARA LEE and Reliance Industries Ltd late increasing its offer to purchase a commanding interest in insolvent Lyondell Basell Industries for around $ 13.5 Billion the tendency of cross-border M & A ; A seems to be hiting back up after recession. 2010 will offer good chances for acquisitions to companies that can consolidate, introduce and make niche funding every bit good as non hard currency constructions. There will be an addition in both volume and value of M & A ; A activity in India as liquidness and investors assurance returns to the market.

A sum-up of M & A ; A activity in the past 4 old ages:


The justification behind amalgamations and acquisitions is that two companies as a whole are more profitable and valuable than the single companies and the combined stockholder value is besides more than the single amount. Till the 1990s, really few Indian companies had thought about acquisitions abroad. It seemed possible merely in the domain of dreams. However the changed environment and with gained experience Indian companies across sectors have started this tendency of cross-border acquisitions. Equally long as the domestic economic system is turning at this rapid gait the chances for growing through M & A ; A abroad will be high. These will supply a entree to new markets and supply tools necessary for sustainable enlargement. After seeing the success that some Indian giants have had by geting companies

overseas even more concerns will leap on the bandwagon. Indian concerns are already steering planetary M & A ; A tendencies with their longer-term and collaborative attack with an purpose to make planetary title-holders one measure at a clip. An of import facet of this attack is that the value shacking in the endowment of these acquired companies must be retained on board as this will order the success of these M & A ; A schemes. In the hereafter, the command of complex planetary supply ironss widening to assorted parts will be a important factor finding high success degrees. Organic every bit good as inorganic growing will go on to lift and integrating will go a portion of mundane concern. Indian high-performance companies in the hereafter will hold well-sharpened expertness in cross-border M & A ; A and will be a force to think with in the planetary acquisition scene.


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