India As Investment Hub A Global Perspective Economics Essay

Economic policymakers in most states go out of their manner to pull foreign direct investing ( FDI ) . A high degree of FDI influxs is an avowal of the economic policies that the policymakers have been implementing every bit good as a cast of blessing of the future economic wellness of that peculiar state.

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Harmonizing to UNCTAD ( 2007 ) , India has emerged as the 2nd most attractive finish for FDI after China and in front of the US, Russia and Brazil. India has experienced a rise in FDI influxs in the last few old ages ( duplicating from an norm of US $ 5-6 billion the old three old ages to around US $ 19 billion in 2006-07 ) . India ‘s growing scheme has depended preponderantly on domestic endeavors and domestic demand as opposed to FDI and export demand. For case, India ‘s FDI as a portion of GDP in 2007 represented merely approximately 1.7 per centum compared to 2.8 per centum in China and even below Pakistan, and its portion of gross fixed investing is 5.2 per centum compared to 7.0 in China and 16.7 per centum in Pakistan.

Traveling back in history, we find that after Independence, India continued with its receptive attitude towards FDI for about a decennary after it gained independency in 1947. This was because of limited handiness of resources like engineering, accomplishments and entrepreneurship. During this period, foreign investors were assured of free remittals of net incomes and dividends, just compensation in the event of acquisition, and were promised national intervention. However, the 2nd five-year program ( 1956-61 ) laid accent on autonomous economic development and hence adopted a restrictive attitude towards FDI. Further in 1973, the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act ( FERA ) came into force which prescribed a ceiling of 40 per centum in equity by aliens in Indian companies. This resulted in many foreign companies go forthing India in the late seventiess.

However, there was a policy reversal during 1980s. The liberalization of industrial and trade policies during this decennary was accompanied by an progressively receptive attitude towards FDI and foreign coactions. In order to modernize the Indian industry, greater function was sought to be given to trans-national corporations ( TNCs ) . Further, exclusions from the general ceiling of 40 per centum on foreign equity were allowed on the virtues of single investing proposals.

Further, all-out liberalization was initiated in 1990s with a position to alining the Indian economic system with the universe economic system. The policy allowed automatic blessing system for precedence industries. For allowing automatic blessings, three slabs of foreign ownerships were defined viz. , up to 50 per centum, up to 51 per centum and up to 74 per centum, and such bounds were relaxed twelvemonth after twelvemonth.

Foreign Investment Promotion Board ( FIPB ) was set up to treat applications for instances non covered by automatic blessing. Replacement of FERA by Foreign Exchange Management Act ( FEMA ) removed shareholding and concern limitations on TNCs. Further policies associating to foreign engineering purchase and licensing were liberalised to better entree to foreign engineering. Finally, outward investings by Indian endeavors were liberalised and proposals fulfilling certain specified norms were given automatic blessing. These alterations in national FDI policies were complemented by bilateral investing pacts ( BITs ) and dual revenue enhancement turning away pacts ( DTATs ) , many of which have been signed by India in recent old ages. Foreign investing started pouring in after India launched its liberalization programme in 1991.

The factors that determine “ location determination ” of the TNCs, which make most of FDI may be revenue enhancement construction, particular programmes and strategies, competition government, entry and constitution demands, investing protection, engineering transportation, natural resources and accomplishment degrees, inducements and institutional mechanism.


Market-related factors.

Most TNCs, including the biggest 1s, are still really concentrated on their place market in footings of gross revenues. They intend to maintain spread outing their gross revenues abroad to take advantage of the chances offered by the universe market.

aˆ? Size of the local market.

aˆ? Growth of the local market.

aˆ? Access to the regional market.

Resource-related factors.

Access to assorted sorts of resources – accomplishments, natural resources or fiscal markets is going an progressively of import motivation for companies ‘ internationalisation

Entree to skilled labor is the most of import among the assorted types of resource-seeking motives. An increasing figure of companies now consider entree to measure up and creative manpower as an of import determiner of fight. Consequently, a big portion of FDI is influenced by the hunt for qualified work force. The most dramatic illustration is the on-going internationalisation of corporate R & A ; D through the constitution or acquisition of research Centres abroad.

Entree to natural resources is besides considered as a major location. It is a major characteristic of the attraction of sub-Saharan African states, Australia, Latin America and West Asia.

Entree to capital markets and fiscal services is besides considered a major location standard.

As per the World Investment Prospects Survey 2007-2009 conducted by UNCTAD, South, East and South-East Asia include the two taking host states for FDI location until 2009: China and India. Almost two tierces of the companies that participated in the study stated that they had programs to put in either or both of these two economic systems. While, in the position of investors, they portion the same advantages in footings of labor costs and size/growth of market, India ranks higher in footings of skilled labor. Location experts for the UNCTAD study besides expressed optimism for investing chances in these states, emphasizing the fact that India and China are among the few developing states in the universe where it is possible to happen three major sorts of locational advantages ( low costs, markets and technological capablenesss ) . The experts therefore consider an addition in FDI undertakings as the most likely scenario, including in medium-technology fabrication in China and in high-value-added services in India. Furthermore, these undertakings could be progressively oriented towards new parts in these states ( e.g. Cardinal China, mid-sized towns in India ) , as costs are lifting in established locations such as Bangalore ( India ) and Shenzen or Shanghai ( China ) . On the other manus, harmonizing to investors, these states still present restraints in footings of their investing environment, authorities effectivity and entree to capital markets. Location experts confirmed the being of some negative elements, such as the deficiency of protection of rational rights in China or the high turnover of work force in some countries in India.


Through its studies and activities, the Centre for Global Competitiveness and Performance of the World Economic Forum identifies hindrances to growing and thereby helps excite the development of relevant schemes to accomplish sustained economic advancement. The squad ‘s flagship publication is The Global Competitiveness Report ( GCR ) . It is the most comprehensive and important appraisal of the comparative strengths and failings of national economic systems. The GCI provides a methodological model to measure “ the set of establishments, policies and factors that determine the degree of productiveness of a state. ” It comprises a big figure of drivers of fight organized in 12 classs. India ranks 49th out of 133 economic systems in the GCI ( Global Competitiveness Index ) 2009-2010, up one rank from the old edition. India has a developed fiscal system ( 16th ) with a peculiarly sound banking sector ( 25th ) . Another competitory advantage is the size of its market ( 4th overall ) . The Indian goods market is besides reasonably efficient ( 48th ) thanks to fierce competition and despite the presence of of import barriers to entry. India ‘s screening in the two most complex countries of fight, Business Sophistication ( 27th ) and Innovation ( 30th ) , is genuinely singular. This reflects, to a big extent, the alert development of India ‘s private sector and of a few industries in peculiar. As per the study, , India possesses a figure of competitory advantages in several countries, viz. Institutions, Financial Market Sophistication, Market Size, Business Sophistication and Innovation. India has come a long manner since 1991 to go one of the universe ‘s fastest turning economic systems. There are several factors favoring India ‘s fight. These include the comparatively cheap and skilled labors force, the handiness of cardinal natural stuffs and a big and fast turning domestic market. India ‘s rise in planetary fight is widely associated with its services sector, which is forecast to stand for over 90 % of economic growing in 2010.

As per the figures provided by the Economist Intelligence Unit, the outgrowth of India as the preferable hub for Foreign Investment is borne out by the fact that FDI as a per centum of GDP increased from 0.7 % in 2003 to 2.1 % in 2010 in India, while during the same period, it decreased from 2.9 % to 1.6 % . Furthermore, in the period 2003 – 2010, FDI as a per centum of gross investing increased from 2.9 % to 6 % in India, while it reduced to about half from 7.3 % to 3.8 % in China.

It would therefore non be an hyperbole to state that India has been able to make the right ambiance to pull the TNC ‘s to put in this state and presents a immense potency in footings of substructure and market.

Beginnings & A ; Mentions:

Economist Intelligence Unit ( 2007 )

UNCTAD ‘s World Investment Report

World Economic Forum ( Global Competitiveness Index )

FDI in India – CII Snapshot

Report of Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion


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