This paper deals with Serbian agricultural economic sciences with respect to Kosovar concern bunch enterprises, current chances and the debut of new attacks. The methodological analysis of comparing was chosen in order to analyze the current state of affairs, possible and cardinal factors for the acceptance of successful patterns. The analysis was based on Porter ‘s invention theory and diamond theoretical account. A instance survey of a Kosovar vino bunch was therefore examined, sing its possible strengths and failings. Serbia is an economic system in passage with high unemployment, a immature population and structural jobs. Bunchs could hence be considered as an appropriate attack to develop rural countries. The Serbian vino sector in peculiar could be a promising illustration for future bunch development. Wine has a long history in Serbia although wine ingestion is non widespread. This paper presents the chief jobs and chances within this sector, depicting its structural alterations and current developments. The survey aims to present its readers to the potency that bunch development can offer every bit good as to understand the local fortunes. Its chief focal point is hence to present the advantages and chances that bunchs could convey to this sector, sing the three pillars of sustainable development, viz. economic growing, environmental and societal development, and accomplishing fight.
JEL categorization codifications: L6, R12, R3, O18, O38
Cardinal words: agriculture sector, concern bunchs, fight, diamond theoretical account, Kosovo, Porter ‘s invention theory, Serbia, sustainable development, Wine.
This research examines sustainable development in Serbia by concentrating on the interaction between economic, societal and environmental issues in the agricultural sector. Serbia ‘s economic system, like most in the Balkans, is an economic system in passage wherein the agricultural sector plays an of import function. One of the promising industries in the agricultural sector is the vino industry. Serbia has a long history of cultivating grapes and bring forthing vinos. However, current production is still based on the former state-owned endeavors and old equipment, although a few new, little start-ups have late begun activity utilizing new engineering. Through the debut of new constructs and investings, the vino industry shows promise in going a cardinal factor in agricultural and economic growing. The procedure of denationalization holds possible for an economic growing and a better hereafter, this nevertheless necessitating both difficult work and new attacks. Denationalization does non intend immediate growing ; this sector is a rare illustration of one in which exports are higher than imports. Climate conditions, a inexpensive working force and – as stated – the part ‘s history in wine-making all make this sector attractive to foreign bureaus and investors. The creative activity of bunchs is non a authorities map, neither is it a bespoke solution. In fact, constellating involves many functions. Each participant has certain responsibilities, but the whole procedure needs coordination. The monitoring and supervising of the whole procedure, the designation of demands and lasting exchange between the participants are all organised as a bunch. In the terminal, a win-win state of affairs is created even if competition is raised to a higher degree. Competition and the operation of free markets guarantee the success of the sector and as a consequence, regional development. Furthermore, one bunch helps to make another ; get downing one procedure means that many others may follow. The focal point of this paper is to demo the advantages to be gained through the development of bunchs every bit good as the chances for sustainable development in this sector that they can convey.
The field of bunchs has been exhaustively researched by legion bookmans ( Marshall 1920 ; Kesidou 2007 ; Koepp 2002 ; Palcic 2007 ; Porter 1990 ; Swann et Al. 2002, Wilson and Popp 2003 ) over the twentieth century. Regardless of first-class academic coverage and important research attempt already invested in the topic of bunchs, the subject remains in the Centre of attending as globalisation and increased competition force concerns to seek new organisational forms and competitory advantages.
On the other manus, some writers ( Swann et al. 2002 ) argue that geographical propinquity is non critical any longer for the successful creative activity of bunchs, as modern universe technological developments provide agencies of communicating which enables the formation of practical bunchs which do non arise in the same district/area but still portion other common characteristics of a bunch. Pravitt ( 1987 ) besides noticed how certain economic analysis have assumed that the technological cognition could be wholly codified and transferred over great distances in the signifier of processs, recopies, designs and patents. Pravitt ( 1987 ) argues that, in world, this procedure is non an easy one as most of the present engineering is complex, mark specific and cumulative in development. This sort of tacit cognition is highly difficult or even impossible to reassign by wire, but instead it needs geographic propinquity and personal contact in order to maximise cognition transportation.
How are bunchs critical to competition?
One of the most celebrated bookmans in the field, Michael Porter ( 1998a ) explains how bunchs affect competition in three wide ways:
by increasing the productiveness of companies based in the country,
by driving the way and gait of invention and therefore productiveness growing, and
by exciting the formation of new concerns that supports invention and expands the bunch.
Palcic ( 2007 ) states that developed bunchs normally consist of more than one industry, but instead figure of related industries. Because of the importance of outwardnesss and spillovers within the bunch, comprehensiveness and deepness of the bunch is more important for competitory advantage so the size of single houses or industries within the bunch. Bing a portion of the bunch gives the houses entree to specialise information as extended market, proficient and competitory information accumulates within the bunch. Close propinquity gives possibility for tie supply and technological linkages to develop, as repeated contacts in the bunch community would further those ties and ease the information flow. Particular instance of the information benefit of bunchs is handiness of information about current purchaser ‘s demands.
Palcic ( 2007 ) outlines that it is non surprise that many new houses are formed within a bunch instead than in stray locations. Bunchs offer much needed support for successful creative activity of houses as new concerns are more easy formed where better information on invention and market chances are present. Specialists working in bunchs have better opportunity of placing spreads and possible chances for fulfilling turning demands within bunch, and stand better opportunity of get downing up a company as entry barriers are lower than elsewhere. Wholly much needed imports are already available on the location and are ready to be employed in the new company. This is peculiarly of import for knowledge-based industries, but is non limited to those.
Less Developed Countries
As supported in old work by Porter and other writers, Maskell ( 2007 ) studies that incensement in productiveness and cognition transportation are the two most of import benefits for local geographical bunchs.
In favor of the theory that this is one of the curtail benefits that a company can derive from the bunch, goes many researches condemned by distinguished bookmans ( Malmberg et al. 2001 ) . For illustration, Kesidou ( 2007 ) examines the cognition spillovers in Uruguay and how local package companies in the same bunch portion thoughts, organisational betterments and human resource transportations in order to upgrade their fight. On the other manus, Bell and Albu ( 1999 ) emphasis that bunch benefits focal point should besides be on systems of cognition accretion and non merely on production systems.
There is a disproportion in the figure of surveies that cover bunchs in developed and less developed states ; hence, research that covers bunchs in less-developed states is really valuable and relevant to this paper. One of the bookmans, McCormick ( 1998 ) has undertaken a research on what sort of impact endeavor bunchs in Africa had on industrialisation of the part, replying if bunchs from less-developed states have the features of successful bunchs elsewhere, how endeavors in bunchs are turn toing the alterations and chances in their concern environment and how they are impacting wider industrialisation in their states. The paper examines eight bunchs in Kenya, Ghana and South Africa. The research revealed that all of the bunchs have affected the industrialisation procedure in their states, in the significance and volume of the degree of development of the bunchs. Another major point drawn by the research is that about all of the bunchs were composed of microenterprises selling on the localised markets, and merely two bunchs had internal construction and wider market entree that is typical for successful bunchs in the developed states. This information could be important for better apprehension of Serbian bunchs, which companies form them, how they are formed and what sort of influence they are holding on the industrialisation in Serbia.
One of the cardinal characteristics of a concern environment for every company is economic context within which it is runing. The same economic context is critical for public presentation of bunchs as good. Further on, industrial administration literature ( Scherer 1980 ) and institutional economic sciences literature ( Williamson 1985 ; North 1990 ; Langlois and Robertson 1995 ) outline three elements of economic context: the nature and the size of the merchandise market, available economic systems of graduated table and range, and the establishments regulating exchange dealingss.
By and large, bunchs have different concern schemes and market attack depending on the nature of the merchandises that they are making or bring forthing. While the demand for certain lower quality merchandises would decrease in less-developed states as they are developing, the demand for other groups of merchandises would lift enabling the procedure of industrialisation and engineering transportation in the part. On the other manus, market size is besides specifying the size and capacity of the companies as they are bring forthing adequate to cover the market demand. Modern literature offers two schemes for bunch market development: houses can spread out their activities geographically and they can seek to capitalize on the littleness of the market they are runing within.
Normally, little companies composing bunchs find broadening their domestic market more favorable as they lack fundss and expertness for exporting. On the other manus, fall ining into bunchs gives them necessary bargaining power, extra capacities and economic systems of graduated table, so they could be competitory on abroad markets. The size of the company end product is decidedly related to market size, as companies which have entree to larger markets have the possible to bring forth more and fulfill higher figure of clients and take advantage of economic systems of graduated table. Apart from market size, available economic systems of graduated table could be puting into machinery, new engineerings and specialisation of labor.
In most instances, the size of companies in developed and less developed states is non relative and bunchs from less-developed states are runing at uneconomically little graduated table ( Pryor 1972 ) . Bunchs can make higher efficiency if specialisation of labour occurs on a company to- company footing, instead than within individual endeavor. In add-on, economic systems of range play a important function in overall public presentation of bunchs in less-developed states, as companies can spread out their merchandise portfolio and benefit from coincident graduated table economic systems and finalise different merchandises at approximately same costs. ( Storper and Walker 1989 ) Similar findings are expected to be discovered among Serbian companies. Finally, it is really of import for companies runing in less-developed states to hold full trust in establishments regulating exchange dealingss and to be secure that their contracts could and if needed should be enforced. Zucker ( 1986 ) outlines that trust between the parties is one of the default mechanisms of trade and prosperity. Further, he states that institutionally based trust is important for modern universe where societies become larger, more heterogenous and more geographically dispersed. However, for institutionally based trust to be at that place has to be a 3rd party, prepared and able to implement contracts and prevent timeserving behavior ( Zucker 1986 ; North 1990 ) . Contract enforcement is really of import issue in less-developed states, as in many less-developed states companies do non hold faith in the legal system to protect them if their providers or clients do non carry through duties from the contracts or counterbalance them for breach of contract.
The Role of Government
In less-developed states, attending has focused on the function of local and regional authorities in supplying or easing entree to recognition, preparation and assorted existent services ( Brusco, 1992 ) . Real service Centres tend to be specialized in assisting bunchs overcome the obstructions, such as proving installations, design and quality criterions, legal judicial admissions, import and export ordinances and engineering transportation. Local and regional authoritiess besides portion supported the formation of self-help establishments such as recognition pool and selling co-ops ( Best 1990 ; Schmitz 1992 ; Pyke 1993 ) . These local and regional authorities enterprises are known two have positive effects on the concern ( Schmitz 1995 ) , and writers outline two chief decisions:
province intercession itself can non make industrial territories, but such aid can be critical to heighten the fight of local industry,
public establishments or strategies for the support of industry are more relevant and sustainable when there is an active engagement in policy, funding and direction maps, by the parties from whom they are set up.
This requires institutionalization of corporate organic structures, such as sectorial associations in the bunch and the formation of the organic links at the local degree between industry, the authorities and intermediate establishments within civil society. A figure of policy enterprises and province establishments are supposed to help little houses ( particularly the 1s located in sectorial bunchs ) with assorted inducements and existent services. Examples of such authorities enterprises can be found in many less-developed states and some of them include regional Small Business Advisory Centres in the Philippines ( Tan 1991 ) ; Malaysian Subcontractor Exchange Programme ( Jamil and Said 1991 ) ; the Korean Small and Medium Sized Promotion Corporation ( Lee 1991 ) ; assorted sector specific proficient Centres in Pakistan ( Nadvi 1992 ) and regional Small Industries Service Institutes in India ( Kashyap 1990 ; Holmstrom 1993 ) .
It would be really utile, for the apprehension of the Serbian concern environment, to look into the function of the Serbian authorities and consequence it has on bunchs in Serbia.
This facet of concern environment really of import as Serbia is still ruled by the political parties that have influence in every concern and societal activity in the state. Consequently, political parties and the authorities can make up one’s mind to back up a specific industry bunch or bunchs in general and to let them better policies, subventions, promotional aid, and all stated supra. As this is a first survey of this sort in Serbia, it was non able to cite valid Serbian illustrations and state of affairss from the yesteryear.
Invention policy constructs
The four long-run focussed invention policy constructs consist of the Regional Innovation System, Cluster Initiatives, Triple Helix and Urban Design. The Regional invention system is the institutional substructure back uping invention within the production construction of a part – invention produced through regional webs of pioneers, local bunchs and the cross-fertilising effects of research establishments ( Asheim B.T & A ; Gertler M.S, 2005 ) . The geographical dimension is added to the economic experts ‘ theory of invention systems. The invention procedure is about fiting reversible activity, the technical-knowledge possibilities in building the merchandises or services, and the acknowledgment of market potency for new merchandises or services. Triple-Helix, as a non-linear invention procedure, is used to derive an apprehension of the dynamic interaction between universities, corporations and authoritiess, and their part to regional / national knowledge-based production development. Bunchs, on the other manus, are defined as groups of houses that swarm together, larning from each other and pulling on common assets in order to make urban or regional economic systems that can go on to turn through uninterrupted invention. One competitory industry helps to make another in a mutually-reinforcing procedure ( Porter 1990 ) .
The industrial fight footing has shifted bit by bit in the globalization procedure from inactive monetary value competition to one dynamic betterment, where cognition and invention direction conveying competitory advantages and sustainable benefit to the houses. The emerging knowledge-based economic system is characterised through invention as the reorganization of the bing production procedure, the production of new or improved, redesigned goods or services with provident costumier benefits. In many instances, houses in related or the same industries tend to be located in the same topographic point for significant grounds, seeking to gain from the location form and advantages linked to this concentration. Many research workers of economic geographics every bit good as of economic sciences and concern surveies assume that localized bunchs are efficient and increase net incomes for the participants of the bunch. Of class, a bunch is non merely a group of members with different grade of rank. In fact, a bunch is more likely to be a group of independent and informally-linked companies and establishments in a robust organizational signifier that offers advantages in efficiency, effectivity and flexibleness ( Porter 1998a ) .
Actually, Porter defines bunch as groups of companies and establishments concentrated in a specific geographic part and linked by mutualities in supplying the same or related merchandises or services ( Porter 1990, 1998b ) . In add-on, Porter ( 1990 ) goes on to explicate that the competitory industries in a state or part will non be equally distributed across the economic system. A state ‘s successful industries are normally linked through perpendicular ( buyer/ provider ) or horizontal ( common clients, engineering, channels, etc. ) relationships. The grounds for constellating turn straight out of the determiners of national advantage and are a manifestation of their systemic character. One competitory industry helps to make another in a reciprocally reenforcing procedure. ( Porter 1990, p. 148, 149 )
Bunchs are therefore of import because they allow companies to be more advanced and productive in interrelated groups alternatively of moving in isolation. They are of import because they cut down the barriers for new concern start-ups, and supply chances for entry into comparative bunchs and to other locations. With the activity of bunchs and their geographic footings in head, Ketels ( 2004 ) continues that by using the propinquity among bunchs, bunch participants benefit from the outwardnesss of positive specific locations. These are entree to specialised human resources, providers, cognition, spillovers, high competition, which consequences in better public presentation and once more in more invention, and particularly, in closed interactions with client and other web effects ( Ketels 2003, p. 4 ) . Most bunchs arise because they increase the productiveness with which companies can vie. As it becomes the focal point of new policy enterprises in the policies of the European Union today, the potency in bunchs is seen as critical for making the ambitious end of fight, in order to do Europe the most competitory and dynamic knowledge-based economic system in the universe, as set out in the Lisbon Agenda by the European Council in 2000. Bing portion of a bunch is an of import competitory strength for concern.
Harmonizing to Commission communicating, Clusters help to shut the spread between concern, research and resources, thereby conveying cognition to the market faster. Successful bunchs promote intense competition along with co-operation. They enhance productiveness, pull investing, promote research, strengthen the industrial base, develop specific merchandises or services and go a focal point for developing accomplishments. ( COM 502 concluding 2006, p.7 )
Porter ‘s “ diamond ” theoretical account
The diamond theoretical account promoted by Porter ( 1990 ) is helpful in understanding the place of geographic parts. The determiners of national advantage, in world, can impact and “ reenforce each other and proliferate over clip in furthering competitory advantage in an industry ” ( Porter 1990, p.132 ) . Clusters play an of import function in this theoretical account, as these agglomerations can take to sustainable development of a nation/region. A part is able to construct up a comparative advantage when the four two-way pointers interlinked with determiners in the bunch are considered to interact positively. The authorities ‘s function at the local, province and national degree can act upon competitory advantages in an industry if its policy influences one or more of four determiners of the diamond, these being factor conditions, demand conditions, related and back uping industries and house scheme, scheme and construction ( Porter 1990, p. 619 ) . Firm scheme and competition warrant a context in which investings and sustained upgrading ( such as rational belongings protection ) are encouraged. Direct competition enhances houses as productiveness additions. Furthermore, Porter ( 2003 ) gives a distinguishable function to constellate development in beef uping the regional greening and economic development procedure, underscoring the importance of unfastened and vigorous competition among locally-based competition. On the other manus, demand conditions improve fight because demand intensive conditions put force per unit area on the houses to come up with changeless betterments, inventions and a high-quality service or merchandises. Furthermore, unusual local demand in specialized sections could demo planetary tendencies, and first-mover advantages are possible in larger markets. Lead-users could demo the jobs of the hereafter or demand merchandises which are non yet available but hold possible for the hereafter. Additionally, the exchange of information, thoughts and inventions could be facilitated by the close connexion in one part to related and back uping industries. Finally, easy accessible factor ( input ) conditions allow the development of comparative advantages when specialized natural, human and capital resources are available in the quality needed in this geographic part. Physical, administrative, information and scientific substructure aid to make the cardinal factors for comparative advantages. Here, the authorities has to play the function of accelerator and forcing case, promoting the houses towards higher public presentation and investings. The authorities can excite a demand for advanced merchandises and construct up necessary trade conditions and ordinances.
The term “ bunch enterprise ” is used to specifically denote a bunch development undertaking or bunch administration ( Ketels, Lindqvist and Solvell 2006, p. 9 ) . Cluster-based fight undertakings, or bunch enterprises ( CI ) can be considered as organized attempts to accomplish economic growing with a competitory environment within a part utilizing advanced methods, and with the aid of the authorities and educational institutes. Normally initiated by the authorities, industry leaders and academic research workers, bunch enterprises are non merely platitude in advanced economic systems but besides in economic systems in passage. The chief end is the coordination and execution of schemes to accomplish an ascent in bunch fight ( Solvell, Ketels and Lindqvist 2003 ) .
One of the chief theoretical accounts is the “ Cluster Initiative Performance Model ” ( CIPM ) . This theoretical account recognises five factors, viz. the societal, political and economic scene ( three drivers ) within the part, the aims of the enterprise, and the procedures of bunch development. The public presentation of a bunch depends on these three drivers plus the other two factors. A bunch from one part is non nevertheless movable to any other.
Grape turning and vineyards have existed in Kosovo for over 2000 old ages, owing to a clime that is improbably well-suited to vineries and the cultivation of wine grapes ; in fact, there are over 200 cheery yearss a twelvemonth to assist mature the grapes, on par with some countries of California. While local small-scale wine-production has been rampant over the centuries, the vino industry in Kosovo merely became large-scale in the 1970s through socialist diktat. Designed to bring forth inexpensive vinos chiefly for the German market, and therefore earn the state difficult currency, winemaking was predicated with a mass production system that valued measure over quality.
The four state-owned wine makers, based in the West and South of the Kosovo part of Yugoslavia, were non so much as “ wine makers ” as “ wine mills ” : the capacity of the Rahovec installation entirely was around 50 million liters ( though it ne’er ran at full capacity ) , about all of which was shipped abroad. Wine was exported in majority by train to Germany for a monetary value of less than 1 DM per liter, top outing in 1989 with the export of 40 million liters. After the disintegration of Yugoslavia, Serbian policies towards the vino industry in Kosovo took on a nationalist tone, and the Serbian directors and employees of the four State Owned Enterprises ( SOEs ) were pushed out in favor of Albanian superintendents. As a consequence of this loss of cognition, and coupled with other external influences such as the break of commercialism during the Bosnian war, the vino industry in Kosovo stagnated during the 1990s exactly as the universe vino market began to blossom and go more sophisticated. Production in the vino mills in Rahovec, Suhareka, Krusha vitamin E Vogel, and Gjakova, was still oriented towards bulk vinos and lesser-known assortments ( but without the benefit of big export markets ) , while the remainder of the universe was experimenting with new techniques in viniculture and wine-making, and new countries ( preponderantly Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa ) were get downing to bring forth first vinos.
The great disparity between the universe ‘s gustatory sensations and the socialist outlook in Serbia led to a hasty diminution in both the production of vino and the demand for Kosovar ( Serbian ) vino in the international market place. The struggle in 1999 and the subsequent remotion of the Serbian influence in Pristina did non collar the diminution of the vino industry, and given the slow procedure of denationalization and indefinite position of Kosovo on the international phase, many estates of vineries were abandoned or oriented towards table grapes, while winery equipment was left to corrode. The impact was black in parts such as Rahovec, where, harmonizing to local estimations, 40 % of the people populating in the part had been engaged in the vino industry. Weather troubles have besides played a portion in the downswing in the vino industry, as the crop was damaged due to a spring hoar in 2000 and the clime one time once more took a bend for the worse in 2002 with hail happening during the turning season. The denationalization of some of the SOEs in 2006 has rekindled the hope that Kosovo can capitalize on its natural advantages and turn its vino industry one time more into a dependable beginning of income. What remains to be seen is whether the industry will of all time be able to return to its glorification yearss after holding been isolated and fragmented to such an extent.
The current economic state of affairs and facts about the Kosovo part
From its perch as a important earner of difficult currency for Belgrade as portion of Yugoslavia, the Kosovar vino industry has experienced a long downward slide from its extremum of production in 1989. Currently, consisting about 3 % of all employment within Kosovo ( based on Ministry of Finance and Economy labour force statistics ) , employment in the industry has remained steady at about 5000 people throughout Kosovo since the struggle ( the Ministry of Agriculture published the figure of workers in wine makers and vineries as 5,380 in 2003-04 ) , but production and dozenss of grapes grown have declined throughout the 1990s. This tendency in Kosovo coincides with universe industry conditions, as a oversupply on the universe vino market has led to reduced production and dilutant vineries, with manufacturers trying to give measure for quality. However, in Kosovo, the decrease in vineries and production has non come about because of a witting attempt to reorient to the vino industry and streamline it in the name of fight, but instead because of a debasement of installations built in the 1970s and the devastation of vineries planted around the same clip. In short, the wine makers are making less with the same sum of people, while quality has suffered ( at least in the former SOEs ) . A big ground for this diminution stems from Serbian policies during the 1990s, including the remotion of much of the local cognition of the wine makers, but is besides a effect of the socialist vino production that Kosovo was engaged in until the struggle. The market was dominated by big SOEs and produced in majority, with private wine makers merely get downing to get down production on a little graduated table during the 1990s. Finally, the drawn-out denationalization procedure has merely begun to travel the big vino mills out of the sand, intending that the full vino industry is now in a province of flux, a province that will merely increase the longer that concluding position is unresolved. With more than two million dwellers, the part of Kosovo is spread along 10.887 kmA? ( or 1.1 million hour angle ) , of which 53 % is cultivable agricultural land ( around 570.000 hour angle ) , 41 % forest country, and 6 % appointed as other country. The bulk ( 88 % ) of agricultural land is in private owned, while the other 12 % is owned by public and socially owned endeavors. Agribusiness histories for 25 – 27 % of GDP ( gross domestic merchandise – monthly macroeconomics, 2003 ) . Based on statistical informations, Kosovars use around 55 % of the household budget for nutrient proviso, while the EU norm is about 22 % . Based on climatic conditions within Kosovo, the district is divided into two agro-ecological countries:
– The Dukagjini Plain, which covers around 43 % of the entire country, with Continental clime conditions under the impact of the Mediterranean, with an one-year precipitation at 770 millimeters and 196-225 yearss without hoar ( the south-western portion with 234.132 hour angle of agricultural land out of a sum of 430.885 hour angle ) , and
– The Kosovar Plain, the north-eastern side, which covers 57 % of the entire district, a more Continental clime, with an one-year precipitation at 600 millimeters and 170-200 yearss without hoar ( with around 295.000 ha agricultural land out of a sum of 658.757 hour angle ) .
The district is presently under the United Nation ‘s Interim Administration Mission since June 1999. The European Union takes the taking function in development enterprises by back uping the economic system through many-sided and bilateral giver bureaus and direct investings. The economic system of Kosovo is massively depending on foreign assistance and transportation payments of diaspora. The effects of 50 old ages of socialism and the war at the terminal of the 1990s led to an economic system with deep structural jobs. Lack of entree to international funding and investings due to its unsure position is a chief issue for the economic system. Kosovo`s GDP per capita at merely over 1100 Euro is the lowest in south-east Europe and growing is weak. Unemployment is estimated at around 50 % , but sing the fact that Kosovo has the youngest society in Europe, the figure of 60 % youth unemployment highlights the economic catastrophe even more. However, most alarming is the trade balance ; there is really small production in Kosovo, intending that exports cover merely 6 % of imports. Most concerns are comparatively small-scale trade and bantam household concerns. Although Kosovo could be self-sufficing in footings of nutrient, its agricultural resources are rather under-utilised. In short, Kosovo ‘s economic system presently depends on foreign assistance, but its underdevelopment allows room for new attacks and should be really attractive for new investings. Another of import factor is the denationalization procedure, which started old ages ago. The Kosovo Trust Agency ( KTA ) , established in June 2002, is responsible for the denationalization of SOEs, and started in July 2003 with the sale of finalised denationalization stamps. Up until November 2005, about 500 SOEs have been identified, these operating in a assortment of sectors such as metal processing, agro-industry, agribusiness, forestry, wine makers and vineries, brewing, edifice stuffs, building, fabrics, excavation, hotels, plastics, paper, baccy, and retail and sweeping trade. Kosovo ‘s economic system is, like most economic systems in the Balkans, an economic system in passage in which the agribusiness sector plays an of import function. One of the promising industries in the agribusiness sector is the vino industry. Kosovo has a long history in cultivating grapes and bring forthing vinos. However, current production is still based on the former state-owned endeavors and old equipment, although new, little start-ups have begun activity with new engineering.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In order to analyze the current state of affairs, future potency and cardinal factors for the acceptance of successful patterns, the methodological analysis of comparing was chosen. A instance survey of a Californian vino bunch was hence used. The analysis was based on Porter ‘s invention theory and diamond theoretical account. With the aid of this illustration of best pattern, a instance survey of a Kosovar vino bunch was examined, sing its possible strengths and possible failings. The interviews for the research survey were done with all of the of import stakeholders, from whom primary informations were obtained for analysis and treatment. Due to analyze restrictions, a deficiency of qualified staff and fiscal resources, cooperation with the commercialism chamber was non possible, this being a cooperation establishment profiting Kosovo ‘s vineyard development.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Kosovo ‘s Business Associations do non supply any aid at present, except for organizing several domestic carnivals. The general instruction ( deductive ) has provided adequate staff, but non particularly qualified staff ( inductive ) with labs and other oenological experts.
Structural alteration in the vino sector
In the yesteryear, Kosovo ‘s vino industry was export-orientated, and the former state-owned endeavors were concentrated on run intoing given measures which they had to bring forth. The vino shapers in Kosovo hence used as many grapes as possible to run into the quotas, and production was non quality-driven. As a consequence, the market demand was non considered and market surveies about domestic gustatory sensations are still losing. There are about 32 different assortments of grapes turning in Kosovo. Many of these are of course happening in Kosovo, intending that it is easy to turn them in mass measures. However, most comparable vino parts tend to utilize merely a few grapes and through specialization, attain high quality production and place their vinos in local and universe markets. Estimates suggest that in the past old ages, 1400 full-time occupations and about 2000 hectares of vineries have been lost. Most of the occupations were in the community-owned sector, which is a common process during the denationalization processes in economic systems of passage. The sector merely had excessively many employees and over-capacities which had to be reduced bit by bit.
At present, the vino sector employs about 1300 people. Wine production is still dominated by the former state-owned endeavors but a considerable figure of small-scale manufacturers are active, and the sum of production in the private sector is lifting invariably. Hence, in 2004, merely 37 % of the plantations belonged to community-owned wine makers whereas the proportion in 1990 was about 60 % . Today the denationalization procedure is ongoing and there are three chief vino manufacturers in Kosovo: “ Ereniku ” from Gjakova, “ Kosovo Vera ” from Prizren and “ Suhareka ” ( ex-SOE-s which are undergoing a moving ridge of denationalization ) . The ex-SOE and now a New-Cos “ Rahoveci ” , which was privatised by a particular By-product in 2006, is a specialized company and possesses Kosovo ‘s biggest wine maker involved in the production of grapes, vino and liquors ( Rakia and Cognac ) .
A UN enterprise is seeking to back up the development of little manufacturers through an UNDP undertaking with fiscal support from the Lazio Region. By making an enabling environment for private vineries, they want to beef up their selling activities, and promote increased cooperation and economic systems of graduated table. Merely if these little private vineries use modern cognition and are unfastened for concern chances can the sector create occupations and do net incomes. The bing private vineries are really in a better province than the larger 1s. They have newer equipment and installations, and much more involvement in holding equal capacities and in directing the end product to the demands of the markets. However, deficiency of entree to new engineerings remains an obstruction for all. . Even with a better functioning private sector, Kosovo ‘s vino sector lags far behind international best pattern. It must besides be mentioned that all vinos sold in Kosovo are individual varietal vinos like Merlot. Blends of different varietals to accomplish a specific gustatory sensation are non yet used, but could in future be a good usage of the broad assortment of grapes which are turning in Kosovo. The denationalization procedure of the big vineries should non merely include structural alteration. It is a procedure of developing little and advanced wine makers and utilizing the capacities of the former state-owned wine makers for monolithic production.
Cooperation between the ministry and commercial vino manufacturers is afoot, and apart from the jurisprudence adopted in 2005 and common negotiations nearing concluding denationalization, no important support in term of “ stimulations ” , “ Fractions ” and “ Primes ” have come about. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development licenses the vino manufacturers. Some undertakings exist, through the ministry, for the association of vino manufacturers, as they are engaged in production, selling and trading separately – which is really hard at this phase. This liberalization, in a state and an economic system in passage, represents an excess trouble for the manufacturers. Ongoing cooperation with the Agricultural Institute in Peja, which functions as a subdivision of the ministry, besides exists for the intents of vino analyses and control.
The German “ GIZ ” Administration, which operates in Kosovo, presently has three undertakings ( 3 + 3 more old ages ) for research and development ( R & A ; D ) and preparations for “ wine taste tester experts. GIZ has besides organised visits to European vino carnivals and pledged to convey an fermentologist to help in the production of quality vino. The European Agency has undertaken an enterprise to convey an fermentologist to the two private companies “ Dea ” ( Gjakova ) and “ Eko ” ( Rahovec ) , while the Swiss administration “ Swiss Contact ” brought two fermentologists to Kosovo two old ages ago to savor vino.
The machinery and equipment are all imported. The private manufacturers are utilizing new engineering, while the public-owned companies have to resuscitate their old engineering. The vino bottling, caps, corks and labels have the same cost as the vino itself, and all together constitute 50 % of the merchandising monetary value ; 30 % of the monetary value is for VAT, gross revenues and other revenue enhancements, and the staying 20 % goes towards payments to workers, electricity, H2O and other disbursals. With the concluding position of the state and with more competitory and convenient credits with lower involvements, the presently hard state of affairs could be changed in footings of crediting. The deficiency of junior-grade hard currency in the market means that involvement rates are really high ( 1.1 % a month x 12 months = 13.2 % a twelvemonth ) and there are really short deadlines for returning the credits. The deficiency of proper selling due to a deficiency of money is hence harming Kosovar vino. Without decently organised and specialised selling, the 100 % organic vino without other additives will protract the position quo state of affairs without fulfilling gross revenues and its hereafter on the vino market.
In footings of Kosovo ‘s exports before 1999, vino was in 2nd topographic point, merely behind minerals. Wine production was considered to be a symbol of western civilization, vino being a sophisticated drink with other of import wellness and nutrition values ( Prevention and intervention of diseases ) , every bit good as offering economic benefits for parts involved in production ( Dodd and Morse 1994 ; de Lange 2007 ; Corder et Al. 2006 ; Lindberg et Al. 2008 ) . At first, there should be a continuance in upgrading regionalisation, every bit good as the vinery belongings registry and databases. Kosovo ‘s wine part, Dukagjini, has two sub-regions, Northern and Southern, which are divided into seven viticulture territories with good natural conditions, capital and human capacities.
Therefore, in this part the prioritisation of the undermentioned issues has been proposed:
Support in decentralization of university instruction and the disruption to this part, Gjakova town specifically.
Further instruction of staff through the methods of administrations, labs and engineering in order to make a bunch, make full up and “ triple-helix ” the vineries and wine makers near to each other, regionalisation.
The other purpose is:
Creation of Viticulture and Wine associations with different participants, as there is a big figure of single manufacturers ( 120-130 of house manufacturers and 10-12 commercial manufacturers )
Orientation in quality and scintillating vinos:
The resurgence of fabulous Illyrian productions like Menada ( ruddy ) and Silen ( white ) , every bit good the Rakia, Cognac, cyder and grape processed juice.
The cultivation of Prokupac black grape and Smederevo white grape, as quality grapes for both vino and tabular array.
Refering the vino quality and territory where the grape is cultivated, the most appropriate territories are the non -Ecuadorian and non-pole. Therefore, the best territories are those in between of the above-named territories, which are about 300 – 400 m above the sea degree. The addition of vineries surfaces from 5000 hour angle to 10000 hour angle. The usage of modern engineering is practised ; agitations and specific enzymes for productions of different vino types are used, every bit good as the usage of filters, collectors and equipment for stabilisation of production. The merchandise declaration – label should be clear to avoid conveying the client in psychotic belief. There should be organized particular preparations for vino manufacturers and restaurant staff for vino distinguishes. The vino has no specific type or sort. The vino has the undermentioned classs ( vitis vinivera ) :
Based on coloring material ( white, light or dark ruddy )
Based on quality ( table vino, quality vino and high-quality sole vino )
Based on the sum of fresh sugar ( dry, semi-sweet and Sweet )
Based on the sum of intoxicant ( strong, semi-strong etc. )
Therefore, the merchandise declaration should hold a label – the incorporate Kosovo protection mark, the manufacturer ‘s label and three sorts of information:
Decorations and awards are placed on the olfactory organ of the bottle
Producer information, fillers, volume, and geographic beginning ( or without geographic beginning if the vino bears the name of the part or viniculture territory ) are placed on the forepart of the bottle
Alternate information about, for illustration, the grape, territory, part etc. are placed on the rear of the bottle.
A comparing with Californian vino should be carried out. An mean monetary value of a‚¬2.5 – 3 would enable Kosovar vino to perforate domestic and foreign markets. Serbia, as possible export state, would hold been plenty to fulfill demand for wine market.
There are chances for establishing more sub-clusters in one wider domestic or regional bunch and/or any combination between them. In the instance of Kosovo, this could be represented by an agricultural bunch in which the vino sector plays a prevailing function as a sub-cluster. Mentioning to the ‘basic elements in a wine bunch ‘ , it is possibly more preferred to call the cardinal maps and elements which presently play an indispensable function in Kosovo in footings of possible future vino bunchs, enabling a comparing with the Californian instance.
The proposed nucleus of the Kosovar “ wine bunch ” is the same as the Californian one, dwelling of the vineries ( grape agriculturists ) and wine makers ( vino processing installations ) . Approximately 4.100 grape agriculturists produced 33.043 dozenss of vino grapes in seven vineyard zones in Kosovo ( twelvemonth 2004 ) compared to California, where 4.000 agriculturists produced 2.9 million dozenss in 45 counties ( 1997 ) . While in Kosovo, there are 12 formal wine makers ( of which 4 are SOEs with the largest capacities ) and some 120 informal ( household ) manufacturers which produced 84.756 hectoliter ( hectolitres = 100 cubic decimeter ) in 2004, in California there were 740 wine makers ( the 10 largest of which constitute 80 % of the entire production volume ) in 1997, where E & A ; J Gallo entirely ( the largest wine maker in the universe ) shipped some 60 million instances ( equal to 5.400.000 hectoliter ) . In Kosovo: First, two ministries have to be straight involved in a proposed Wine bunch, viz. the Ministry of Agriculture, Forest and Rural Development and the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The former is responsible for developing the internal conditions for general agricultural cultivation. On a high degree, production and works ordinances are the footing for any production in this sector. Furthermore, with “ Wine and Vineyards Law ” , approved in 2005, this ministry can back up the development of farther vino bunchs in the hereafter through undertakings and bureaus. Particular working groups or undertaking forces should be financed and introduced by them. In fact, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forest and Rural Development has installed the Department for Production and Plant Protection ( DPPP ) .
Furthermore, several bureaus are dedicated to back uping agricultural development, viz. the Food and Veterinary Agency ( in coaction with the Public Health Institute ) , Kosovo ‘s Agricultural Institute in Peja, and the Wine and vineyard Institute, which is presents established through cooperation between MAFRD, GIZ and Rahoveci municipality. The formation of these bureaus merely represents the beginning. The inquiry is whether they are able to supply quality work. It is of import that they use common international attacks and equipment. The institutes should be linked to their European opposite numbers in order to enable regular exchange about tendencies and best pattern. Staff instruction is a chief factor here ; if they are state-driven or ministry-driven staff, instruction is a really of import point. On the one manus, working for the state-owned bureaus means easy entree to international farther instruction, but on the other manus, Kosovar province institutes are non able to pay their staff adequately. EU or UN-driven institutes and bureaus could work out this job as they normally have more fiscal financess for this. Additionally, this would greatly ease cognition transportation.
The Ministry of Trade and Industry, as the 2nd ministry involved, has the function of presenting an helping trade environment. For Kosovo, this particularly means wipe outing trade obstructions, leting trade to the other Balkan provinces bidirectionally with the same conditions. Exports are presently really low, as we have seen from the trade balance above: possible goods designated for the export sector need subventions. Custom rates for proficient production equipment ( no consumer goods ) , for illustration, should be avoided, and investings need to be promoted. An investor-friendly environment will decidedly back up bunch development.
In existent fact, the Ministry of Trade and Industry has plans for the Private Sector, Industry, Trade, and Tourism Development. However, this plan still needs to take on a more active signifier and manifest clear consequences.
Furthermore, Agencies Investment Promotion, Standardisation and Business Registration are presently under building in Kosovo. Business Registration leads to the legalization of production and tracking informations of the manufacturers. Ultimately, this will do the concern environment more up-to-date and professional. All in all, the authorities has started to supply the necessary establishments, but these establishments need the right people in order to map as they should. Corruption and familiarization are still slightly characteristic of the Balkans.
These factors will non rule the establishments, nevertheless, and a high working criterion can be achieved shortly to back up the vino sector in Kosovo. R & A ; D and Education in general are besides really of import for the development of possible bunchs in Kosovo. Although the University of Pristina has an Agricultural Faculty with a Food Technology Department, this is one of the weakest points at the minute. Educated staff with new methods and engineerings are losing due chiefly to a deficiency fundss. However, immature and motivated professionals are emerging from the Faculty and the younger coevals is more open-minded and interested in modern attacks than older experts. An bing scientific research section called “ Institute of Fruit civilization, Viticulture and Wine ” at the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Pristina could be engaged in R & A ; D. Again, looking at the California instance, the Wine Institute founded in 1934 was a trade association of 48 California wine makers, assisting to re-invigorate the province ‘s vino industry.
Furthermore, there are many other international administrations which are really active in back uping the growing of the vino industry in Kosovo, including UNDP, EAR, USAID-KCBS, GIZ, SOROS, and SWISS Corporation. This is the chief advantage for a bunch, international cognition and resources from these administrations going available locally, particularly if well-prepared undertakings are defined. Some state-of-the-art probes are already being conducted by UNDP every bit good as an analysis being carried out by USAID.
USAID besides helped to set up the Alliance of Kosovo ‘s Agribusiness ( “ AKA ” ) and their ongoing undertaking “ Kosovar Cluster Business Support by back uping three bunchs: fruit and vegetable, farm animal and milk production, and building stuffs. The German administration GIZ had programs that involved the quality, selling and enrollment of transcript and belongings rights, and Swiss-Corporation already did a batch for Kosovar agribusiness by learning local husbandmans new methods and by supplying proficient equipment. For illustration, new proficient equipment in this vinery sector is urgently needed. The fertilizers, pesticides, weedkillers and reaping equipment that are presently in usage are non really up-to-date, if used at all. This affects the quality of the vino and the environment. Additionally, the internal Kosovar associations, such as the confederation association AKA and the Agricultural Business Unit ( ABU ) are back uping the sector with their activity focused on advancing the development of private agri-businesses and protecting their involvements in order to develop the local economic system, addition incomes, increase employment and satisfy consumer demand. Furthermore, the Kosovar Exporters ‘ Association ( KEA ) has exported goods several times across the boundary line. Returning once more to California, analogues could be drawn with the Wine Market Council, stand foring a California-based trade association.
Even if an irrigation system is widespread in this part, fixs are frequently necessary and newer irrigation engineering and other modern equipment have to be purchased. Which engineering is used is possibly the most of import issue at the minute for the manufacturers and members of possible bunchs. Another component of a bunch is the related processing industry. The processing industry and providers must construct up a web with the purpose of seting the concluding end product of a bottle of high quality vino on the market.
There are really few manufacturers who can afford to make the whole procedure, so even in Kosovo, providers are needed in order to construct a good supply concatenation. Unfortunately, for the minute, whilst some small-capacity plastic and wooden barrels are produced in Kosovo, the production of large-capacity barrels and vino bottles is losing. Ideally, changing capacities should be available from bottle manufacturers as requested. There is a big traditional beer manufacturer located in the Dukagjni Region ; their bottles provider could potentially bring forth wine bottles and possibly even barrels, which would back up the thought of a bunch.
So far, all installations such as named bottles, caps and corks are imported. In the hereafter, in a operation bunch, other bunch participants could present this. Labelling is largely done in Kosovo, but the quality could be improved. Sufficient printing installations and design cognition exist, but have non been requested so far. In California, oak barrels are brought from Kentucky and Missouri, and Portugal controlled the universe market for natural corks at around 80 % , these being distributed by several California-based traders, with providers presenting the other concluding stairss in wine production ( such as bottling and packaging, capsules, screw tops and labelling ) .
Finally, the funding of the engineerings and cognition is really of import in order to get down the whole procedure. Without dependable and competitory fiscal resources, all this will stay merely a conjectural scenario. Kosovo ‘s fiscal sector was reconfigured over the last four old ages on wholly new foundations. The Banking and Payments Authority of Kosovo ( BPK ) , established in November 1999, is an independent organic structure which successfully regulates the banking and insurance sectors. There are six registered Bankss, 10 Savings and Credit Associations, twelve micro-finance establishments, four other non-banking fiscal establishments and eight insurance companies. This sector is rather good developed. Together with possible foreign investings, big endeavors could continue with production on a new degree of measure and quality, while little manufacturers could derive good and competitory conditions from micro-finance establishments. Coming back to California, a good fiscal sector supported the local houses with long-run credits with low involvements, which proved really favorable for the houses as they needed the money for larger investings.
The treatment about making a Kosovar Wine Cluster must mention to Porter ‘s celebrated diamond and its four determinates.
The province of the vino industry in Kosovo is, merely put, a muss. Long stray from international best patterns and plagued by elderly equipment and a lingering socialist outlook, the industry exhibits troubles all the manner along the value concatenation, from turning patterns and vineyard direction to winery operations and selling of concluding merchandises.
Coupled with the oversupply of vino on the international vino market and the inevitable cutting dorsum of production that many long-established states are set abouting, Kosovo will confront a tough route to recovering its former position as an exporter to Western Europe ( chiefly Germany ) or even in run intoing its domestic demand.
Despite these troubles, there is some cause for optimism sing the hereafter. Kosovo ‘s clime remains an advantage for the production of vino grapes, and the part ‘s long history of wine production may intend it is ready to accommodate to new international tendencies. The denationalization procedure has at last begun to travel the big state-owned wine makers out of the door, with the Rahovec NBI installation approaching completion of a successful sale. Furthermore, proprietors of smaller private wine makers exhibit the entrepreneurial spirit necessary to win in the international market place, and for the most portion have newer and better equipment than their newly privatised challengers. As the private vino industry takes over from the SOE theoretical account, market signals will travel back down the value concatenation and signal to vinery operators and winegrowers which varietals will necessitate to be planted, harmonizing to demand. All agriculturists and manufacturers in Kosovo are hampered, nevertheless, by a deficiency of entree to finance and old ages of capital disregard, and their success will depend on get the better ofing this obstruction.