Road has been cited as one of the most important indexs of human activities, changing landscape construction and map. Quantifying landscape form and its alteration is cardinal for monitoring and measuring the maps of ecological systems, and landscape diverseness is a widely-applied parametric quantity denoting landscape form. Therefore, analyzing the relationship between landscape diverseness and route corridors, and placing the spacial fluctuations in landscape diverseness within route consequence zones every bit good as the dealingss with other facets of landscape forms should be given particular attending. In this paper, a comparing of different route types and their nonlinear combination effects on landscape diverseness was conducted within Tiaoxi watershed ( China ) between 1994 and 2003. Six other landscape prosodies were besides analyzed to measure up the features of landscape forms and the correlativities of landscape diverseness prosodies. The consequences showed that landscape diverseness was significantly related to route corridors and impacts on landscape diverseness from route depended both on the features of route types and on the distance in inquiry. Cross subdivisions of different route corridors exhibited different spacial significance on landscape diverseness. In add-on, associations between landscape diverseness and other parametric quantities of landscape forms were besides closely correlated to route type. The consequences suggest that ecological properties of the survey country and direction aims should be taken into consideration when determine whether or non the impact from route corridor on landscape diverseness is positive/negative.
Keywords: route corridor ; landscape diverseness ; landscape forms ; route ecology
Urbanization has greatly stimulated the upscaling and enlargement of route systems ( Garre et al. , 2009 ) . Research shows that roads and the country adjacent to those route building zones cover 15-20 % of American sum geographics land ( Forman, 2000 ; Saunders et al. , 2002 ) . Many ecological impacts are associated with this route development, including alterations in dirt and flora composing, H2O balance, and local clime, air pollution and public wellness ( Forman et al. , 2003 ; Coffin, 2007 ) . On a big graduated table, these influences chiefly result in landscape form alteration in the route consequence zone ( Hawbaker et al. , 2005 ; Hladnik, 2005 ; Zhu et al. , 2006 ) . However, we are incognizant of landscape-level surveies that focus on the relationship between roads and landscape construction, or that effort to quantify the relationship between route features and landscape prosodies ( Miller et al. , 1996 ; Liu et al. , 2008 ) .
Development of route webs is larger than many other building undertakings in China. To recognize the modernisation of its transit web, China ‘s national route building program calls for 200A-104 main road kilometres, including 6.5A-104 kilometer of freeway by 2010 ; by 2050, the program calls for 400A-104 kilometer of main roads ( Liu et al. , 2008 ) . The reinforced transit substructure, together with the associated urban development that such substructure attracts, has significantly transformed the landscapes. The associated alterations in landscape form have besides led to endanger for biodiversity, distribution on landscape organisation and impairment of ecosystem unity, all of which have raised inquiries about possible hereafter development of the province. Therefore, how to continue a resilient ecosystem that provides ecological maps underpinning sustainable human development, preservation of ecological diverseness has become a important end of Chinese authorities.
Global ecological diverseness includes diverseness at all organisational degrees, runing from familial and species graduated tables to ecosystems and landscapes ( Heywood, 1995 ; Peterson et al. , 1998 ; Chapin et al. , 2000 ; Ricotta, 2003 ; Yeh and Huang, 2009 ) . Positive relationships between indices of species and landscape diverseness have been noted ( Nagendra, 2002 ) . Up to now, landscape diverseness indices have been widely employed by landscape ecologists to depict the composing of a landscape ( Nagendra, 2002 ) , therefore being considered as an property of landscape wellness and landscape stableness ( Ferguson, 1996 ) . Landscape ecologists across the universe have analyzed the alteration in landscape diverseness during different periods and studied the assorted effects of landscape alterations ( Nagaike and Kamitani, 1999 ; Fu and Chen, 2000 ; Schindler et al. , 2008 ; Yeh and Huang, 2009 ) . These surveies signified that the care of high landscape diverseness is frequently a desirable aim for landscape directors ( Bartolome et al. , 2000 ; Fairbanks and Benn, 2000 ) . Even though the significance of landscape diverseness has been discussed in item, the relationship between landscape diverseness and route is ill recognized and its dealingss with other facets of landscape forms have non been adequately discussed. Further theoretical treatment and empirical confirmation of the function of different route types in changing landscape diverseness is needed, whose deductions should be considered a stipulation for keeping a resilient ecosystem in China.
In this paper, the Tiaoxi watershed was selected as an illustration to quantify the landscape form affected by roads and to measure the corridor consequence on landscape diverseness. This will be done by uniting multiple attacks: remote detection, geographical information system ( GIS ) , multivariate statistics and landscape prosodies. Our aims are to: ( 1 ) look into the capableness of prosodies analysis to place landscape diverseness and show local fluctuations of landscape diverseness within route consequence zones ; ( 2 ) comparison impacts of different route types and their nonlinear combination effects on landscape diverseness ; ( 3 ) analyze the kineticss of landscape diverseness and their relationships with other facets of landscape forms ; and ( 4 ) supply some mentions for landscape planning and direction in China.
2. Study country
Tiaoxi watershed prevarications in the northern portion of Zhejiang Province, eastern coastal China ( Fig. 1 ) . It constitutes five cities/counties and two territories of Huzhou metropolis, covers about 6000 km2 and has a population of 4.3 million. With a warm temperate, semitropical monsoon clime, the part enjoys four distinguishable seasons. Annual temperature norms 17.5 a„? , and rainfall norms 1100 millimeter. Ecological environment quality of Tiaoxi watershed is first-class, with high forest screen rate and big wetland country. In add-on, dirt in this water parting is fertile and broad. All of the natural conditions in are good for agricultural production, and the output is high. Therefore, Tiaoxi watershed is considered as a critical ecosystem protection base of eastern coastal China.
Tiaoxi watershed besides has good geographic conditions. It borders Tai Lake to the North, Shanghai to the nor’-east, and the state of Jiangsu to the northwest. Many major transitions and freewaies cross through this watershed, including 104 National Road, Railway, 318 National Road, Su-Zhe-Wan Highway, Xuan-Hang and Hu-Su-Hu Railway, Nanjing-Hangzhou rider line and so on. Recently, local social-economic development has sped up the demand for larger and better route webs, and hydroelectric Stationss to suit accelerated touristry. 1994-2003 is most important period of transit development in this part. The local authorities invested around 19.2 billion RMB into substructure building, 75 % of which was targeted for route. In 2004, the entire route length in this part amounted up to 3529 kilometre and route denseness reached 53 km/ 100 km2. Further, the local authorities continued to advance route webs development after 2004. Therefore, quantifying the impacts on landscape forms caused by route webs in the Tiaoxi watershed is an of import subject to scientific society.
3. Materials and methods
3.1 Data beginnings and processing
Road informations with vector format in this survey were digitized utilizing the transit maps of Zhejiang Province ( 1: 50000 graduated table ; 1995, 2004 ) and besides confirmed by 1:250,000 scale route database produced by the National Fundamental Geographical Information Centre in 2002. Roadss in Tiaoxi watershed are divided into four degrees: railroad, main road, first route ( national route ) and 2nd route ( chiefly county city-county metropolis route ) ( Fig.1 ) .
The analysis of landscape diverseness was based on updating the bing land-cover informations through ocular interpretation TM images. This was chiefly because land-cover informations obtained from orbiter images based on supervised or unsupervised categorizations has restrictions for a more elaborate categorization of land-cover types to capture the kineticss of landscape diverseness ( Yeh and Huang, 2009 ) . Ocular image readings were made by on-screen digitizing ; this was done by first geo-rectifying the images and other scanned maps to the same co-ordinate system in ArcMap ( ESRI, CA ) , and so straight pulling polygons by overlapping images with land-cover maps of China ( 1:100000 graduated table ; 1995, 2000 ) and land-cover maps of Zhejiang Province ( 1: 50000 graduated table ; 2006 ) . The TM images used in our survey were acquired in 1994 and 2003 ( Path, 119 ; Row, 39 ) . To emphasize the influences of route corridors on the ecological environment, the land-use datasets of Tiaoxi watershed were grouped into 5 typical classs: H2O organic structures, cultivated land, forest, build-ups and Orchard and perennial plantations ( Fig. 2 ) .
3.2 Metric analyses of landscape diverseness and related parametric quantities
Assorted diverseness indices have been proposed ( O’Neill et al. , 1988 ; Kienast, 1993 ; MacGarigal and Marks, 1995 ; Riitters et al. , 1995 ) , nevertheless, Shannon and Simpson indices are the most popular and often employed diverseness indices ( Forman, 1995 ; Nagendra, 2002 ; Carranza et al. , 2007 ) . In malice of their popularity, they put differential accent on different facets of diverseness, and considerable ambiguity is normally detected associated with the reading of these two prosodies as landscape diverseness indexs ( Nagendra, 2002 ; Carranza et al. , 2007 ) . The Shannon index stresses the profusion constituent and rare screen types, whilst the Simpson index lays greater accent on the evenness constituent and on the dominant screen types ( McGarigal and Marks, 1995 ; Riitters et al. , 2000 ; Nagendra, 2002 ) . As a consequence, a complete summarisation of the landscape diverseness indexs ‘ kineticss is possible alternatively of a individual one when analyze the landscape diverseness alterations. To reflect this basic demand and guarantee comparison with old surveies, we selected two groups of landscape prosodies to look into kineticss of landscape diverseness in different route consequence zones and their relationships with other facets of landscape forms. One group comprises four prosodies of diverseness: Shannon ‘s diverseness index ( SHDI ) , Shannon ‘s evenness index ( SHEI ) , Simpson ‘s diverseness index ( SIDI ) and Simpson ‘s evenness index ( SIEI ) . The other consists of six prosodies of landscape composing and constellation: per centum of landscape ( PL ) , patch denseness ( PD ) , Edge denseness ( ED ) , country weight average form index ( SHAPE_AM ) , Connectance index ( CONNECT ) , and Euclidean nearest neighbour distance ( ENND ) . All of these quantitative steps were implemented utilizing the statistical bundle FRAGSTATS ( Version 3.3 ) ( McGarigal et al. , 2002 ) .
3.3 Spatial and statistical analysis
Buffer analysis serves as an of import method to analyse ecosystem pattern alteration spatially due to the human activity or perturbation ( Bolland et al. , 2007 ; Liu et al. , 2008 ) . Though old surveies have conducted many site-specific or small-scale probes for route consequence zones via buffer, no standard distance for these zones has been determined ( Liu et al. , 2008 ) . Making mention to old research on this subject, and trusting on the topological characteristics in this part, we set the 10 class buffers for route categories, from 200 to 2000m. This buffer distance is nonreversible and does non account for route breadth ( Liu et al. , 2008 ) .
Changes of landscape prosodies were calculated for the every route consequence zone, severally. Associations between landscape form parametric quantities and diverseness indexs were determined by Pearson ‘s correlativity analysis. One-way ANOVA was applied to mean the differences of influence from different route type. The Mann-Kendall ‘s trial was used to account for the variableness in landscape diverseness parametric quantities ensuing from distance from the route. All statistics were calculated utilizing the ”Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software-SPSS 16.0 for Windows ” ( SPSS Inc. , Chicago, IL ) .
4.1 General tendencies of landscape alteration in Tiaoxi watershed
General analysis of PL, supplying a general representation of landscape composing, can be used to obtain an overall thought of landscape alteration in the survey country ( Yeh and Huang, 2009 ) . During the ten old ages analyzed of import alterations took topographic point in the landscape forms ( Table 1 ) . There has been a really clear upward tendency in the portions of built-ups, whose per centums increased by around 245 % in comparing with the per centum occupied in 1994. On the other manus, there has been a bead in the country portion of cultivated land by 35 % , owing to the transition of agricultural land to developed utilizations. The proportions of forest increased from 44.56 % to 55.33 % , and that of grove increased from 1.65 % to 2.31 % during the survey period, chiefly due to decreased cultivation in the part ( Table 1 ) .
From Table 2 we can besides acquire a synoptic cognition of landscape form in Tiaoxi watershed. The overall landscape diverseness increased between 1994 and 2003, evidenced by increased values of the four landscape diverseness prosodies. The metric values of PD and ED besides increased during the survey period, taging more atomization in landscapes and complexness in border. The spacial prosodies depicting landscape form ( SHAPE_AM ) exhibit increasing tendencies, denoting that the form of landscape in Tiaoxi watershed became more irregular. The metric values of CONNECT and ENND showed that the overall landscape became progressively isolated and less connected during the survey period. Wholly talking, Tiaoxi watershed witnessed obvious addition in landscape diverseness and atomization, accompanied by more irregular and stray landscapes.
4.2 Forms of landscape diverseness associated with different route types
Comparing the values of the four prosodies for 1994 and 2003, an increased inclination of landscape diverseness can be observed. To place the fluctuations of landscape diverseness in response to route types we analyzed alterations of landscape diverseness prosodies for different route consequence zones. Fig.3 demonstrated that alterations in landscape diverseness prosodies were negatively associated with the distance to railway, foremost and 2nd route. There was a strong addition of the distinction of diverseness prosodies values in the closest locality of the main road ( at the distance of 0-200m ) and a little lessening at the distance of 600-800m ( Fig. 3 ) . More specifically, important downward tendencies were detected for the four diverseness prosodies along the distance from the route via Mann-Kendall ‘s trials ( 95 % CI ; P & lt ; 0.01 ) , corroborating the signals from Fig.3. One-way ANOVA was applied to compare the differential influence from route type on landscape diverseness ( Table 3 ) . Results denoted that alterations of SHDI in 2nd route consequence zones were significantly lower than those in consequence zones of the other three types. In add-on, no statistically important difference of SHDI alterations was identified among railroad, main road and first route consequence zones. Besides, similar consequences were obtained for the other three prosodies. All these marked that the influence on landscape diverseness from railroad matched with those from main road and 2nd, but was more important than that from 2nd route.
4.3 Nonlinear combination effects of roads on landscape diverseness
To place landscape diverseness in response to the combination effects of different route types, prosodies for the consequence zones of route nodes ( cross-points ) were collected and shown in Fig.4. Alterations of the spacial construction by the combination effects of roads were obvious, expressed through a pronounced addition of the values of diverseness prosodies within the distance of 1km from the railroad cross-points and main road cross-points. For the first route cross-points, spacial variableness of the diverseness indices was really specific ; declined values of the four diverseness prosodies were observed within the 200m distance. On the contrary, at the distance longer than 200m, the diverseness ( in footings of SHDI and SIDI ) and evenness of landscape ( in footings of SHEI and SIEI ) increased bit by bit earlier bit by bit presuming positive values with small variableness after top outing when the distance was 400-600m.
The combination effects from roads of different type were more complex than those of the same type. All the prosodies were weakly associated with the distance from the railway-highway cross-points and displayed an oscillating behaviour, with the values picking at 500m, 1400m and 1800m ( Fig. 4 ) . An indistinguishable spatial form was observed for all diverseness prosodies along the distance from first-second route cross-points, with the alterations of these prosodies increasing bit by bit with the distance before bit by bit cut downing after top outing when the distance is 1000m. Furthermore, for the constituents of landscape diverseness, the evenness of landscape composing ( in footings of SHEI and SIEI ) decreased as the little consequence zone ( distance & lt ; 200m ) , while took contrary tendency outside the 200m consequence zone. In the old ages 1994-2003 the spacial construction underwent merely a little alteration by other sorts of cross-points ( railway-first route cross-point, railway-second route cross-point, highway-first route cross-point, highway-second route cross-point ) , expressed through little alterations of diverseness prosodies values.
Consequences of ANOVA trial farther signified the nonlinear combination effects of roads on landscape diverseness ( Table 3 ) . Among the combination effects from roads of same type, highway-highway was the most important 1. The combination consequence of railway-highway on landscape diverseness was more influential than the other 1s from roads of same type. No important difference except railway-highway was found between combination effects from roads of same type and those from roads of different type. Table 3 showed the railway-highway combination exerted greater impact on landscape diverseness, compared to railway-railway, highway-highway, first road-first route, and 2nd road-second route combination effects. In add-on, railway-highway was the lone one of route combination of the same type that impact more important than individual route.
4.4 Relationss between landscape diverseness and other landscape parametric quantities
Table 4 reflected that dealingss between landscape diverseness and other landscape parametric quantities varied with the route types. SHAPE_AM was the lone index significantly associated with landscape diverseness parametric quantities irrespective of the route type. Besides SHAPE_AM, landscape diverseness was closely correlated with per centum of wood, per centum of build-ups, per centum of grove, PD and ED for railroad. Different from railroad, per centum of cultivated land, per centum of build-ups, per centum of grove, ED and CONNECT had important associations with landscape diverseness for main road, while per centum of H2O organic structures, per centum of cultivated land, per centum of wood, PD, ED and CONNECT showed tight relationships with landscape diverseness for first route. Specifically, all the selected prosodies, except per centum of H2O organic structures, were markedly correlated with landscape diverseness for 2nd route.
5.1 Landscape diverseness within route consequence zones
Road consequence zones are comprised by different types of landscape spots, runing from artificial to natural landscapes. Landscape composings and constellations vary well within different route type consequence zones and are altering along the distance to route. This survey applied buffer analysis to attest the function of different roads types in changing landscape diverseness and its local differences within route consequence zones. By and large talking, the four landscape diverseness prosodies alterations along the distance from the roads were regular and gradual in nature, although some of them were characterized by more disconnected and marked alterations at given distances. On this footing, it is possible to place the distance threshold values, at which the route impacts significantly landscape diverseness. Taking into history all indices for landscape diverseness, it seems that the strong influence of route terminals at the distance of 800-1200 m from roads.
The consequence zones with high/low landscape diverseness alteration can be easy identified through Fig.3. The impacts of route corridors on ecological environment normally increase human-induced landscape spots. For illustration, when people select their place and work locations, they try to optimise their clip and pecuniary resources in making those activities ( Kucukmehmetoglu and Geymen, 2009 ) . Consequently, built-ups normally concentrate in the vicinity of roads. They are characterized by strongly fragmented, irregular forms, situated comparatively close to one another, but they are, at the same clip, ill interspersed among the spots of other types of land screen ( Solon, 2009 ) . As a consequence, landscape diverseness increased dramatically in the locality of main road and 2nd route ( Fig.3 ) , and the addition in build-ups countries were positively associated with landscape diverseness addition ( Table 3 ) . However, landscape composings can besides be simplified when built-ups dominated the intensively consequence zones and landscape diverseness lessening ( Herold et al. , 2003 ; Weng, 2007 ; Yeh and Huang, 2009 ) . Table 3 denoted that the lessening in landscape diverseness was correlated with addition of build-up countries of railroad consequence zones. Additionally, the consequences showed that diminution of cultivated land and H2O organic structure countries could ensue in the addition of landscape diverseness in the consequence zones of first route. Though our survey reflected the alteration forms of landscape diverseness in different route consequence zones, causes for these were complex depending on the route type and its associated ecological procedures.
Evidences have shown great promise of diverseness prosodies for the planning and direction of nature militias ( Roy et al. , 1991 ; Kuiper, 1998 ; Nagendra, 2002 ) . Lenz and Stary ( 1995 ) advocated of the saving of high landscape diverseness so as to keep a concomitantly high figure of species. Clearly, this besides depends on which specific land screen types are being encouraged ( Haines-Young and Chopping, 1996 ; Nagendra, 2002 ) . For case, one would non promote the colony conurbation at the monetary value of cultivated land or wetland diminution simply to increase landscape diverseness. Therefore, the fluctuation of landscape diverseness represented by the prosodies values is deficient for contrivers to look into the impacts on landscape diverseness from route corridors. It is a basic demand to discourse the impact of route corridors on landscape diverseness through broader and deeper probes. Nagendra ( 2002 ) pointed out that a low-diversity landscape dominated by the most favourable land screen would be preferred for individual species direction, and multi-species direction would be favored by landscapes with a greater diverseness of land screen types. Therefore, certain wide guidelines can be formulated for the rating of route corridors impact. On the status that route corridors increase diverseness of the landscape in the consequence zones for species direction, the impact from route corridors should be negative. Perversely, the influence would be positive provided that landscape diverseness of the consequence zones for species direction was increased.
5.2 Correlations of landscape diverseness with route types and their combinations
Table 3 signified that the impact on landscape diverseness from 2nd route was less important compared to the other three route types. In footings of SHDI and SHEI, the most important impact on landscape diverseness was from railroad at the distance of 300m ; between 400-800m, alteration of landscape diverseness was more sensitive to distance from first route ; the influence from first route was about equal to that of railroad at the 1000-1400m buffers ; from the distance of 1600m, the impact from main road was more important. Similarly, in footings of Simpson ‘s diverseness prosodies, alterations of landscape diverseness was more obvious in the consequence zones of railroad at the distance 300m. However, when the distance from the route was longer than 400m, the influence from first route was more pronounced. All these indicated that the impact of landscape diverseness depended both on the features of route types and on the distance in inquiry.
From the location of the route corridors, it is possible to place the landscape diverseness alteration in countries where roads intersect, an facet that should be taken into consideration when new regional route programs are projected, in order to take into history that the impact of a set of roads should be greater than the amount of the impacts of each single route. Besides, this would assist to suggest preventative and disciplinary steps to the countries concerned. In the instance of Tiaoxi watershed, the alterations of landscape diverseness in buffers of different route cross-points signified the non-linear combination effects of route corridors. The most important of them include: ( 1 ) two-base hit main roads would ensue in more additions of landscape diverseness, compared to individual route corridor. And these enhanced influences were most obvious at the distance of 200-1000m ; ( 2 ) landscape diverseness took diminishing inclination within the 200m consequence zones of dual 2nd roads ; ( 3 ) railway-highway combination exerted greater impact on landscape diverseness, compared to other sorts of route combination.
5.3 Associations between landscape diverseness and other parametric quantities of landscape forms
Correlation analysis identified significantly positive relationships between SHDI ( SIDI ) , PD, ED and SHAPE_AM for railroad ( Table 4 ) . These indicate that consequence zones including more landscape spots, higher border denseness and more irregular form are typical countries of high diverseness. These relationships can besides be detected in the consequence zones of first and 2nd route. Different from railroad, SHDI ( SIDI ) was non significantly associated with PD for main road. In add-on, landscape diverseness can either increase or diminish the chance of connectivity between different spot types. Among main road and first route consequence zones, the 1s undergoing additions in diverseness are likely to see additions in spot connectivity. On the contrary, extremely negative relationship between SHDI ( SIDI ) and CONNECT was found in effects of 2nd route. Similarly, SHDI ( SIDI ) was negatively connected with ENND. This relationship denotes that addition of diverseness is normally accompanied by intensified isolation of landscape spots in 2nd route consequence zones. All the above analysis manifests that landscape diverseness can be a good alternate mean for depicting border denseness and form of landscapes in route consequence zones. Planners and directors can use diversity indexs to measure up the landscape ecological position. However, whether or non we can utilize diverseness prosodies as indexs of landscape atomization, connectivity and isolation depends on the route types.
5.4 Methodological treatment
Surveies have demonstrated the effectivity of the combined method of buffer analysis and metric analysis for decoding the impacts on alterations of landscape form from route corridors ( Weng, 2007 ; Liu et al. , 2008 ; Solon, 2009 ) . Landscape prosodies quantify landscape forms with numeral values and do comparings between landscapes more concrete ( Weng, 2007 ) . Ploting the properties of landscape form along different route consequence zones clearly illustrates the alterations of landscape form in response to route corridors.
The analysis of variableness of the landscape diverseness prosodies allows for the appraisal of the influence exerted by route corridors. The inquiry of landscape diverseness research remains as to which diverseness index should so be used, and in what state of affairss. Shannon ‘s index, incorporating a log map, is therefore sensitive to the presence of rare screen types, while Simpson ‘s index, incorporating an exponential map, is more sensitive to the presence of the dominant screen types ( Nagendra, 2002 ) . Our consequences showed that two classs of diverseness prosodies displayed similar tendencies along the distance to the route corridors though the alterations of Simpson ‘s indices were somewhat important than Shannon ‘s prosodies. The alterations of landscape prosodies used in the survey, leting for the description of the spacial regularities and tendencies in different route types, may happen application in urban planning and in the activities taking at the protection of landscape resources and diverseness. Particularly, the index “ route denseness ” was normally applied to qualify the combination effects of route corridors in old surveies. As for the sensing of territorial instability, the survey of Serrano et Al. ( 2002 ) divided study country into polygons defined by the chief roads and characterized by indices. This sort of attack could supply synoptic description of the combination effects from route corridors. On the other manus, separating the fluctuations of landscape alterations in route cross-point buffers would supply micro-view into the combination effects. Therefore, integrative application of the two attacks is needed for farther surveies.
Overall, the analysis of variableness of landscape prosodies under the influence of route corridors can assist enrich the bing theories of route ecology. However, despite the penetrations into landscape alteration provided by this combined method of buffer analysis and metric analysis, some methodological inquiries are still need to be addressed ( eg. land-use categorization, raster size, buffer choice method, clip span, and metric choice ) .
This paper investigated the impacts of route corridors on landscape diverseness. The chief decisions are as follows:
( 1 ) Landscape diverseness is significantly related to route corridors. Impacts on landscape diverseness from route depend both on the features of route types and on the distance in inquiry.
( 2 ) Cross subdivisions of vicinity roads cause a nonlinear accretion of route effects in the landscape. Significance of the nonlinear combination effects varies among route types.
( 3 ) Associations between landscape diverseness and other parametric quantities of landscape forms differ among consequence zones of different route type.
( 4 ) The integrated method of buffer analysis, metric analysis and statistical analysis provides a richer apprehension of impact from route corridors on ecological environment.
( 5 ) Ecological attributes of the survey country and direction aims should be taken into consideration when determine whether or non the impact from route corridor on landscape diverseness is positive/negative.