Imprisonment and addiction

Abstraction

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3.4.1 The Quantitative research scheme

The quantitative attack to research is by and large linked with the rationalist worldview and involves the quantitative step of phenomenon ( Creswell, 2007 ) . Quantitative research involves numerical and nonsubjective measurings to turn to inquiries. It is therefore utile in replying research inquiries associating to what, how much and how many ( Fellows and Liu, 2008 ) . The quantitative procedure of research is deductive in relation to theory and literature and it is normally rooted in the positivist/objectivist philosophical place ( Cresswel, 2009 ) . Yins ( 2014 ) suggest that, the quantitative research scheme chiefly uses Numberss to reply research inquiries. Linked to the rationalist paradigm, the Quantitative attack takes a deductive signifier in which research is used to prove theory ( Saunderset Al. , 2007 ) . Quantitative attack based on quantitative logic entails the numerical representation and use of observation for depicting and explicating the phenomenon that observations reflect ( Bryman, 2012 ) .

3.4.2 The Qualitative Research Strategy

Qualitative methodological analysiss are explanatory in nature and aims to reply inquiries of ‘how? ’ and ‘why? ’ ( Walker, 1997 ; Yin, 2014 ) , or to develop subjects from the qualitative informations obtained ( Creswell, 2003 ) . For this ground, qualitative research uses methodological analysiss such as action research, instance surveies, descriptive anthropologies, and grounded theory and by and large seek to roll up informations in their existent or natural scenes. With roots in the interpretivist paradigm, qualitative research scheme prioritizes people’s subjective readings and apprehension of societal phenomenon and their actions and research trades with experiences, significances, descriptions and other impermanent affairs that can be quantified ( Matthews and Ross, 2010 ) . Qualitative research comes from an interpretivist position and is hence concerned with interpretation and apprehension phenomenon through the significances that people attach to them ( Bryman, 2012 ) . This allows a more in depth expression at a subject in comparing to the quantitative attack. It besides allows flexibleness in research in respects to clip, location and application in transporting out a research ( Berg, 2004 ) .

3.5 Chosen research design and method

To accomplish the purpose of this research, a qualitative attack to research will be use to obtain information for this research. This will affect Face-to-face semi-structured interviews ( Primary Source ) conducted in individual, which will be used to research the interviewees’ positions and experiences and Literature reappraisal ( secondary beginning ) as the agencies of informations aggregation. A qualitative research design was selected due to the nature of the research inquiry and the purposes of the research as it subjects to qualitative question.

3.6 Data Collection

The information gathered is obtained from Drug nut, ex-drug nut and a prison officer. The aim of the marks selected is to observe their perceptual experiences on drugs, prison, and care given while in prison and how they changed after prison. Due to the sensitive nature of the inquiries asked, the campaigners of the interview were carefully selected and a clear definition of the purpose to interview was explained to the persons and with the aid of the members of Crime Reduction Initiatives ( CRI ) , we had an understanding.

Further articles, studies, argument stuffs, on-line paperss, studies and other theories associating to the undertaking subject was researched on, collated and added to enrich my study. My study is composed chiefly from interviews and personal experience from near loved 1s and their ain personal sentiment on which intervention of the justness system works best.

The interview conducted was focused on drug nuts who have been incarcerated and tried the prison drug intervention every bit good as a specializer attention outside the prison walls. The advantage of utilizing the face-to-face interview is to guarantee the dependability and unity of my findings and the cogency of what I’m coverage is integral. Plus, this method ensures the aim of carry oning the interview is accomplished due to its flexible and open-end nature which encourages uninterrupted conversation and free flow of information.

3.7 Data Analysis

The interview inquiries were related but non precisely the same all through with all respondents therefore, a clear apprehension of single experiences, ideas and perceptual experience was achieved during the interview session. I conducted the interviews among five respondents including a referee – in this instance, a member of a CRI to site their sentiment on the informations gathered from each single respondent. The analysis of the information was conducted utilizing content analysis and changeless comparing of the interviews from one individual with the other. This helped, to construct subjects used as footing for the analysis of the research to assistance in replying the research inquiries.

3.8 Ethical Considerations

Harmonizing to Creswell ( 2012 ) , a research worker anticipates informations aggregation needs to value the participants. To assist with this intent, all interviewers will be informed of the intent of the research and will be given the confidence of namelessness in describing the consequences of the survey. All interviewees were given the option to draw out of the survey at any clip they wish. Besides the ethical process for research within the London metropolitan university will be followed to guarantee the unity and namelessness of the interviewees are guaranteed.

Chapter 4

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the findings of the interviews and discusses the consequences in relation to the literature on the function of prisons in contending the job of drug dependence. The consequences are presented from the analysis of interviews conducted with five people four of which are drug nuts or ex-addicts with some holding being to prison as drug wrongdoers. The 5th interviewee is a CRI officer. For the intents of confidentiality, the undermentioned arbitrary names are used to stand for the interviewees: EX1 for an ex-addict ; EXP 1 for an ex-imprisoned nut: CPR1 for an addict helping community term, ADD 1 for an nut and CRIMG 1 for a CRI Manager. The consequences and treatment are presented in the subdivisions below with more information from the reappraisal conducted on

4.2 Consequences

This subdivision presents the consequences of the survey and screens three chief subjects which are: the causes of dependence ; the function of prisons in work outing the dependence job ; and the usage of specializer plans as an option to imprisonment.

4.2.1 Causes of dependence

It is apparent from the analysis of the consequences that, dependence to drugs started from a recreational battle with drugs. Just like in many surveies, intoxicant and hemp are the most used drugs among them all. Their battle was wholly voluntary as redress to personal emphasis or perturbation that they had to cover with in their ain manner or as a agency to experience a sense of belonging among group of friends in a assemblage. Mains issues by which respondents resorted to drug dependence are household differences, fiscal insecurity, and grudges which led to their dependence. The consequences of the interview with all nuts and ex-addicts suggested that their first brush with drugs was for recreational intents but developed into an dependence when their societal jobs came into the image.

It was recreational, so emphasis got the best of me and I started making some heavy materials.” (EX1 )

The consequences suggest that emphasis, in most of the instances led the nuts on from recreational usage to debatable dependence. This suggests that emphasis can take a way of negative life style, depression and mental unwellness if non tackled instantly. Stress can impact every portion of our lives ; relationship, work, physically, educational, emotional, mentally and fiscal facets. Most captives suffer from emotional, mental and fiscal emphasis and this can in return lead to drug usage, dependence and backsliding:

I came out worse than I went in, my married woman cried twenty-four hours and dark and my 2 childs couldn’t bent about me as I was disconnected to the life of being a normal male parent for them. I suffered a batch! As the caput of the household, I need to supply for my household but I failed to and that truly got me depressed ; no occupation, emotional hurting & A ; my dependence still at that place and my married woman did everything she could to be the caput of the household boulder clay I recovered.”( EXP1 )

For some of the interviewees nevertheless, the dependence job did non get down as a consequence of emphasis but started from a really immature age through equal group influence. Some dependence starts from younger societal circle ; amongst friends in a assemblage as one of the ex-inmates revealed:

I started making drugs at the age of 17 while I was at a mate’s party. I smoke coffin nails at that clip but ne’er had any difficult material, non even weed. My mate got to the party tardily but he said he had a good ground. He got all the male childs together at the dorsum of the house and brought out a bag of weed and that’s how I started socially and casually.”( ADD 1 )

The above response shows that from an early age, drugs are available to underage teens that socialise with friends or group of friends and from there became a wont and subsequently taking to dependence. Get downing the usage of drugs from an early age is likely to take to addiction particularly when the usage of drugs are non controlled or such teens are exposed to available beginnings of drugs.

4.2.2 Influence of imprisonment on the dependence job

From the analysis of the informations, most of the interviewees suggested that their dependence job did non halt piece imprisoned neither did it halt outside the prison walls though they all reckon they were a batch better with the aid received through CRI. From the interviewees, although they still plan to wholly give up on utilizing any type of mind-altering drug ( s ) , they significantly reduced their dependence on drugs and on occasion utilize them in limited sum over a clip frame. The exposure of nuts to prison environments where unsafe inmates are was seen as a great ill service as it determine if a low-crime nut can retrieve or go worse. One of the interviewees explained this issue in the infusion below:

“It is reasonably simple to explicate why this is. In prison, there are inmates who are considered danger to the populace and when low-crime captives are assorted with these unsafe inmates, they pick up a wont or two non volitionally but they succumb to bullying, intimidation and fright of what could be if they don’t do as directed. This in return can farther damage the will-power of an single battling addiction.”( CPR 1 )

As seen from the infusion, the prison environment has a really large impact on the ability of the convicted individual to battle dependence. For each challenge ( s ) an single face to battle dependence or backsliding, factors that surround their physical environment which could do them volatile, loose focal point, concentration or fed up of life itself plays a large function. Harmonizing to the CRI officer, the environment can lend to their drug usage and likely, backsliding:

“…besides that, they all seem to hold a major life altering state of affairs which triggered and overpowered their will to continuous drug usage. This trigger varies in persons from emphasis, marital jobs, decease, childhood memories, injury or fiscal or societal insecurity can ensue to their addiction.”( CRIMG 1 )

Another country in which prison term was seen as a negative influence on the dependence job is the force per unit area associated with being imprisoned. Overall, the force per unit area associated with functioning sentences in prison is a accelerator to further habit-forming behavior every bit good as backsliding and this in bend can take to aggressive and violent behaviors.

4.2.3 The usage of Specialist rehabilitation plans as an option

The consequences of the research suggests that, the usage of specializer rehabilitation plans have a major influence on the dependence job and one’s ability to get the better of the issue of dependence. From my brush and interview with assorted drug users, it’s obvious to see how their lives have changed by traveling through specializer rehabilitation plans alternatively of imprisonment.

4.3 Discussion of findings with result of reappraisals

The findings from the interviews is discussed together with the result of the reappraisal of currents issues sing drug dependence in the UK.

As found in the survey, many drug nuts have their dependence behavior started as emphasis relieving patterns. This nevertheless gets drawn-out and accordingly becomes dependence. The National Institute of Drug Abuse ( NIDA ) research workers have established that major illicit drugs can bring on Long-run Potentiation ( LTP ) in dopamine-releasing cells in an country of the encephalon called Ventral Tegmental Area ( VTA ) and harmonizing to Dr. Volman, “Stress is unpleasant, a negative stimulation. Addictive drugs on the other manus, have a enjoyable consequence, at least ab initio. The determination that emphasis entirely can bring on alterations similar to those caused by drugs in VTA cells indicates the possibility of a priming mechanism that could do person who has experienced stress much more vulnerable to addiction” ( Patrick, 2003 ) .

A major factor that triggers substance maltreatment before and after captivity is stress. Sinhaet Al( 2000 ) identified that persons who have been exposed to emphasize were far more likely to utilize of illicit drugs, smoke, and intoxicant or undergo backsliding. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) – a mental upset which occurs after a traumatic experience or a life endangering state of affairs: can do people indulge in drug usage. Situations like terrorist onslaught incidents, war, fatal accidents and/or violent maltreatment can be a major trigger and persons with this experience ( s ) would see flashbacks, memory callbacks, fright or dazes and therefore prosecute in self-administration of psychotropic drugs to ease the hurting and tragic memories associated with posttraumatic emphasis upset as observed by Brownet Al( 1995 ) .

As the interviewees clearly reviewed, functioning prison sentence entirely could non assist them halt their habit-forming behavior. In some cases, inmates had entree to drugs and this even helped them go on their dependence job while in prison. Prison sentences is non a redress for nuts alternatively nuts in prison represents three types of hazard: Hazard of reoffending, public hazard and hazard to prison security ( Dolanet Al, 2007 ) . There are several factors that triggers drug usage in prison, while in prison, it’s ever a instance of endurance, factors like assaults, corrupt prison functionaries, intimidation and other security menace poised to an person ( Penfold, Turnbull, & A ; Webster, 2005 ) .

In parts of Europe and the United States, there has been legalization of drugs in attempt to cut down dependence and aid nuts overcome their wonts. In 2013/14, the drugs that accounted for most ictuss incidents were hemps ( 3,829 incidents ) , benzodiazepines ( 471 incidents ) and cocaine ( 424 incidents ) ( Annual Statistics Report Drug Seizures and Arrests, 2013/14 ) , seeAppendix F. In Switzerland, diacetylmorphine plan was made permanent in move to cut down drug nuts and as a step to assist heroin nuts across the state. As outlined by ( Nordt el al, 2006 ) , “The injury decrease policy of Switzerland and its accent on the medialisation of diacetylmorphine job seems to hold contributed to the image of diacetylmorphine as unattractive for immature people” . There has been decline in heroin dependence in Switzerland due to its legal medical reform.

Reoffending is a immense concern with nuts coming out of prison. Harmonizing to Ministry of Justice, 39.3 % reoffend within the first moths and within nine old ages of release, 75 % of ex-cons reoffend. The Home Office and the Department of Health made investings to undertake and aim drug misapplying wrongdoers at all phase of the Criminal Justice System by developing Drug Invention Programme ( DIP ) , Drug Rehabilitation Requirement ( DRR ) and later in 2013, the NHS became the commissioner for substance abuse Services ( SMS ) in prison which was antecedently known as incorporate drug intervention services ( IDTS ) . SeeAppendix G. “Our reviews found that most prisons had schemes for substance abuse and supply decrease, but a one-fourth were non focused plenty on the demands of captives with intoxicant jobs, some lacked sufficient item or marks for accomplishment, and one in eight were based on out-of-date or unequal demands of assessment” ( HM Prisons Annual Report, 2013/14 ) . SeeAppendix A, BandCprevalence chart of United Kingdom, Scotland and The Republic of Ireland.

The usage of “recreational Drug” , in this instance hemp, which in some instances is prescribed for medical usage to handle diseases and symptoms like sickness, hurting, glaucoma and anorexia frequently lead to dependence. As seen inAppendix Fcannabis/marijuana is one of the most common drugs used and seized in the United Kingdom. It’s widely available in different signifiers and name but it’s illegal. Harmonizing to Britain’s foremost Green Party MP, Caroline Lucas, “Prohibition is merely non supplying the best protection against drug abuse” . Cannabis was antecedently downgraded to a Class C drug by Home Secretary David Blunkett in 2002 but subsequently reclassified by Prime Minister Gordon Brown as a Class B drug five old ages subsequently. David Cameron earlier elected as the Prime Minister supported more indulgent punishments for drugs like hemp and ecstasy ownership every bit good as leting medical prescription of diacetylmorphine to nuts in “shooting galleries” but his positions changed since come ining Number 10 ( Brian Wheeler, 2013 ) . In Netherlands, drugs are sectioned into two groups: ( 1 ) Soft drugs – dwelling of Cannabis/Marijuana and hallucinogenic mushrooms ( late classed as difficult drugs in 2008 ) are made legal under “personal use” . ( 2 ) Hard drugs – including cocaine, LSD, morphia, diacetylmorphine are all prohibited due to its influence on human wellness ( Peter Skelton, 2014 ). The Dutch Drug jurisprudence doesn’t penalise soft drugs personal use so as a consequence, smoking marihuanas in public is widely tolerated in a controlled manner. Basically, marihuanas can be purchased in java stores. The purpose is to educate and forestall drug maltreatment in the state.

In the United States since 1996, Washington, DC and 20 other provinces have passed down Torahs which allow the usage of marihuana to handle assorted medical conditions but under the Federal jurisprudence, the usage of marihuana is strongly prohibited. Most of the provinces in the U.S. are legalizing the usage of marihuana for recreational intents but in response to province legalization of the drug for recreational every bit good as medical usage, the Federal authorities cited that its precedences would be changed and single consumers and providers in these provinces won’t be targeted where there is a “strong and effectual regulative system” ( DOJ memo, August 19, 2013 ) .

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